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Test 1 Review

by: Simon Notetaker

Test 1 Review POL 3000

Simon Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This is the material on Test 1
Political Inquiry: Approaches And Methods
Professor Matthew Arbuckle
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
political science, Political Inquiry, Statistics
75 ?




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This 3 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Simon Notetaker on Friday March 11, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to POL 3000 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Matthew Arbuckle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Political Inquiry: Approaches And Methods in Political Science at The University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
Test Review • The primary goals of political research are to describe concepts and analyze the relationships between them (pollock) • The measurement process starts with concepts and proceeds as follows: ◦ Concept-> conceptual definition-> Operational definition-> Variable • Operationalization is the process of converting concepts into concrete terms that can be measured empirically ◦ Pollock measured religiosity with “frequency of church service attendance" • Units of analysis defined as the entity we want to describe and analyze, observations ◦ Units of analysis can be individual or aggregate level 3 Major Concerns During Measurement • Measurement error: ◦ The amount by which each observed measurement differed from the concepts “true value" • Reliability: ◦ The consistency of the measurement instrument • Validity: ◦ The degree… (see definition) • Important terms: • Frequency Distribution (table) ◦ Summarizes the distribution of a variable’s values • Frequency ◦ Number of observations/ cases falling into each category • Percentage (raw) ◦ Percentage of cases falling into each category of a variable ◦ Calculated by dividing frequency by total frequency, x100 • Valid Percentage ◦ Missing data in the data set; the percentage of observations in each category out of the number of people that answered the question ◦ Percentage of valid responses • Cumulative percentage ◦ Percentage of cases at or below any given value of the variable • Bar Chart ◦ A graphical display of a frequency distribution • Bimodal distribution ◦ A frequency distribution having two different values that are heavily populated • Bipolar distribution • Percentile ◦ Percentage of cases that lie below given level 75th percentile: 75 percent of cases have lower values Two Important Properties of Data: • Central Tendency ◦ The typical or average value in a data set • Dispersion (variability) ◦ the spread of data points around the central tendency Measures of Central Tendency • Mode ◦ The most frequently occurring value ◦ Can be found with a nominal, ordinal or interval data • Median ◦ The value that is the middle variable in the data set. The midpoint of a ranked set of data. ◦ “resistant measure of central tendency" ◦ Value at 50th Percentile ◦ Commonly used to measure average income, housing prices ◦ Requires ordinal or interval level of measurement • Mean ◦ The average value. Numbers decided by numbers in the data set. ◦ Requires interval level of measurement Skewness • Presence of outliers (extreme values) can cause skewness ◦ the mean is sensitive to outliers A set of numbers: 1, 3, 5, 7, 30 Mean= 9.2 • Extent to which the distribution is asymmetrical • Positive Skew ◦ Mean is pulled to the right of the median ◦ The right tail of the distribution is longer • Negative Skew ◦ Mean is pulled to the left of the median ◦ The left tail of the distribution is longer Dispersion • Distribution of cases across a variable’s values ◦ Dispersion is greatest when cases are spread evenly among all values of the variable ◦ Lowest level of dispersion occurs when all cases are concentrated in one value of the variable ◦ If median and mode are same or similar, dispersion is low ◦ If they are different by at least one value, dispersion is high ◦


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