ID'S FOR TEST
ID'S FOR TEST 15371
Popular in Early America: From Colonization to Civil War and Reconstruction
Popular in History
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This 10 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Daniel Ballenger on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to 15371 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Cory A. Davis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Early America: From Colonization to Civil War and Reconstruction in History at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
History 103 Midterm Study Guide Significance IDs Aztecs Columbian Exchange Christopher Columbus Indentured servants Bacon’s Rebellion John Winthrop Halfway Covenant William Penn Navigation Acts Quakers Middle Passage The Great Awakening French and Indian War Sons of Liberty Intolerable Acts Dunmore Proclamation Common Sense Battle of Yorktown Republicanism Shays’s Rebellion James Madison Three-fifths clause Federalists King Philip’s War Essays 1. During the colonial era the British colonies in North America developed distinctive regional characteristics. a. Write an argumentative essay addressing these questions: i. what were the most significant factors that contributed to these differences ii. What was the most important consequence of these differences? b. Answer this by analyzing the similarities and differences in i. politics, ii. religion, iii. economics, iv. culture v. In New England, the Middle Colonies, and the southern colonies from the early 1600s through the mid-1700s. 2. Slavery was a vitally important institution in colonial America. a. Write an argumentative essay addressing this question: i. how ii. And why did slavery develop into such an important institution in colonial America? b. Answer this by analyzing the i. origins of slavery, ii. its impact on economic relations within the British Empire, iii. And its effect on social and cultural relations between white colonials and Africans between the late 1600s and the mid-1700s. th 3. Prof. Davis has argued that over the course of the mid-18 century crisis colonists in British North America moved away from identifying as British subjects and towards a new identity as Americans. a. Write an argumentative essay addressing these questions: i. How did British colonists begin to identify themselves as a unified people with shared experiences and grievances ii. How did the colonial crisis and war for independence contribute to the creation of a new identity as Americans? b. Answer this by analyzing the political, economic, intellectual, cultural, and religious changes in British North America from the early 1700s through the constitutional period of the 1780s. Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus Genoese sailor, certain of route west; acquiring funding from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain October 1492 Columbus and his men landed in the Bahamas; believed he was in East Indies named local Tainos “Indians” Columbus’s voyage a precedent, prompts rush to the Americas Contact between Europeans and Native Americans came about due to the voyages of Columbus Aztec Cortes takes advantage of disease ravaging Aztecs, dissatisfaction with Aztec rule conquering Aztec Empire by 1521 Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange what was the Columbian Exchange, and why was it important? Columbian Exchange the transfer of plant, animal, and microscopic life between the “old” and the “new” world The Columbian Exchange profoundly affected both Europeans and Native Americans. The Columbian Exchange what was the Columbian Exchange, and why was it important? The Columbian Exchange profoundly affected both Europeans and Native Americans. Indentured servants Masters total control over slave lives; much more desirable than indentured servants or freemen Planters and Servants what was the shape of the social structure in the early colonies? Servant life hard, highly regulated; servants endured for opportunity for freedom and upward mobility Bacon’s Rebellion Bacon’s Rebellion what caused Bacon’s Rebellion, and why was it important? Bacon’s Rebellion rooted in social tensions of late 17 Fcentury; royal policies restricting settler growth to avoid conflicts with natives, but settlers resisting o The frontier regular clashes between colonists and natives in 1660s- 1670s; Nathaniel Bacon becoming representative of frontiersmen, resentful of “tidewater” elite; Bacon deemed a rebel by Governor William Berkeley o 1676 Bacon and allies winning elections to House of Burgesses, passed reforms benefiting middling farmers and frontiersmen; elites forced Berkeley to label Bacon a traitor; open rebellion in the Chesapeake o October 1676 Bacon dies of dysentery, rebellion crushed Result? seemingly a failure, but planters becoming more responsive to concerns of middling farmers Class tensions settling as economy stabilized, but more important? rise of slavery Legacy of Bacon’s Rebellion slaves less dangerous than indentured laborers in the long run Bacon’s Rebellion was caused by these class divisions, and illustrated the rift between elites and middling settlers during this period. John Winthrop John Winthrop leader of colonists, lawyer and religious leader; sermonized during the trip about a “city on a hill” o 1629 new group of Puritans obtained charter to create Massachusetts Bay Colony, landed in present-day Boston in 1630 Halfway Covenant Halfway Covenant method of dealing with declining membership; softening requirements of church membership and access to privileges William Penn William Penn prominent Quaker in England; Quakers religious dissenters, focused on modest and democratic faith Penn’s vision a Quaker colony in North America; a “holy experiment” in self- government and toleration 1681 Charles II granted Penn 45,000 square miles for new colony; 1682 Penn and followers founding settlement of Philadelphia in the new colony of Pennsylvania Navigation Acts Power of Commerce Relations with England each region specializing, but all dependent on England and Royal Navy; codified by Navigation Acts Other half of relationship consumption; imports in 18 century skyrocketing, an “empire of goods”; colonists entering into debt for British manufactures; consumption a unifying experience Royal officials in colonies just one element of imperial authority Economic control passage by Parliament of Navigation Acts in 1650s and 1660s implementation of policy of mercantilism Reaction? resistance in the colonies; smuggling a problem from the very beginning Quakers William Penn prominent Quaker in England; Quakers religious dissenters, focused on modest and democratic faith William Penn prominent Quaker in England; Quakers religious dissenters, focused on modest and democratic faith Quaker tolerance leading to religious and cultural diversity, similar to New York; Quaker religion influencing government, but no required attendance and no established church Pennsylvania was settled by Quakers and brought together a diverse array of settlers. Quaker tolerance leading to religious and cultural diversity, similar to New York; Quaker religion influencing government, but no required attendance and no established church Middle Passage African slave trade supplied slaves to all of the colonies of the Americas; total slave imports in excess of 6 million in 18 century From where? primarily West Africa, from a variety of cultures “Middle Passage” harrowing crossing of the Atlantic The Great Awakening The Enlightenment and the “Great Awakening” how were intellectual and religious changes important during this period, and what role did they play in the lives of colonists? Religion also central unifier; each religion with specific form, Congregational in New England and Anglican in Chesapeake; Protestant faiths firmly in majority Central concern for some decline of religious observance and church membership; colonial life becoming more secular The Great Awakening inspired by anxiety over religious decline; focus on renewal of religious faith and tradition New England break between “Old Lights” and “New Lights” French and Indian War The French and Indian War how did the French and Indian War come about, and what were its consequences? French and Indian War competition between British and French to dominate Ohio Valley; French, allied with natives, establishing forts in region in early 1750s 1754 war breaks out; British expedition, led by George Washington, fighting French near Fort Duquesne; same time Albany Congress, meeting of colonial representatives to coordinate Indian policy Early war tough for British, Gen. Braddock’s army destroyed in July 1755; Prime Minister William Pitt increased spending, war turning around by 1760 Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended war; French lost New France territories, British claimed territories east of Mississippi Pontiac’s Rebellion native rebellion against British takeover and settler encroachment; Proclamation of 1763 British government sought to prevent settler expansion Consequences financially costly, Proclamation line upset colonists; poor treatment by British regulars also upset colonists Sons of Liberty Sons of Liberty artisans and laborers in colonies, organized resistance to Stamp Act; began in Boston, led by Samuel Adams, John Hancock; threatened stamp administrators; chapters emerged throughout colonies Sons of Liberty pressured tea agents; matters came to a head in Boston British crews refused to unload tea, refused to pay customs duties Intolerable Acts British government response Parliament passed Coercive (in colonies the “Intolerable”) Acts; closed Boston harbor, annulled Massachusetts charter, instituted military rule in Boston Dunmore Proclamation Diversity in loyalist community some with direct ties to British (royal appointees), others simply wary of revolution Important group slaves; targeted by British Dunmore Proclamation of 1775, freedom for slaves who fled masters and joined British Economic troubles hard to raise funds to pay for war; over-printing of currency leading to massive inflation Common Sense Divided Congress many (John Dickinson) wanting peace, pursuing settlement; rapidly apparent that King George would not settle on colonial terms Others Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, few others asserting need for independence; writers like Thomas Paine articulated position, criticisms of monarchy in Common Sense (1776) July 1776 final draft of Declaration of Independence; written by Jefferson, tweaked by a few others; asserted radical ideas of equality of all men Enlightenment ideas of natural rights and liberties Battle of Yorktown Fall of 1781 events came to a head; Cornwallis moved army to Yorktown, VA after defeats in Carolinas; waited for reinforcements from New York Decisive moment Washington moved army south to besiege Cornwallis; French navy defeated British attempt to reinforce; British forces under siege, faced increasing casualties, sickness, and hunger; Cornwallis surrendered army on October 19, 1781 Yorktown effectively ended British resistance, though hostilities on frontier continued for a time; negotiations between Americans and British lasted two years Fall of 1781 events came to a head; Cornwallis moved army to Yorktown, VA after defeats in Carolinas; waited for reinforcements from New York Republicanism Assemblies embodying most legitimate form of representation for colonists, not Parliament; traditions of English republicanism taking root Second source English republicanism; rooted in radical Whig writings of late 17 and early 18 centuries; a focus on civic virtue, paranoia over corruption of centralized authority True holders of power the states; central tenet of republicanism corruption of centralized power, state governments as true representatives of the people Shay’s Rebellion 1785 Confederation pressured states to raise funds; citizens formed groups to protest voiced latent class frustrations Events came to a head in Massachusetts western farmers resentful of eastern commercial elites; led by former soldiers, most famously Daniel Shays; pressured local officials, courts on tax collection January 1787 private army, funded by Massachusetts governor and other elites, ended rebellion; little bloodshed, but conflicts threatened stability of republic James Madison Extremely important James Madison; son of wealthy Virginia planter; extensive formal education, boundless curiosity for political philosophy; gained prominence from time in Virginia legislature; main promoter of reform Fall of 1787 Constitution sent to states for ratification, 9 out of 13 needed; not a foregone conclusion fierce resistance from some Supporters of the Constitution called themselves Federalists; organized campaign of support Best example James Madison, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton authored Federalist Papers series of articles that defended new government Extremely important James Madison; son of wealthy Virginia planter; extensive formal education, boundless curiosity for political philosophy; gained prominence from time in Virginia legislature; main promoter of reform Three-fifths Clause The Constitution a bundle of compromises; most notorious the compromise over slavery; southern delegates unwilling to broach abolition issue, also interested in counting slaves as part of population Slavery issue “solved” three-fifth clause; “all other Persons” unfree counted as 3/5 of a citizen in counting population; seen as a necessary compromise, also illustrated conservatism of convention Goal of delegates wanted to create a republican government, not necessarily a democratic one; many fearful of “excess” of democracy in crises of 1780s Federalists Supporters of the Constitution called themselves Federalists; organized campaign of support Federalists professional and commercial elites, located in more urban areas Opponents of Constitution called Anti-Federalists, attempted to stop ratification; also included elites, but more focused in rural areas, landowners; claimed to be defending revolutionary ideals against “monarchists” 1788 ninth state ratified Constitution; but debate not over; conflict between Federalists and Anti-Federalists gave shape to political divisions in new republic King Philip’s War King Philip’s War what were the causes of King Philip’s War and what were its consequences? King Philip’s (or Metacom’s) War rooted in English settler encroachment on native land; Wampanoag tribe attacked Massachusetts settlements in 1675 War lasted two years, nasty and brutal on both sides; English victorious, but war expensive English crown used conflict as justification for increasing authority; 1684 English courts invalidated Massachusetts charter; 1686 English government created Dominion of New England Glorious Revolution of 1688 colonists in North America attempted to reassert local control; by mid-1690s, colonies firmly under royal control King Philip’s War served as excuse for the English crown to impose stricter control over its colonies. hey
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