Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Lab Set
Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Lab Set
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ANTHROPOLOGY 270 LAB 8 LATER GENUS HOMO The goals of this lab are to 1 To understand the differences between Homo erectus and earlier hominins 2 To understand the distinctive features of H heidelbergensis 3 To examine the differences between modem humans and Neanderthals Introduction Homo erectusis the oldest hominid species known that had humanlike body proportions unlike Homo habilis which retained australopith limb proportions This may re ect that H erectus and all later horninids had a form of bipedalism much more like our own than that of the australopiths In addition fossils from the genus Homo show a continuation of the trend towards smaller teeth and less prognathism seen in earlier forms Brain size and complexity steadily increase as well as does the manipulative ability of the hands Along with this there is an increase in the sophistication of the tools associated with these hominids Homo erectus is also associated with a number of technological firsts including the first use of re use of the soft hammer tool making technique utilization of aquatic resources and many others Homo erectusis the first hominid species known to have spread out of Africa African H erectus can be dated back to 19 million years ago H erectus is definitively known from the 17 Ma site of Dmanisi in Georgia in central Asia There are also several East Asian sites that are possibly as old but all of them have questionable dates In China they are known from about 700000 years ago This species appears to have persisted in Asia until at least 250000 years ago and possibly as recently as 50000 years ago in isolated areas such as Java This is a very long time range for a human species nearly 2 million years This is about 10 times as long as our own species Homo sapiens While Homo erectus persists in East Asia until less than 100 Ka it is replaced in Africa and Europe by Homo heidelbergensis by about 600800 Ka This species shows several features intermediate between those of H erectus and those of the younger species H neanderthalensis and H sapiens The H heidelbergensis fossils date from about 600000 to 250000 years ago and are known from Africa Europe and possibly Asia These fossils are sometimes termed Archaic H sapiens as in your text but we will treat them as a separate species In some features they resemble Homo erectus while in others they are more like moderns humans or Neanderthals Neanderthals are a distinct group of Pleistocene hominins known entirely from Europe and Western Asia The earliest Neanderthal fossils are approximately 300000 years old and they go extinct approximately 25 30000 years ago after overlapping with H sapiens in Europe for 510000 years They have a distinctive morphology and show a number of features that may be adaptive for the extreme cold of Ice age Europe Approximately 200000 years ago Homo sapiens anatomically modem humans H sapiens sapiens in your text was present in Africa The earliest fossils of H sapiens occur later in other continents such as in Southwest Asia around 100000 years ago and in Europe around 35000 years ago Part 1 Homo erectus 1 Homo erectus skulls are larger than those of Homo habilis How do tooth sizes compare Which has a hi her brain size to tooth size ratio Homo erectus has a hug er braintooth ratio H erectus teeth are slightly larger than H habilis 2 On the cranial vault try to locate the following bony thickenings the sagittal keel the supraorbital torus and the occipital nuchal torus Can you find any of them on the H habilis skull Yes keel supraorbital torus No occiptal torus 3 Examine the H erectus cranium from the posterior view Where is the greatest cranial Width Occiptal 4 Observe the face of Homo erectus Compared to H habilis is the face more or less prognathic How does the supraorbital torus compare to that of H habilis More prognathic less projecting supraorbital torus 5 Observe the Homo erectus mandible Is there a chin No Part 2 Homo hiedelbergensis 1 Compare the size of the braincase in H heidelbergensis to that of H erectus and H sapiens which is the largest and which the smallest H sapienargest H heidelbergensis middle H erectus smallest 2 In these same three crania in posterior view locate the Widest point of the skull Where does this occur is it relatively low or high Does H heidelbergensis resemble H erectus or H sapiens in this regard or is it intermediate H sapien relatively high compared to low point on H erectus H heidelbergensis resembles H sapie 3 In a similar manner among these three hominins which has the most projecting brow ridge and which the least H erectus most projecting H sapiens least projecting 4 Does H heidelbergensis have a supraorbital sulcus No 5 Compare the sizes of the molar teeth in these three hominins Which has the smallest teeth and which has the largest H sapiens smallest H erectus largest Part 3 Homo neanderthalensis and H sapeins 1 Look at the cranial Vaults fossil of H neanderthalensis and H sapiens Which is larger How do they differ in overall shape H sapiens gt H neanderthalensis H neanderthalensis more posterior inferior wider occiptal H saj 2 In posterior View note the position of greatest cranial width Does this differ between H neanderthalensis andH sa iens If so how H neanderthalensis WI est top of occiptal bottom of parietals H sapiens wIdest more superior pc 3 Compare the size and shape of the brow ridges Neanderthal has larger brow ridges 4 Compare the face of the Neanderthal to the modern human Which is more projecting Neanderthal is more projecting no supraorbital sulcus Sapien has slightly more of supraborbital sul 5 Look at the size of the nasal aperture relative to the overall size of the cranium Which has a larger nasal opening Sapiens opening expanded mediolaterally Neanderthal taller Neanderthal has larger opening 6 Compare the H sapiens mandible with that of H neanderthalensis Which of these two has a chin or mental eminence H sapiens has mental eminence 7 Look at the mandible in lateral View Which of these two has a space behind the third molar also called a retromolar gap Neanderthal has retromolar gap 8 How might the difference in facial projection between H neanderthalensis and H sapiens relate to the appearance of the chin and the closing of the retromolar gap As face is drawn inward jaw shrinks drawing teeth closer together Smaller jaw creates chin Part 4 Stone tools The earliest known stone tools are of the Oldowan industry named after the site of Olduvai Gorge Tanzania They first appear 26 Ma at Gona in Ethiopia and persist for over a million years The Oldowan is a relatively simple industry where a ake is removed from a core of fine grained rock to produce a sharp cutting edge The ake is the tool not the core Oldowan tools are generally associated with H habilis Achuelean tools first appear about 16 Ma at Konso in Southern Ethiopia and persist until approximately 250000 years ago Acheulean tools differ from Oldowan in that the core is the tool and the akes are whaste The core is ake dbifacially to produce a relatively symmetrical hand axe or biface They are generally associated with H erectus Compare these two types of stone tools 1 What does the difference between these two types of tools say about the cognitive abilities of their respective tool makers The more complicated the tool the better cognitive abilities of the makers The Acheulean tools were thus made I ANTHROPOLOGY 270 LAB 6 HUMAN BIPEDAL ADAPTATION The goals of this lab are 1 To understand the main differences in morphology between humans and our nearest relatives the great apes 2 To understand some of the functional reasons for those differences Introduction Scientists over the years have noted the both many similarities as well as important differences between humans and apes Many of the differences are related to the human form of locomotion bipedalism Some also are related to the fact that the human forelimb is rarely used for locomotion and is primarily used as an organ for manipulation and exploration of the environment Additional differences occur in female pelvic morphology due to the obstetric demands made by large brain size Anterior foramen magnum One feature observable in the cranium noted by Raymond Dart 1925 on the Taung skull that seems to be related to bipedalism is the position of the foramen magnum In bipeds the foramen magnum is positioned relatively far forward vs its position in a quadruped More accurately the foramen magnum re ects the typical posture of the trunk of the body Bipeds habitually carry their trunk in a more orthograde or erect posture than do the knucklewalking and suspensory apes which are more pronograde Score the position of the foramen magnum for each of the crania in the lab on the matrix below Lumbar lordosis The ventral curvature of the lumbar portion of the vertebral column that positions the center of gravity posteriorly over the hindlimbs vs anteriorly between the fore and hindlimbs so that the body does not fall forward Ilium broad and bowlshaped The human ilium is superiorinfeirorly shorter than that of the apes and also mediolaterally broader Additionally instead of being positioned primarily posteriorly the bowl shape of the ilium relocates the gluteus medius and minimus muscles to provide stability during phases of walking where only one foot is on the ground Valgus angle knock kneed posture of humans That is the femoral shaft is angled more medially in humans so that the feet are positioned closer to the sagittal plane to improve balance during walking when only one foot is on the ground Long hindlimb Humans have hindlimbs legs that are long both compared to their forelimbs and to their overall body size This gives them a longer stride and makes bipedalism more energetically efficient Arehadfeat Humaii feet hat e a dat1 hle arehted E t LII C TLlr39B That is there is a n39ieaiaiateral areh and a ltingtitudtinal areh This a139eh et1 rt1titphtitigt is iI ITip il3939E39lI1i in bipedaiiism On the piit1tIiL39Ii tI i3tJ11DfIl1tl side at the feat is Jll39Ei ftJIquotCEtj wi39tth a eeiineetiave tissue sheet eaililett the ptaiitar apeiieutesis that tnaiittaihs this areh withetait riiuse1e aetieii 1t1ueh as the stLiihg ef a ii3G W niaihtaiiis the arezhed shape at the bets itseillf The piahtar EtpnEL1139tSiS then aets as a sptiiig whieh stetes EtIt1EET39gquot d39t1i39it1g the st139id e ten iiiil quotW hat mti139e et eient hu39tnan waliltiIig That is it quotJ39t D quotiiIE Ei spiing h a ekquot dutiiig the tee eftquot phase at the stridt e La gfeef with S39htH39 taast Hl1lThElquot s have TFtE1iE11iEt Si3LiiS that are iemg retimfaared the these 01quot apes anti pecial phaiiaIiges teens that are I ii1tt I The riietatarsals are l engthei1ed ta inerease stride length aiitl tTlt lkE the gait mete Ef CiEi lI The phta1a11ges are sheittetieti is eeiiseqtiehee ef theit he 1U g 1quotii JEtiltg useti as a gtasptihg DfgEll1St Addttefed big fee The big ttie thaiiiiuaj tif39ht1man feet is in litie with the t itheir digits anti iitit in am E1lZtj39lflIiE339IElLi that is I7iEtquot1Eiit W39El fI UfI1It1t the ether tIZ1IEEl has39tutre as is the ease in the apes P39aI39t 1 Axial Skelettin 1 Menkejfs apes atitil htimatis diif39lf7e1 ill the JvDSiiifiDIt hf the fD iEl lit1tE magritim ah theii Slltjllt1lS This C1Ziff r 6t1DE is 1 B1aJIE391D the iieithal jpes39t11res as saeiat etl with theii hahituail 1tiet iri1titti139 pattems qttat1r39up etiaism and hipeahiism i espreve tis39e 139 Desteiiihe their reliative peisitiens in the table beltew Ailse tleseribe the shape tif the i39EI hEbl39 Ell UIZZI139LJllI ITlt 1 ihasiiti lU11I1DSit3 arid iltI JhFUSiS at just 1lt phasis iii the nietintetl skeletens p OVtiiBi fliht the quiitdlfllllped El1ttiatquotiEiiiIii1e hiped IF esitimi hf fhramen ITlTlE lgIiI lllIquotli Ctmratiire hf sertehral tlu i B b m Less p39DShE1 iDT Cei39s39iea Klerdesis t1 1iZ2IIl3939EliJit2 hrphesis Ajgfleg P euste1ie 1 Kyphesis HUIl iquot1 l Atr1terier39 Cei39s39ieail ileadesist theuiraeie iL phDSiS h1m1ar erde sist E Huniati ihfatits are hetfn with aiiilly a kyphesis tif the a39ei ttehi al 1tItKllt1 tt 1t At what age during E t 3iii TTtEAtI wetild you esptetet the le r39tltisis te app eat Sehtietihtie aretind waikir1g age 1 jfEElt3939S lPar39t 3p Limibsl 3 Measure the hurn eruIs and fernur fer the bttlib a all ape anal hurnanl in erdetr quotten assess the ratio ef the lf39l3lE1lil E length etquot the fe1 elimh te the hir1dllirn39b Use the esteerttetrie beards iT1Elr1Slt1T ilIlg iTl eelntimeterstt Meat eetrtpare the sralilgust armgl est tar each degree efiIt1edia39l e139ien39tatien hhumrems I femur 1 50 1 TD 0 88 elese te 9390 degrees Hlimleriis em FE 1iHquot39Ill Valgus angle Babsen APE 230 2 9i 096 90 degrees HHHWI 3 is 440 me as degrees Part 3 Pellsis Cempare the pe1vis elf an ape and k hurnan Des erib e its U 39IfEll i39391ll shape ill terrnis elf relitatiise length iEiLllpI I il 1Ll7illJi39E I i3JIquotl39 arid breadth medielate1t ail ef eaeh Cernparse the pesitieti at the iliae blatles as we39l39lit Is it pestitie1tetl pesterie1 ly er 1r1ere laterally Nlesrt eaarrlirte the pehsrquotie inlets and euitlets fer eaeh speeimett lD eserihe the re latia39e width elf each Censid er that the llarg es39t tlimenisieii if an infant39s head is frser1t tehtaekt while the Sll UldEllTS are Wiilii i scitletelside fear lah ir1str11eter ssilil tlemenstrat te the retatien ef39 the liems as it passes l39l 11 D1ltgl t the pelvits Oseralll P39efl39sie Pesitier1 aft Pelvic h t Pielaie Shape Iliae Blades i 39 Outlet redueed ltrtedlie late1alilr mere superier mere pesterier39 mere restrieted Ape less restrieted Humam increased 1I1edie laterally mere lateral less restrieted mere restrieted mere inferier 4 When C tp lfi g the pelves ef ditferettt etltheriart ie IquotIquotl1tEi 1 il1 l lEtlS that give birth te live y lllllgl speeies why W llllii 39 l1 expect the see a r elatier1ship lhetweett peilaie anatemy and brain si e i39 larger pe lsquoti e area weukl itttiieate il llC1 EEuSE brain size ef elifspriI1g Uffswilng ttftust be able te eait wemfb Carmpam H716 r1Ifma1 iuIfny m at nmlle amd 1NCL TITlE1KlE3 pe lVwi5 fmm 1 m r1d1E1 Ifm hu1mLm USE the 11Uwiing 139Eati1re E1i 39aILquotquotE LHl39TI JEI lII wmurtixvraal V7 lait E139a1y Spmayeii wid W39 narrnw maHE1quot vs larumger amg1 e 0IquotiEIl1I til39I of Width uf Greater Sciatic T SuituFuijdic the Ilia Sarsmm N tch Angle MEHHE Incure ve1 lii33 Enmfller I1 1lI1quotDW SII1EIJ11EE139 FE9l39I1Ei1 Hare lateral laxrger wide1 laxrger Part 4 Fmmii Using the calipers Aprmirded II lEElSJlL11quotEt 21111 CU111 pEl139 the f1E39lI IEL139SEll lelmgtll vs we lVeI1gI1hL1 llquot lbcrtll r1 th i h39lLl39l39I39iI1 mrlc the apt Nmt L1L5 cribe thfi pquotIHiIiJ I l Hf th big TUE uing th t iful1uw39ing te1nnLinu1ug aAbL1L1 m eL1 away f1um 1e 11n1M l1i111Tn u1f thus fum 195 E1dd39LN EIE Il Iu War d the mi1li11e Of the f t Metatamall Tues KMeftatarsal I tunes Em cm cm Ha lux A93 45 4 12 a1du tvd PM man 25 25 1 aIduztvsd ANTHROPOLOGY 270 LAB 3 PRIMATE CLASSIFICATION The goals of this lab are 1 To learn the different types of primates 2 To observe the differences is skull morphology that can be used to tell these groups apart Introduction Primates belong to the Order Primates which is one of several orders in the Class Mammalia Primates have several features of their skeletons that allow them to be identified Many of these relate to visual specializations a generalized diet having a relatively large brain and specializations of the hands and feet for grasping In this lab we will examine some of the features of primate skulls and teeth as well as some of the features that distinguish the different types of primate from one another There are two major groups of primates see figure below recognized as suborders Strepsirhini and Haplorrini The strepsirhines include the lemurs and lorises from Madagascar and Africa and Asia the Old World respectively These are recognized as the infraorders Lemuriformes and Lorisiformes respectively The haplorrhines include the unusual Tarsiers of Southeast Asia and Anthropoids monkeys apes and humans each recognized as infraorders Tarsiiformes and Anthropoidea Within the anthropoids there are again two major groups anthropoids from Central and South America Platyrhini and those from the Old World Catarrhini The catarrhines are in tum divided into two groups the Apes superfamily Hominoidea and the Old World Monkeys superfamily Cercopithecoidea Thus five major groups of primates can be distinguished readily in their cranial morphology the strepsirhines tarsiers platyrrhines also called New World monkeys Old World monkeys and Apes including humans Terms you need to know for this lab Monophyletic taxa that consist of species that share a single common ancestor and all of that ancestors descendants Paraphyletic taxa that consist of species that share a single common ancestor but do not include all of the descendents of that ancestor Polyphyletic taxa that do not share a single common ancestor to the exclusion of other groups Homology similarity due to inheritance of a feature from the last shared common ancestor Analogy similarity of a feature due to sharing a common function Part 1 Skull anetemy There ere E1 Isr EtquottlJ feetttree ef the skttltll that differ I1tt39JI1g the tlgifferent gt tL iLI t E3 ef pri111ettee Ete11nit1e the elltL1l1e in the teh entd eempere theee feeturee 1 The tympentte theme ettpperte the Ettltt dtt39t1tI1jI1TtE339It39EiJUh and he meet it is U er ring ettepedt In epe er1nl Ollie Werhl 111eetlt 39e3 quot ektlhz3 the t Jt39p 11iE herte is ell en getetl te term e hertgr tube lateral te the tltititiitil eer whieh hvetteee the ear eeeie1 ee Thite ttthe e eppertet the ettrdrttrrt en the ietter ertti CeIruper e thie te the CI S1l1E1i ITtt I in lermtrs e1pletyrr39hines iru W IiCh the tymper ke behe is L ring ehd deer1 net ettett1d es 1 berry tube In the tehle hehew fill he W11Ct1 tCh Clt 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SLiiCLJJS er gieee e 0 E Etteh1iee the 11tetiere ef en eld weirlel meekey The3r heee 39tw e tre 11seeree ridge5 eelleei Jtephe One ieph lieke the freet twev euepe eteel the etheir lieke the reef twe Theee meleite are terh391e ti hitiephedeet Teeee Teeth Cemb SeeteeeiP3 Y5 Meters Bitephedeet Ce1 11 ieere Ne Ne Ne Ne Lemutquot YES N0 p EU Te1feie1quot N0 NE N N Pletyerhine Ne NU NO YES Cereepittl1eeid Ne Y 4 YES NO Ape Ne ES Ne fee Ne iHllTI l1t N0 Mark the ehevte feetttree es Preeeft1t er ti tbeenti Part 3 Ph egenyt 10 Match the tieeeriptieh ef the 39pi iITJt ltE Species 1tndite pleee Iift pI it3939lE1TE phgdegeey with the tretieue pritnate eleeeee Strepei1hi11e5 Tersiers Piletyrr39hi1tee Cer eeptitheeide Apes A B 0 m E quot fMi1s3img diagranl AS trepsdr hine ET 1 sde1 39CP1 E l I7hiT1ESN DCampr39c0pithampcid5 EApe 2V33E392 33 J SIDTbilEt ham tm1t lm0mb Whiazjlh gIm1p uf priImItie amquotr1V 1 mur 21 3 3fgl 133 pamti1a My clused pJs39II Jmhital pNe1 1e 2V133f2133 L1JIlIly 1Dse 1 p0s1icm 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