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Date Created: 10/08/15
TOPIC 1 MOQ 11321 g 11f lrrydh a iai ca bmmte miratala NHQC g IHE39D wag di hr l in waiter am l manila up tn 1I 39 l i 11113 l c1115 nf thia anlmin WEI393 meutralizad by 43301 mm3 0f hyclr chl ric acid 0f CD EE II HJTEi mum mc inf3 Wirita an equation fur it macti baatween Emilium cal umat anti hydh ocl ric acid Calculata thus 11101311quot E ti DIE film S t l l E fh lt S h i mammaliaa by it hmchlmc acitl if c D t l li i may 0f li l a b am neutralizad by the h ilr chlm ic acid and hang THEE M13199 0f Smilium carh at PfESE I in it l i 631113 of E l Calcula it 111395 waatcr in it hydrat El f t and Ina11 nd 11 value nfx The peree mge emnpmiti n by 111355 If a lrryelmea b ie C 2 355 3934 and H 2 MA 913 Calculate the emph ieal female ef the hy mea be llllllllllllillIllIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllIlllllllllllllllllllllli I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I lllllllllllllllIllIlllllllllllIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I lllllllllllllllIllIlllllllllllIllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I lllllllllllllllIllIllllllllllllllllllllllll I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I l I I I x I I I x I I I l I I I x I I x I I I l I I I I l g 39EEIICIIPIE ef the Elmireea be aft 3 iempera ituu39e eif 2T3 K anti 3 pregame 0f 11M M15 Pa 1 aim have a volume of 11399 1113 Calculate the molar 111355 If the hy reuearhe u I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I z I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I v I I I x I I I x I I I v I I I x I I x I I I v I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I w I I I x I I I x I I I w I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I x I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I ii Deduee the meleeu ar female eif Tillie hy r ea bm l Explain why the immmplete E l hu ii emf h mearhe a i5 hmm l ten hummus IllllllIllIllIIIllVIIllIIIllIlllIllllllIlllIIlllIlllllllllllllllllllllvlllllllil lllllllllllllllIllIllllllllllllllllllllllll I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I v I I I x I I I x I I I v I I I x I I x I I I v I I I I IIllillIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIKIIIIIIIIIIIK I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I w I I I x I I I x I I I w I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I lllllllllllllllIllIlllllllllllIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli I I I x I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I a v um i5 in 3 111355 Sp m 39 The rst T39I m f l s l meeprmaea i m 39 a 3 mm 3 33 hi T11 gawk if yaumm is f m t lmnm Emm i n Immp Ga Ga Ga Ga a a u I 2 39T39 f iii 2250 2545 3152 1522 i i ruiJ 111E tam i f 39 Emmi 1mm 33 tumgm 39 31 E H 11 Th If m r quot mahnmin u uwmgta 15 3 4H1 3m m may if THE 1544 33m 4393 Email 1 1 i m 111 rst ii gum m up a mum stats v m II15 f 39 the m5 um g wil 39 111 A 39 m Hf 13 a Us the data helluva tn calculatt the relative 111355 Inf 39 n 7 7 twain llama 3 15mmwa Percentage Ahm ance 13933 3911 2 9 52 39511 T1343 T9 gr s 39 51 gr 493 l 111355 9f tamarind is EJEIIHL tn twin 7 itma SEMIFIE fhgmhugm 1 i 7 1393 a m 3931 H 396 3 quot39quotH 5 f 1 him and the f EL i171 mum mi mE minimHM man 3 I i311 Pradi E N Hh d in A 11 39 39 a Pr pa c a l mgrng 113311 awarding t0 tl l f wi g eqtm ltinm CSHE 5G ECU 4H ig Calculate the viz111111 If ca b di xida and warm vapour t the valmume 1f uxygm remai i g Wh l 1313113 If pmpan reacta with MUM lm3 If nygem ll gag vu Lma are mammal 31 t1 tmperamre anti Fredaaura mmnunmmuumxnuuummuuummmununummuununxnuuummuuuux n r n u u u u x u x u u u u u x u r n Stata and 1231313 in what wm d hame tn h pmasm 0f 3 111355quot If gag W39l l iI S min501m mmp ra trmu39e ail3931 V lll 39l at hath imbued mmnunmmuxmuuummuununmmununummInumunnummnunmmuuux n x u u u u u x n r n Cr ceti C i Elf the dammit E l b hydmgam and xygm Det mi e the empirical f mula If meetii if l g If f a 1253 g f E l b i xide 31111 13155quot g If watts Wham it quotIll d g mp at ca bLIati m I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I r I r I I I ii tannin th mulecuklr f l l If cr ceti given that u 11101 If emcetii 1133 3 111333 f935 g I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I r I r I I I i l g If an a iali metal aulfata i5 liaaalved in avatar mad exaaaa harima chlarida aalmtia Hal i5 admit1 ta precipif ate all tha au fmia i a a5quot ba zum sulfa ia EaS Aa Th4 precipitata i5 l iarecl and a1 waigha 167 g a C alcalata tha anmuat 11101 af barium aulfat f l l u I x I r I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I x I L I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I L I r n I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I I I L I L I I I B I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I a Harem the malar 111mg af tha a kali metal aullfa l a anti a II Ia I e i ll za lll i i I r I L n I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I Ii I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I r I L n I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I a Wri ia an aquatia far tha precipitatia raaaliia inalu li g ata ia agmiba a I x I r I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I 2 I I a Eb a 391 3 The aairlaTtiau uf uitrugeu umuuairle takes place as fulluwe ENE g u g a emu g The fulluwiug experimental rlata waa uhltaiuerl at a euuatauit temperature Experiment hiitial f mul lm 3quot Tuitial I31 15 111elt31111393 Tuitial rate f 1110 ha 35quot 1 mama 3 Lama1 3 5a1 393 a 35mm imam1 am quotam3 3 mama E mamaE mama Dedhee the arder afreaetiuu with reapeet ta U2 auel with reapeet ta ND ii State the rate eapreaaiuu fur the reaetiuu Caleulate the value if the rate eauataut auel state the unite iii iv Caleulate the eapeeterl rate if reactiuu if the reactauita i39uui experiment 21 were pla eetl in a equtaiuer uf naiee the urigiual 1rulume Explain yum auawer Suggeat a puaaihle twu atep l ll l l that ia euuaiateuft with the rate Irleuitify the rate determining atep The reaetiuu in a is faater at 323 K than at 193 Explain the iuereaae in rate in tenua uf eul i aiuu TtheurF aurl Mlaxwell Eultalua1m rliatrihutiuu eru39V39ea The fullu wiug equilibrium is iuvulved iii the indiaatrial uf uitrie aeid hum alum uuia 4thH rijgjx 502g 1 4ND g aria ME 91u kl mar Elleaerihe the effect if any if each uf Tthe fullu wiug ehaugea ah the equillihrium eerie euItratiuu uf uitrugeu muuuxidle iii a partieular equilibrium miatLufe give a reaaau ir1 eaeh eaae hiereaaiug the preaaure aTt euuataut temperature ii Iuereaaiug the temperature at euuatauit preaaure iii Arl itiuu uf a heterugeueu ua eatalyat at euuataut preaaure aucl temperature Deduee the equilihrium euuataut expreaaiuu Kt including uuita fur the furwarel reaetiuu in part c li eutify which uf the ehaugea in part will a eet the value uf Kt au h prechet whether the value if Kt will iuerea 5e ur deereaae 3 If 3 3 3i 5 33 33 I3 33 33 9 a b E A 251 cm ample 11f an aquam5 snlmtinm Elf Marianna hry lmxida sf E E ll39 ti H146 ll1 393 was Exactly nmtralizEd 1h 23 m5 0f amu ama i h iI a idl Kai murde m thu fullEwing Emmiam Eai Iil gag 2 E11ila1r5 HQ gt Hamming an 34 3911 alcm avtc HIE a in 393 11f lm nitric Haiti 1r 3 A Sunni1m IE t iilili g 1142 mu mananus nitric ati l wag milde tn 3 Eulmicm E t i i g barium Cal ulate the in f mitmta fun I A l mm 51 11f the initiate if I l d m5 heated it had EPlth deammpn ad awarding tun t39lhe fa luwing equatiam gamma 5 as marl215 4143th ag Use th gas Equaticm m galMata lm tarball valuing in 3 f gas mms pr mzts I attained at 33 E and 112311 Pa W 10 a b E M S straight chain WW1 mug 39 haw 111 a QHIUE mm m1 11 i5 Eil EE but E C an l I an natural wi m 1 calf m ailing EIlE mmml fa and 12 ii State num l prEE I in u I The a ff ti aming mmbum Gillim IQLEI G4Hm F Ea gi butane I 1 G human 101 i T111 91quot in 44 39 2 an 7 I39i39 inwarle spaci El39quot39 il is fin SME HIE Sp i and 1 mu ufband MEI l ii39 3 Stab 1 a 39 ash Hf 15 in lm 111 Us mly mm m 39 arm39s Sm mac m PH iv Emma E mug Nlli is 315 f an Draw the 5mm af x 7 m 39mli M tun f in zlis I ailing m I x um G anti lm mmng in im 1d n mama ufmug u G can ha mmpmmd Draw il 5mm 01quot mcia If which f 111E 3de E F m G has the p71 39 I L a quot l j wI39I39ijI aI imIiI L um 1m lauds E Iquot 11139 G 1135 1mm sulmh i r in 1 Iain FIJI I39Ef fm 11139 f3 I an ES mug 3E l 11 fat thia and giraw 3mm fur adh aptimll Emma139 39 39 U a 39 Stat sampl 0f gash zm a mml l be using plane galaxide 4 HIE 1 1 a De ne the term rate afir39enetian E ii State an equatinn fer the reactian DIE 1nagneaimn ea benate With hlnte hydheehllerie a eidl I iii The rate if thia I39ea etiern in a mean he attuhecl h meaeming the verlnme ef gee eelleetetl ever a perind if time Sketch a graph whieh ehewa haw the velnme ef gee eelleetetl ehangea with time i in The eleperintent i a repeated using a aample if hydmehlerie aeiil with ln39lthle the Thalmne but half the eeneentratinn if the ariginal aeiel Draw a aeeerntl line an the graph yen aketehetl in part te ahew the reenlta in thia experiment Explain wthF thia line it Merent tnn the erignal line Mimegen menaxiele I39eaeta at 1232 C with hydmgen te ferm nitmgen anti water All reactantsquot and predueta are in the gaaeena The kinetiea ef the reaetien were amdiet at thia temperature The tahle ahewa the initial rate nf reactinn fer enneentratiena at each reactant U a f 1 3 Initial ratef Eiplenmem mnlmhmggiil Illquot5 melllzl lhi39gs I39ll 3 mail dim 3 an it Illquot 1 5 39 20 125 2 l l 39 l 3 l 4m l 39 Dedtlee the m er if the I39eaetien with reapeet te N 39 anti and explain quotfem remaining ii Dedtlee the rate enpreaaien fer the reaetien I iii Detennine the value if the rate eenatant fer the reaetien hem Experiment 3 and atate its unite ramp 111 raring N3i g Ia 395t 2 Hl i g F ligj lgj 39 quot f N am fur i5 mm k lj if ii 111 int quot a 39 39 I The inf is an exu lermin 31 a 35 fu wm 3 1 at n CHE C EH 39I39hismamimmmzmt mmtm a aw m f mmt nmh j z rttach gaphuflnkag n i lffisshuwncluw 39iylv lll III A Q t lil E i L E l 5 5 Ink an UT M K H 12 The data helmet is E an experiment need te the pereentage ef ire t preeent in a sample Elf ire11 ere This sample was dieer ved in acid and all if the irert was ee tt ertedl te Fe2 The reewltihg eehttie t was ti atedl standard eelutiun ef peteeeium EMMD4 Tillie mimee hitre was earrie l bree Midis eelutien Mae reacts with FtF t tttttt ttt t tttm and FE atttt le endl paint i5 indieatted by a slight pink eelmitt Titre 1 2 Initial burette reading f emquot L 23617 l Final harerte reacting F em 24611 4E H 3233 Z39t aee Inf irutt are a g ll xl 39l El i f lll39l39 tutf Klim eulu un tr mu lmquota 11521121quot a Deduee balanced redGE fer hie reactiml in a ei ie eehitient the reducing agent in the reacting11 e 39 llE lll lt ite iiit melee ef hiu q39 in le titratiettn d elemtlatte ite iiit melee if Fe present in the ll x l rl g 53mph ef e Determine he peree ttage by 2111355 e f Fe present ll the 3532 x1 3391 g etumple ef ire11 ere IE I 2 2 2 TOPIC g MASS SPECTROSCOPY NMR is 3111 l g l campcruml campmed 0f carbun hydmg and x fg m mtai i g 43m 34 ca h m 311i 3 n1 3 5139 hydmgan by Calcula i I39IIIEIE Empirical f mula Uf The p t mu39 furl i5 311mm ballsw 1mm 30 i m i Relatia abu da c r 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI39I 39 39 39 39 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 quotI I II 20 3t 41 50 60 quotM SD 111 331111262 MST rings Cm 39S E Efrain and M355 in HIST WEannk P 11 National If and Taming 21111399 h pv mhhmkujstgum DEEIMEE giving a 13963 50m thy mnl cular fmfmula HEX ii Id mify at zz1711111135 Eff the fagamamt i 39i wi m W2 V l 0f 45 am 219 2 11 E If 11 i a b The leaf E is helew l m h li a e h if r Fm39 n lie W I if I L I Il39lpli39 51 W Iquot I 39 l F 39J quota 39 I l H IF I l I 1 1 I I I ll IL 393 E l l 1 f em Emilee HIST Data Celleet C ems the ef Sammieme United Ehtee ef me ea Ell le eheee i wth i5 mut e E lt fii eei ii three hands 39 39 Reduce the meet femmle eff mm W were 11 h and e Smite the eff and give lime nee ef te hemellergeue eeriee and the member elf peeke X Shem in its Jeeehutie lH epeemunl the names ef mm which hagethet predmei le leaf reeetie and give an equating the the the term isemerism femm es fer Wm peseihle eff Plediet e whethet er met yen he be water eeluhle De ne the teen ism epe A Sample of gellhmn exists as frwe ieetepee mGa relative e39hm39ide ee 612 and Ge relative abtmdenee 3 8 Celerlilate the relative atomic mass ef gall imn m H e 3 he m e m 2 I 3 A Sample uf i5 in a mass Hm The rst and East pmn sea in mm a Iii the l f le m nal in in thc r in a in 3 b 39 a mm 39um iE the f lluwing siting Ge HEB HG g ablm latma f H ll i 45 E f 151 i 39 quot i mi39 mle fmf mags E 39 ll Platii J K L H E If ill a t 39 5 L m num energim of awful11 urn are shown in the following table 151 End End 5111 T 154a 33m 433911 3950 i from which i re elmtro is quotI nu it symbols ftsrtheas the 1 at of is lain why the rd erenoe the 4th and 51d 39 J quotr 39 t 39 A than di erenoe any two other 3 Sorne vaporized magnesium ls introduced into a mass spectrometer Due of the tours that reaehes the detector ts giMng a ldeutlt jyr the number of protons neutrons and electrons tn the 25 Mg ton I State how this ion ls accelerated in quotthe mass spectrometer I e The 15 Mg32 ton is also de teeted in this mass speetronteter by ehangnrg the rnagle tte eld IDecluee and explalu by re erenee to the mt values of these two tons of magneslunl whiten of the tons 25 Mg2 and 25 Mtg is detected using a stronger magneth eld 2 a b a if Deacrihe the fall w i g Wagea in film pemti Elf th mag apectmmtter i iz lti ii d c iii acmlamti Strait h l l i g 1f the I39El l immpaf 0f am lament Calculate th pmmtag ahmdamc if i w Wm immp If Hilbidimn 35R and 395 RE ii iii Strait fwn phyaical pf p i i tha i wnul l ff f r Each DIE W1 mlhidium aws011133 Histamine the full c mn gura um If an Mam cif Si an Fes quot inn and a P3quot inn iv Straw the manning Elf the t l l l l Efec wngga vi139 and Explain why that EtcNJ game 3111 11m aaaigmed Eltctm egativity valu ii Shaft 3111 Explain l trawl in elam ega l vity acrmg p i d 3 Earn Na 11in Cl iii Explain why Clm 1 f B1quot2 39wcrult mam 111m 39V ig f m l f wi l a m uti if Iquot State lE HEMBaa pr pmica 0f it fulltiming p l39i 3 DEidEE Mg A1203 P406 39Wrim equati a tn dwamtm i th ac mae pr p rti 0f each cmnpmmd 2 2 I m 2 m a 2 2 2 I 6 a b E Manually 1 i5 Hui1 EDA and u g m hung a Elam min 55 Eli 6355 and ENE if i aw mfa m Emmi 1 ii I i whiz Elmatam magma if an El il i If haw acmmmtt ake aunts mg l ir l in il mum State mfmm aafaa hlaim what I l imlij inf 1 I1 i a b c d e it what tha 1H apaatmm af sham tara yanks with araaa in tha ratio 3 2 Damiha tha atruatuural faaxtuura raspunatha aptian mthi a hastT niaamara can ha dia anluiahadL aan ha ra umjmg hat aai lj ad p t l i liahnra mta l Stata tlha aalattt ahanga aaattttimg Wham tlhia patm l ata 35 am a xidizjmg agaut and numhaar af tha ahInmittnl apamnd farmland ara faur aftha lEtht with tha fatmula C4HPUH Thasa alaalhala can ha l i I39i39II uaimg tha i fm rafarral tun itm part5 a to Tlha tabla git as trthar ahamt thaaa taut alaallmla 2 3 72 Numhar hf planks in Maahal 1H WE 5P l mm mm acidi a l pataaaimm dia mm Final pmdwat with A Lgquot ma aarhaxyha aai l Er gas katatma ma aarhaxyha aai l Elf Hlh39gh ma I39D aaaura Daduaa fa af aaah af tlha alanhals A ta Fm talccabal Ely thaw twa atmaturaa ta Iapraaattt tlha aal alaa jr tha rahtiunahnip hatwaam thaw Writa m1 aqtmtitm fun139 tha axidaltia f aha n f tha Emma afE 115mg 1 ta rapiaaamt tha axi hizxing agaut and shaming tha af tha paradmit MarthaIa A and C am Tha axidaizad ta diEarant pmdttata ta thaaa m u 39339 in d1 nailing ma aama agaht as in part a Stata tlha typa af apatm l f in thaaa and laaatiha tha aamdititma mad tan ahtajn thia n f Ep th Thnraa alkanaa aura fmmadl h ma lahy dar tiun IIIf alaahnIa A ta 1D Draw tlha atrwatunraa af thaaa alkanaa aura paaaihla anmmnds with tlha If l39m tl C3H3U Twit af thaaa aa mpaunda E and F hava infmnratt spatula that ahaw ahaarmntiam in tha I lgi t af I i H amt 1 and EEHD E i 11111 1 Uaa this in jmmtiang and tabla 1 in Data ltlat ta daa tha atimaturaa 11quot 1E and F Explain haw yin11 aauld di gl h hatwaa E an l F a 3quot 2 3 If 11 T11 111355 mm is used t l uaf Tha mmmhag I39W imam 2 Tii an E Tii i State Wham inf ing twin v ma a a 5m whjdifn wth pa mmark d u ie i m W iii Same rm 3r icing imam the mm 1 whath ieywml hem m l as nmmmthanth im atliiand 32 my Hamming harm fth Twin I 11 Th my 3 th is ll 1 Detemnine 39 r V In m af rm I TOPIC g 8 1O ORGANIC Thia qpeation refers to the eompotuula in the following reaetion aehenle a b d E CEHEEI Na l I Cg s oalrlat1on CSHSU oxalatron CEHEDE E Cquot II The 1H apeetra of E and I both Shl 39 three peak with area ratioa of 321 The infrared apeetra off and l hoth ahow aharp ahaorptiona close to WEI Iain 1 Explain what thia apeetral information inelieatea about the atrueture of 3 anti I anrl leduee their amnetures Suggeat two infrarecl range5 in whieh there woultl he ahaotption in the apeetrulu of D hut not in that of C ii Decluee the atrueture of E antl pretfliet the ratio of area under the peak 5 in ita IH39WR spectrum State a auitahle reagent for the oxidation of E to E anal C to D Explain how the oxidation of E to C eoulcl he aehietterl without u39ther oxiclation to D The eonveraion of A to E takesJ plaee h an 5 meehaniaru State what is meant by the term 5 anal rleaeli he h using mille arrowa to ahow the movement of electron the meehanialu oftthia eonveraion Dedluee how the rate of reaetion of A with NaDH would eoiupare with that of the eoluponnrl CHE CHECHECI with NaDH Explain your answer h referring to Table II of the Data Booklet E and Ill reaet with eaeh other when heatetl with eoneentrateel sulfunie aeirl State the name of thia type ofreaetion anti eletluee the atrueture of the pro luet W te the 1atruetlllre of an eater iaonaer of D anti explain Wth it is leaa 5oliuhle in water than D 5 If If 3 it If 3 3 2 an a iamia ag ua series ufsitzlmramd hydracarhani a Uh it Etate illf Each illf 111 Taliawing tag11115 i Emum agam gaffes 3 I I 3 If If Senate nrganie ccnttpcm a can nn ergc tiehg laticn a b E d a if State what meant by the term dahydratinn anal give an example cf a leh39 rating agent Tan cf the iacmera cf inclecnlar femaula CEHED can he thehythatecl tn farm a cclnpn39nnch cf malecular fcrmnia ESEIE Give the atrnctnral fcrnttnlaa and the names cf theae three enlnpnnnda i State the ntnnher of peaks anal the ratio cf their area in the 1H NMR spectra cf CEHE and nne cf the iacnlera If CSHEU ii 39Uae Tahle 13 in the Data Ennldet te identifyr a ahanrptinn in the in farec spectrum of CSHEU39 which is net preaent in ICEHEl5 311th a atlnng ahanrptinn in CEHE 39Wll39li l l i5 nnt preaent in CEHED In each case atate the ahanrptinn range and the bani reapcnai hle The ccnlpnnncl CEHE can react with hrnrnine 39Write an eqnatinn far thisquot reactian and name the parchlct State a Vifitllll change which ac enlnpaniea the reactinn ii Give the ll atrnctnral fnnnnla cf the prcclnet farme l part and idlentify by 39naing an aaterialr 1 a chiral carhnn ate111 State what dliatinctive prciperly a chiral carhan atcnn givea tn a nmlecule Name the type cf P i ltt reactinn which C3HE unclergcea anal dh aw the ah39nctmi39e cf a aectinn cf the pnlymer chain fanned nal three inancmer mnlecnlea Cine cf the ianntera cf fnnnnla CallIg can he nai lize tn fcrnn tan Iii erent crganic prc lncta depending an the ccn itinna naeti Identify an apprcprriate caidieing agent Give atrncttu ea far the two prcdlncta 311th apeeify the ccncliticna requirec far the fcrmaticn cf each 2 5 at If 3 If 3 I5 The molecular formula C4HQEIT represents four structural isomers all of which can undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions ssihh aqueous sodimn h airoaide equation to represent all these reactions a b is all is CallIr NaDH Cg Il NaEr Explain what is meant hp the term naclaophilic auhs m on The main mechanism for a tertiaryr halogenoalleane is 3H1 Give the equations for this substitution reaction of the l39ETlll I39f isomer of Cal 193139 Show the structmfes of the organic reactant and product and use curlr arrows to show the movement of electron The main mechanism for a pri1ua139gF halogenoalkane is 3N3 Give the mechanistic equation for this suhstitution reaction of the straightchain priituarpr isomer of C4HEEI showing the sh39ucttufes of the organic reactant and product and using curly arrows to show the movement of electron pairs Give a structtual formula for the secondary isomer and for the other prin rua1 F isomer State the name of each isomer State and explain which of the compounds C4H9Er and E4H9IDH the higher hailing point The four structural isomers with the fonnula SJIr were investigated hp mass spectrometry ne of the isomers showed molecular ion peaks at mix 136 and 133 and fragmentation peaks at 11352 5 and 42 Use this infomaation to deduce what you can about this isomer showing your reasoning The 1H spectrum of one of the four stiuctural isomers of CglIg r has four peaks with areas in the ratio 3 3 2 z 1 tertiaryr isomer Deduce whether this compound is a primary secondary or Cine of the aheanes from which an isomer of IIICLlIlr can he formed has two peaks with areas in the ratio 9 l in its 1H spectrum Deduce the structure of this alleane write an equation for the formation of CiIEgEr starting from Cd m Explain what is meant hp the term homoly e sjaioa and identify a free radic al involved in this reaction 3 a 4 a a a I I 3 a h a d E mm 1f ll mating m f iltIE p lljf l f ham ll wllli lll ll jquot fmmi i ii iii D51ih tll Esml iall r11 btw11 th 5W f that lm an CH1 3142 II ED TH NH 39339 E113 111 Hlj MI 3 11334 E pill1m and ll 5m 1 llat d pan13mm Draw and 11m 11 i5m139 f llallui amid 3amp3 i ii iii i ii ii iii VII E tat ll 11m 1f ll Iagmt th dl in ls IEM1i1 l t carnival th i it acid t ill lyl flllamlu t Wilt ml qnuatiml fur ill mammal Dll lI SE hm P39hjf i l mlclll l lhi lm di m lr lajmic acid and mtll3r1 thmluat Dd11 111 rating f tl1 mm ll 1131 111 ll 1H 5mm Hf thammi aizid and m ll3 39 lla t 1 fuur 5W1 iE j f with 111 mmula LEILEI 11 f i5 p l jf activm CHECHEIEHECH Stat tll 11mm 1 lllE and WEI 11 i5 ptimlly activ u lill haw twn can Ill Draw ll Eli39ll tl 39 1f ll time llr f C4H9Cl u i5mr 1i11 Jill llat mmdmg5 a substitutiml ra im lb 3 SHE lla Li5111 Writ l SHE fur tll mactiml that Emlum ll i l11ti d 1i11 ill 1l is 1 a m 1 with E d ltm U5 11113 t pr511t ll if ltm11 pairs I I 2 1392 1392 3 2 2 1392 l2 2 If 3 a b a d E H Thul39 nrga ic E lmds lll lf Tlihl 5am I ERIEES H Ilg EHECHEGEHEEHE CHEEHEEHEEHEQH i State and which Epmmd has illE paint almdartt jm V l lE mm Inn1 Illf the Ema1mg EmuM in ajt jij WEI111d at m QC and11 xm5 Pa iii ue EnmmdS 1i11 and C H lame other band that i5 prawn in ZIIEE EpMI dE nfalll EpcmmI s Earl11min malts at am 15mm DEF 451 Darius 1111 awning 0f 1th lJIEE uh I amt mm f f p ihll fur llil llmi yanks EllHEDGE Earn bu in the labummn39jr an Kalaulnar Stat lm name if his lmhall n 13mm 91quot mmiium uning and wtlm I g t and cumdi nna m jm mammal thf llMlt t EDL CHEEH EHEEHE Exists 35 mja mgm and d EEl ibE Illaw palmE sampl s 11f IflllE ma amm can be disti lgmgh d mingl l39i l mt Emma LG 1311 be Ifll hjrdmttd tn t39wu ll 39139 I39 anaemia E and 3 Th 11H swam 11f E t i twu pram wi h mums in lm ram 3 l i B ill Pm lim the Email Ema ratiu in 1H span if 33km C E abmtame can b innit bum2amp1 by a m l phl i Embrs m nn IEacticm ThLiE mattiml 9mm by rpm diam mEizhmniama i Gum m Emma Illf Emilia11 ElmE n m 1 in 111 SHE mE hmm ill W te g a Em llE 3H1 mEizha dm State and explain wh mer thE rat 11f SH m d Emma 3139 39 u libE 5313113 ifEKEhll mh t i5 115ml i t d if 2 Wmahmtm fl iquot 3 f3 f1 f3 f5 3 U U 3 343 2 Ethan is an h Fdf mh uaad as a starting matarial far mgaaiI ahamiaala a h a d E State illE af at term Hma Jmfad Wmar mn Elama an Em lla af fthaim ta athaaal a11 idaa ifjr 111a tjr39pa if raaa ia Damiba tha amplate amidatia 11f a manul 111a anaditia a mang raqmiIad and an aalmu39 ahaagaa Nama ma pit lllmit Elma arm aqua an ll mattiml hatwaan a majml all ll aammd K Iuc u la an atth raagant lla apamnd I and mm mm nus af mnis Fan139 apamm la K all ll ma Tabla 13 i l ll lElata Baa at tar 0mm and tam l i t abaarptim bands in illair i lfl39 f d Ethan11 ERIE alaa undergo partial axidatian m aaammi Nam p Y Fan139 apamnda K a l Y 115 Tabla 19 Il 111 Data mklai ta iiianimal Inna and one x i anaa in their mapaativa 1H Ila nut E dEI Splitting patm5 in 3mm anawan i S39tata the af the mamas ii Draw lm lmciiamal iaata af CgH a 39 as af ma llama ap aaf amers Draw at 131i hick mama iii than apatian iaamera in haw the three maman af malamllanr 111a E41lIm am l ma that at 4 w H 2 a H a 5quot m 2 3 2 a b c d a A leFtlI39 mbtt eentains 3516 t i mass at earthen and has a melar mass at 561 g Heel 1 i Det a it i m j tlhe and tilquot the hynearhnn ii Draw suntanare if tmsatlnatedl hranehed isnnaer and the ratie ref ne peak areas in its 1H speetnlm seennd sn39uetliral ier if the hjrdbrnea hnn is unsaturated and quot 39 39 Draw its strnetttte and state its e iaf the stnsentre nf the isnmer nf hjrclreea han is tmsamratei H mm 39TeaL This is fd when is heated wi a Elm r le nitquot reantien scanning deduce the atquot m that f isnmer hthdI ljif i ef E nE meth bntane h Iltl Izlnlf5 lpntassinm snlntinn ten 2 methtjrlhntan E el is an arrmt mple nf an Eml reaetinn tlhis SKI reaetinn nsing eurljjg F arrews tn represent the ef eleetrnn ans antl the stitienire nf the We intermediate is the rate a 39m 39 w 39 Kg step and state a reasnn fer anus chair3e State and whether rate nf ref fnllewing reactiens is lgtl39 lt tl39 than less than nr tn the rate at the reaetinn in pan i E ehilern E nlethrylhntane is reaete with Cl El n 5 E Il aqj at the same temperature 2 hrn an 2 n1ethgirlhntane is teaeted with E 4 E lI at the same temperature i Disenss tithe strnemne nf benzene inehtding the hfjtlb dd tl and hand Present a State wim a reasnn the n Her nf main peaks in 1H ef benzene ii i reaets with lijrdtrngen tn eyelnheaane 1 at It wasquot1 alenlate tl1e enthalpyr change if nf benzene tn eyelnhesane assuming it has the eyelnheaatriene structure ii asterinlental valne fer the hydhmgenatinn ref benzene ta eyelnheaane is Eli Explain why this value difEers the halite ealenlated in i a t2 72 a It I I a It 2 If H a what is maximal 1E1 111 1am amers f b Draw hm sumElma ismmars h if Hm with i erem funrc nmal grainpa I11 l h 13533 d iib a Eh mi l t t Emil 111 l39 lllllt Glamti which wm d diatingluialh bEtWEE 111 Tarc 5mm im i E31153 HI iii Ea z 10 a b a 11 a if a aa afaadmtf ma uaiag a5 yam Mums a Una Iaaa an a1 m saggy 31a2 g a aaaaaqggjJr agar g in man band am a py aaluaa Tabla M f ha Data Eaailalat aalculata aa 1 22 y air 39 jja J 39 Thai Ji 1 1 Tabla 1 1 uaad faar in part a ara 4539 E and 3B Uaa La 35 minaipla ta at and Wm ha I 111a aef af maaa aaluaa Stata what i5 1a m m 55 mm a af 55 far aa I in part a 2 aaia ha an 3 a lH gj i 4r E g Far Iaaatiaa M0 2113 leT and 3 21 J 1K4 Uaa aaaa aaluaa ta why this ia r w aima 39a39 at a 4f mm l t ImEEME ml ngEI Ha H DH N Siva 111a m 1m afwtha m n Iran afwthja Iaaa aa and ha n aimma ta rapraaant aa af alaatran pain a 11 a b E W Sumacle I i III I III39 39stic Name if l sanctum ill st Insight chm 412 m a a Ill stulas s a 11 is acid but E C m El 317s nem ml with h IIIlE mmusl fs and m 1mm af um lls pf E El in as mm is Th fo sw lgissssqumcs frssstimis star i g mhum i ii iii Us ml MEWS m 7 l K is 16 will iii swim i C4ZH Er 4Hm H assign humus IE 1 is hutsn E sl The sf l J su w ismhm spaci CHI394 tl l spsmiss is f in Stats lf nf msss Sp i and 1 mu fb d respcmsibls far ill ii39 a 39 ifnsach uf hs hrss ls i hs a quot uf tlzlis SHZIEss m Imllg j af ne inni 39mlillu m is 31st f by an quot Draw the tusmeij Daisies tlEItE f ism 39 w G an l lls magnum in im 15m ismsr nml I I G can be scamsarts l ssmpmmd Draw ns strutting sf sis which sf E F m G has mast and i i quot 39lil l E 39 g t iwl39limln farce inwtlzlis 39 i39m in u I 1 H lil ll whitfl Inf lm 1311 39 E F 0139 G has E lwh l ll ill WHIH mfgsass tu39 m1 bum2amp1 assists as mils As ns f t f Ale fair sis and draw 3mm fur dll aimmil isms 39 39I 5mm sampl if Isa11 isms smmllzll be 34 H 3 f3 4 I 3 I 3 H s 12 b iiiE 11 E if Hf U53 the fhjrbritiiza m m m5 a 139 Ea hm a mquot in a lacule f thjf ldmti r mm t m f in and two 1 angl i l il l u The i5 111qu tn aquot v with mfg3111 tn le Qia u en be a battarwajrm Emmi il kl D E 3 kl ail 11113 43quot E igj 439 4 3 Explain E h t gmi mn T 39j39 in I i i L Frime 1m j 11 mag arm 1 IIIH 1 imam 111E i l 111E 39 pan f l i011 in 91quot I39llf ii Cumpam mtarbamto G gmbmdlmg hsinhmzm a idandin m hm e mf 11 111 13135 11f and In pawl 13 I i5 tn than I E Ell I H EL3 amen HG M SEEF ax lgI il mg Fm le r m FEIE JEJIK i amid diminide Emmi fur Ellmanic a ii ii m maxim mr marching f I I 7 a Suitabl fur ti 39a an l W iv i111 1 1 if 111 hmmiI acil salutim 4f 4 3 73 If 3 73 I If B 3 13 a Eb a E nttene and taminahntane 1hut3rla1nine hath he prepared IEl39Ci 39l 1 hennaah utane C l State the equation liming atrnetnta and the neeeaaarjr reagents and ean itiena far the preparatian af hut 1ene IEl39Ci 39l lhmmenhutane ii Identify the type at I39eaetien and explain the ineehanianl far the preparatian af hutlene IEl39Ci l lhrnnaerhutane aging earl arrawe ta I39EPISEEE I the Ineveinent ef eteetran paire State the equatinn neng ttl lllcl39lllli39all fannnlaa fen the preparatian nf 1a1ninahntane ham thrmnahntane State the neeeaear r reagente and eerntlitiana f the reaetinn iii Explain the 111eehanial11 fer the preparatinn af taminahntane 39anl thrernlahntane aging etu39l gyrr annwa tn reprreaent the innvenaent nf eleettan in l hranaehutane and 2h139er111n1 1neth3rlprapane are twer ieeanera af lhminenhutane Draw the atmetntea nf the tart imagea af the iaernler that ean aptieal iamneriain ii Deeelihe haw the tam er tieal ianmera can he thatingniahetl 39 raetieall nailing P 1 P F 1 planepetar iae l light Explain why the ineehanianl af the I39eaetinn with he tifferent if threanahntane ia replaced l hrnnlnlnlethplprapane tn fem 2amineE1neth rlpmpane the tea etian in part a in in line farm af nylnn hat the repeating unit Id 39 tifj the eiretett funetienal ganp ii Dedtlee the etmeturee at the twe m l need tn make thia f ll f nytan iii 39Nylnn isquot a eandeneatinn P h ml l39 Anether enntlenaatian pnlplnei ean he famedl h tea eting ethane LIEdiet with henaenet 4 diea bexylie aei l H T H H H H ethanelldial benzene 14chearha1t rlie acid Dedtlee the eqnatinn fer thie reaetian hating n melee ef eaeh reactant 3 3 3 It 3 3 a if 3 3 14 ma nf the must width mated bmga in wn dg can b Micm de tn th Eqma u balmw TIquot Em H Hal 5 midi th in piri tthmnoit ati l a Hate the mamas 0f three mng granups in 35pm A Student macte l 5e EBHCFHC aEi l with 31155 E l i Euclid aspirin wag ubtaimad 11113 lming this fanatical mixtme Pm aspirin wag ubtadmad mmyata izatiu The humming m hl the data fans31131311 by smdl nt M355 uf Salicylic atid 115E511 31 i ELIE g M355 13ij mm mm n btaine l 25quot i HE E i atme l in 1119 If E li j il aiin E g d 2 iii mlcm a m mg lmmetiizall yield in g magma C g mm gm 52 If iii State ma 0f Sig lj t Egants mandatad wi h the 111355 Inf aspimiu uhtaiumd and E l l t llf flattening mummy Hl i t d wi m ihii V St l t I p t d lm Exp rinmmt Emil uhtaimad an if 1511 9511 Th Eh k d lm mlm homa and mmd m1 Enmrs U j r 1113 mault vi The fallen ing is a eem ergehemted IEPIEEE fu ef 325th A student memmed eeleete bend lengths in 115mg this eempu er magi am and E p il39 d le fh mm img date Band Band length f if Fi m l i C1 C2 114 ICE CE 114 114 114 ME CH3 114 32 03 114 The fillnaming hype thesie wee suggeated the smdem 3mm mi The mm mmf f rb H T f39 he d h g h em egrm 13 The emhmr mygew hand fmxrgi hh mm aim he hem EM mphf emjem the h d 331 mm he JAE H I Eli m eh whethejr ear 11m i5 51 1 3Hdh f l l i5 13f The ether 0f the i5 e inaneie aei l aei l In f he h rm ne eunqu hag5e ef mi a an 15 b NEE sum hammers i5 with EH91 m gramme a l l Us the uanahle M hf Dam in e 7 T K 39 1 fear 11f ethanal huh 1 g g lig g 4 l gl gj E IiIg lig The standard fear tha twp ete 11m is 44 kl 1 Immlm am 11f a in leT 1 g 11f Etham a l gufmtanais w It iv E haml Em 1h using aci ad didlmmmm Ki rl r tn f GED L 3 72 E H quot 39 EHEEHEDH Hi I State ma fmm as f lm m i m tn uhtaim a high Fi ld illf main 11f E h 39 E be b3 dilf f mt mag a c gc g a Fur mind Statue mm ma t mauml than HE a E a sjm haai 15M if this Fm Each step status asafa ma tanm ma im the I i E l l m e mgrl Ewanum Pmpale m 7 quot n I an I 3 I I 7 f lj maxing m gment thILE 0f Elm E E m t r f Draw me gmt m ismII IS af 3 3 3 3 Hf 3 3 3 3 3 3 16 a b c d Emilmid scan Exhibit stm uism i Draw structural farmmlaa Illf the twu gammatricml cm 0f lichlrmn hmt E me iii Explain will IEhl l39 j llltE lgetri al ru iii Draw the SW fmmula 11f nine ier 11f E4H Cl that shuns upti al HIquot 39 and midmitt th chiral Ith atnm with an 35ml 1 Th mpnm l hm E mm il di ic acidl fillIBIS twa gE I tl i all iE ZLEIE whi h hm MHZmill and cm Marti5 i1 Explain am 391I cE in tha making paints 0f l twu iEIE ii thE twu ianmm h haw U 39139 391I Than Kg jquot hamlad Tlha I l hctwegh hmmoetham EHE39EHQI39 and p t i is an an a ElE ph it Enhatitutium IEactiuh Stat Whi l f thia machm i5 5N1 1139 hi thE maizhmhia nf lc rmc h hurl II39 WE t0 mam thug if Eil h39 Emits iii Enigma prn hmt ahmihEd in an E ii can i mdumd m an a 39 w E tatc an tqmmtim fur the Radium 111E wtaljmt BariumEwan mactg wi h pntagaiusm Illj l lrn dE tn mum1 a Euhstitutia l mactinn 39 min11 mach3m the math3m mall an 1 397 t int an qul ti Emil t39lhc mactinn E diti 115E111 tn IE hl39 l fmnmdl in Each chant ii Explain the if 1h glimmme mactitm 311113quot airm5 ta mpmsemt thE tilf El tf lm twain E m the majm39 prudum uhtaimad in the ti il ma a11 can undetng palymariz atiem IdEz lf thE tjf39p tilf p ljml ii ti his pIudhuct w in DES 72 I 72 3 I If HI 72 Hf H m TOPIC 3 amp 13 PERIODITY El l i with atm ir mm hcr 21 TED 31 an d lhlnck elem ms b E w thtify which of thme El l f are nut callaitkred Tm lb 39 i ipical tmnai iinm Elm t I If Cumpl l zt u table below tn Shaw th axi ati n afar If the hquot l15ai l1 Element 3 i011 CuCLI F g h nxi a zi m arm Idm f i rimn hfamiti n El t i lined ca f alygf a in imdus trial FITDEEEEEE mating ax Ill39 EEEE in canal mat 2 Apart f m the fnmti of C lpl imn and apart from th ir me 35 rmlyEta amt fwu D39 ill39l lf pmp m39 ea 0f tmna icm El l i If a bl a all Fer an elementa nf perind 3 a ten Ar atate and explant the general in innizatinn ETIEng ii anF eaeepttiana ten the general trendl Explain the fnllnw ng featnrea 0f the melting pninta 0f the perinal 3 El l m hen ling anal atmetlne anal nae infeinnatinn finnl Tahle ER in the Data Hanklet The lifferenee between an val nea far analitma and magneaitnn ii The value fer ailienn iii The lifferenee between an val nea for ehlnrine anal argnn Ev referenee tn the atrnetnre anal lmnaling in tulle enmpnnngla NaCl anal SiCl 39Eil lt anal explain aha differeneea in enn lt1etivitr in an liqnial state ii predict an apprnannate pH value fer a anlntinn fenheal arming eaeh enlnpnnntl Separately tan water Refer tar Twat eharaete atiea of the alhlnelc tranaitinn elements are that they exhibit variable nai latinn atatea and fauna ealntne l emnpnnn la State tara pnaailjle naaialattinn atatea for irnn anal theae in ternla nf eleetrnn EilITEI g l HTS n Explain why manF earnlpn39nnala eif d blnek aranaitianj elementa are enlanredl ta ta 3 If 3 3 a If 3 This rqneatinn ia ahnnt Periad 3 eleinenta and their entnpnunda a E a 5 Explain in tenlna nf their atmetnre anal the elentent attl ar ia a nenennelnetnr 0f electricity anti aluminium is a gnarl enntluetar nf eleetrieitjn I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I z I I I t I I I x I I I x I I I x I I t I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I r I I I x I I x I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I a I I I x I I I r I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I r I I x I I I x I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I a I I I x I I x I I I L I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ll I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ll llllllllllllllllIllIIllIIIllllIllIlllllllllrllllllllllllllrlllllll I I I x I I I x I I I L I I I x I I x I I I r I I I I paint I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I z I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I x I I I L I I I x I I I x I I I L I I I L I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I a I I I x I I x I I I L I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I a I I I x I I I x I I I r I I I x I I x I I I L I I I I llllllllllllllllIllIIllIIIllllIllIlllllllllrllllllllllllllrlllllll I I I x I I I x I I I L I I I x I I x I I I r I I I I Silienn tetraehlnride Sill 14 reaeta with water to fnnn an aeitlie aalntinn i Explain whyr ailienn tetraehlnri e has a law melting point IIIIIIIIIIIIIIllltllllllltlltllltllll I I I L I I I x I I I x I I I x I I L I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I x I I I r I I I x I I x I I I L I I I I IIIlllllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIZIIIZ I I I x I I I x I I I r I I I x I I x I I I x I I I I IIIIIIIIIIIIllltlllllllllIIIIllllllltlIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIlltlltlllllllll magneainni ehlaritie and ailienn m ehlaritie have VET i erent prayertiea Give the anal phyaieal State at rnnnt temperature if each ehlniiile ii iii State the een iitinna un er which if at all each ehlnritfe enn iiueta El lltl39i lt Eaeh ehlnriele ia ad e to water in separate enperinienta Suggeat an apprnxintate pH value far the aelntinn fanned an w te an equatinn far an reaetinn that aeenra The elements in the unihierek in the periedie tahle have aeveral eharaete atiea in ennnnen Give the eleetrnnie enn gnratinn ef Nibquot ii Explain what ia Ineant h a ligand anal eaerihe the type if hand fannet hetween a ligantl anti 3 elhlnek element iii Determine the nxitiatinn ntnnhera ef eerpper in the apeeiea En a1an H dCL1E141 Explain whjgF the apeeiea are enlnnreth in a Identify the iiibleak elernent nae l aa a eatalyat in the Haher preeeaa 31111 write an equatinn fer the reaetien meaning a 2quot I3 I 3 3 3 U 3 I3 3 3 E i Th diagram 511mm tha appalatua uaad in an exparima t inval39viag halfcalla Valimatar Nickal Laad l x b Sa u ti a anatai i g iPhEaq Salutiaa aaata i iag K 2 N1 Tana Th mailing an aha V lt tatar is E It V Stata twa atamzlar aaaditia a that apply far thia matting t0 he Dbt li dm ii T11 valanaeter ia raplaaat by a 21 vath pawar aupply that aa apamta a aa raaati a auteur Dadhace the haH aquatia a far thaw mactia a iii Chla ae i3 far ta when pataaaim ma ga atet f j i5 add ad ta anaca trated ltydkach aria acid Calculata tha call pataa al far thia reactia and cit ue tha aquatia fail the mactiaa iv Explain Will pataaaimn chomata uea mat react with anaca trated hydhncl aria acid Uaa imfamaati aw Tab 1 5 0f the Data Emklet what raleva t in answering thisquot part 3 3 3 I 5 13311135 I39Df 113151 min111331111111 111 1 in 1 I ma Shawn in Table T 11f 111 Data l l a b E d D t 111 1 rs ii ig i and mu an 3111131111111 tn 11111151131 it magneaimm 3513mm W39th l rm in izw nm Inf lm 15 lunar than that f W113 111 11111111 10111331111111 1f magneaium is 1111311131 than 115 19111331111011 USE 1111 Allbe primizipl 11 dadhum 111E Elm 11f 1111111311 Id mifjr th 51111 131113 t whidh 311 lm 15 I39 ir d when 1111 rst imnizatim Hf E b lt is mamai 2 a bi c d reaetie between ehleIi e l amide imns is a re ex I tlmll IZZ39JlE g RBI sq e tag E39Ul39 Ian De ne the existential ia elf electsem transfer and identify the that is in this reaetiea number ef esygea is 2 in mast eempe m eaataimiag usages the esidatieh numbers if all he ller elements in lie h reaeta tts andl prelimeta iii the fellamg equatiem Ti gis 2E3E g 13st e Ti l l 1 GE g H E ta esidatien numbers dedhuee what happens if in if and Ireduetie tn the mame l element in eaeh if these reaetieas i iii Elig r al q EH13 sq Kg aj a EKEI sq HEIDI l 2 ii in C12 g 4 H213 l r HG avg H l sq f2 tahle Elliewe same IE CtiEt mashing the metals K Y and E Reae ua Rea etamts Prmluets l E E X YEIE he reastieim 3 Y 33134 he feastiea 4 E EC 1 ZED i Use he i aimatie ta arrange the metals in a reactivity series starting wi i the mast Ieaetite e Explain with refereimee te eaeh if he metals haw deei led whieh metal was the least reaetive ii V femls i111 whielh it has an eaidatien number If 3 It is mere reactive than an atquot the metals in the talhle Pirediet the equatieh the reaetimi between metal V and the ef metal E f s i ii iii standard electrode potentials are shown in Table H of the Data Booklet Fr table idernntiE3r a species that will redone hate to brde ions hut not ioe to iodide ions under standard conditions Reduce the equation for the reaction that occurs Eelchime the cell of a cell set up by I m 39r g half cells of and silver together under standard conditions cell potential of 1e cell I pms d d helow under standard conditions is I314 V 3115 En as It cat1am u Ca 5 Deduce ie standard electrode potential for he followian halfreaction cs2 arm 2equot cs s 1 Water acts as a when it reacts with ions of hoth zinc andl cohallt forming colleges En 121314th and Co moms i ii lain lilow water acts as a ligand in the u quot if these complexes and pI lflliEt the shape urcsH2o F will solutions containing E0 Hg h are coloured but solutions containing an rigor are not Sodium oxide No10 is a white solid with a high melting point a 393 Explain why solid sodium oxide is a nonconductor of electricity Molten sodium oxide is a good conductor of electricity State the half eqnation for the reaction occurring at the positive electrode during the electrolysis of molten sodirnn oxide 0 i State the acidbase nature of sodium oxide 52 H If 3 HI U I I I ii State flirtE him that m dggm Hf 111355 m 111355 11st u M itc m d cimal plat f lluwing dam f3 I i FE Percentage abun anm 51 34 LE SIE ELSE 5133quot In 5133 33 54 r pluthadas jn tmmcmmmfm m r tw I 39I 1 N quot Em I39I I39llN I quotgl lllllllllll 3455Lg393f91 11121314151 H I d lll 51313193 i it m f i Start what is t t p i f 39I ll i impair In if m Illmi M lsandmlllmal wi njnam i Stazitce wh 31quot iEmrn u t i i m 39 iv Shack the Hf y m uh ai d EM 111 f Iii I aiming at l g l i i EM r n HLIFL Mi1 rMmEr E i W State L lial 1311 iiiTI in am no 3 Describe the emission spectrum of hydrogen Guthrie how this spectrum is related to the energyquot levels iii the hydro gen atom 3 b Transition elements form complexes such as Fe39tZCth r and Fem4T Deduce the oxidation mnnber of iron iii each of these complex ions F CMiSr a Eb it ill a b a TOPIC 4 8 14 BONDING State the full electron eon gtuation for argon ii Give the fonnnlaa of two rsrpptiaitelpr charged iona which have the same eleeti on eon gtuation aa argon Draw Lewia eleetron dot atmennea for the following iona No NU Determine and explain the kahape of eaeh liat the following anhataneea in order of inereaaing hoiling point lo39weat that engeno CEHE teaspoon egn on State whether eaeh eompomid i5 polar or nonpolar and the order of boiling points in State and explain the di erenee in eleetrieal eondnetixit r of diamond and graphite ii IIC39Jntline how potaaaitma chloride i a able to act as an eleetrieal eondnetor In 1954 Linus Pauling was awarded the Chemiatrg Nobel Prize for his work on the nature of the ehernieal hond Covalent honda are one example of intramoleenlar bonding Explain the of the following o bonding ii in honding iii douhle honda triple hands Atomic orhitala ean mix hp hyhridixation to fonn new orhitala for bonding Identify the type of hybridization preaent in each of the three following moleenlea Dednee and explain their shapes i 0a a nieo iii Three aeientiata ahared the Cheniiatrpr Nobel Prize in 1996 for the diinroaeii39jF of fullerenea F nllerenea like diamond and graphite are allotropea of the element earhon State the annetnr39ea of and the bonding in diamond and graphite lIECL39onipare and explain the hardneaa and eleetrieal eonduethairF of diamond and graphite iii Prediet and explain how the hardneaa and eleetrieal eondnetivitp of CE rllerene would eompare with that of diamond and graphite If 9 In 3 3 4 2 3 If U W 3 1393 3 a It at a b c a a E a It a B The Iettera IV E Y anti Z repreeent fnur ennaeentiye elements in the perinelie table The number if eleetrnna in the higheat neenpierl energy levels are 1V 3 K 4 Y 5 E 6 1Eli rite the ferrninla for an innie ennipn39nnrl fnnnerl Erein anti Y ahntaing the ehargea ii a en39yalent enmpnuntl enntaining X and Untline the prineiplea nf the yalenee ahell eleetrnn pair rep nlainn SEER thenry Per the fellnwing eninpnnnda P1213 P1215 h Clg Draw a Lewis atmetnre fnr eaeh innleenle in the gaa Shela all nnn hnn ing eleetrnn painsJ ii State the shape nf eaeh ninleeule anrl prerliet the hean anglea iii Berluee whether nr nnt eaeh innleenle ia pnlar giving a reaann fer ynur anawer i Explain the meaning if the term hybridiaannn ii Diaenaa the handing in the innleenle C H318 HE H2 with reference tn quot the fn natinn if at and 139 henna 1 the length anrl strength of the earthen earthen henna the types nf hybridizatinn ahntan hy the ea bnn atnnaa Draw the Lewia atrnetmfea fer the enmpnunila Ke PF5 and BEL 39Uae the valance shell eleetrnn pair repulainn thenry tn pretliet the Shapea nf the three ennipn nnrla in State anrl explain the hand angles in eaeh nf the three ennipnnnela State the meaning nf the term hybridizatinn State the type nf hyhriihzatinn ahnwn by the nitrngen atnina in N2 MEIlI anrl NEH4 By referring tn the hillI2 ninleenle eaerihe than angina 5 anal pi it hnn a farm anal leaerihe he w eingle anrl rlnnhle hen le elilifer Explain why the rat innizatinn energy nf niagneainna i5 lnwer than that nf unrine ii Write an equatinn tn repreaent the third inniaatinn energy nf 1nayeainnt Explain why the thirdh innixatinn energy 01 39l atltm it higher than that nf nnrine Explain why anrlinm has a lnwer melting paint than magneainin ii By referring tn their atruetnre anvil hen ling explain why inagneainni nxirle hat a higher melting paint than anlftn linxiile If U 3 ta ta a It at a f 3 at It 3 at ta 3 1 Explain matting 1f thE term hybridiz n I Stat th type GEE hybridizati Sill W by th carhD 3mm in the mnlccul aim 31 tha mutingquot Elf F anti at band5 pragmt in t h HEN Hamid I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I r I I I I I r I r I I I 1 EtaScribe haw 3 31111th hm a f I t I t I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I t I t I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I r I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I t I x I I I I I x I t I I I I I t I t I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I r I I I I I r I x I I I I I x I r I I I I I r I r I I I 3 Draw the Lewie ehmteturee etate the Shapee and prediet the held angles fer the felle wi g epeeiee Pttj 3 a SEE 3 114 3 Uee the infe nati in the tahle hel w t0 ictemtify the type f39he tli g and amnufe in eaeh 0f the fell wi g Et h e eee Explain the3e prerpertiee in tE IIE efh mdi g amt Kemletme if Smhstanee hiel ng point f K Electire enndhte ty A 1936 ees t enm uet in an mate B Nd C l ltlltl t ii 6111 111 the 1113411111131 etate and aque m E lu e State the Illeami g 0f the term hybridiz tm E ii State the ef hybridizatie the ea he atm e in Cm fullereme diam311d amt graphite 3 iii Explain why graphite and C m fullerene can e tlet electricity Camp re thew etermie erhitale everlap in the fmmatie 1f eigu m and pi It he s 2 ii State the number of eigma haunts and pi hemie in HECCHE a The eeempeeiti if eeli helium eerhe ate is given by the fe ewihg equatie Ea lu Eat 5 nIL i I CII 2 g Cmnp miel BEECH a CDE EE EHO 53th mat1 4219 494 453 573 UKquot 1110quot 112 214 Ht Calculate the value if G in 11mlI at l n l I ii State with a reagent whether the reaetiei is epei ta eerue at 21 SUE I iii Dete hi e the minimum temperature eh ve which thie reaetiem is epentaneem Explain Emu anewer Draw the Lewis etttteturee If the fell wi g meleeulee Uee the 39VEEPR them ten predict the ehape if eeeh liteleeule Xe and Xe 39q ii P135 3111 IE5 e Tif39 i elemente farm eemplexee eueh He Fe CDair and FelZCM Identify the feature if berth C 1 anti CN that enablee them te feim theae eemplexee emf name the type DIE huhfl gurine1 ii Dedtlee the eleidati h Estate ef in each 0f the E l pilE K i iii State twe ehareeterietie pmpertiee ef nfe sitiem metale ether than eemplex fmmtie and variable exielatieh etete a B a II a The VEEP R thee139r can he nae 1 tn predict the ietrihntinn if electrnn paira and the ahapea and hnn anglea ef mam meleel ea and inna Shaw hew thia thenrjr ean he nae l tn eapla in anmannia haa a tetrahedml ietrihtutinn if eleeltrnn a trignnal pyramidal ahape anti a hand angle ef MW Apply the prineiplea if the VSJEPR th lji tn eaeh nf the fellnwiing apeeiea in eaeh eaae predie iting the ahape ef the eleetrnn pail eliatrihutinn hhe Shape nf the actual apeeiea and the bane angle i FEE ii It The eninlaenn l ehlnrne tdhene CH2CH CL ean he uaet tn illuetrate eeveral tenthe need in the themr nf39bnntzling Uaing thia enmpnunel arequot the example explain what ia meant h each of the fn nwing Lewis atmeture ii and pi henna iii Hyhridieatien The earhen el erine held length in el emethene ia 1169 Uae infer natinn from Table 9 nf the Data Ennklet tn explain hew elnealieatien nf eleetrnna can eeenr thia inn eenle anti anggeat a value fer ita earhnn earhnn hand length rtange the fellewing eenipnnnela in i l nf inereaaing hailing paint atarfting with the leweat hue ing paint and explain quotfem eheiee h reference tn the intemanleenlar fnreea invnlved hrmnne ithene ehlnreethene ethene 3 I3 3 I at 3 it if a 3 the Iewie atreehirea State the Shape and prediet le bend ang ea fer the fehewing apeeiee ii PEI 3 a 3 it an 3 Cenaider the fe ewing Bern Haber eyele I ate earn Rare 3 HUI 2 112 Mg er g b 4IE td342 wig Er g The fer eaeh ef the en lahpy a in e are in met 1 but Signs u er 39 have been emitted i State the nanaea fer the E t l hp ehangea e and d 2 ii Dedeee twe et the ehangee a te e heme negative 3 iii Determine the nature fer the enthalpy ref fernlatiaen xefpe taaainna bremide 2 in why We quantitative value lter the enthalpy eit39 ealxeaenl brennde ie in A a the fer le tattiee en lalpy ref petaaainna 2 i Cenapajre l fennatien ef a and a It bend between twe earben atenaa in a meleenlle 2 ii new l f pi bende are in ene CalIE 2 in Dedeee the bend anglea preaent prepene 2 new the eeneept ref he need te the in the triple bend preaent in tyne iv 3 10 Nitm and EiliC belting m granulara in 1213 peri i mablt a i ii Draw th LE WiE Sh 39 f grate Tribe ghapea and pra lict The band angles far the mgmimgliah in tE JElE Elf El c 39 l ic atmcmre EEM39EEH the t m gmup and perimf Bram it malemmm number of u bitala th I 2 m rg l vel f ll wimg apeciegm i ii I2 The gmph Eel3w h EVEL the Bailing paint5 fth hydri Inf gr up 5 Ilium5 the variati Eiff N0 in The Bailing paints Peri 2 3 4 5 39339 I I I 21 I 3 39 133 4m E 3 5I DE 5 I D m m 8 it 9393 III3 r nl ml 1 Explain quotInSing diagmma why NU i3 HI 11013 l l cult but CD2 i3 HI p l l millil lll E eacrihe WE a mctur 3111 in Eiili Izlimizi e Canai tr it m lmult in ii iii iv Sham Ithe 113111 Elf th campmu am l mw i IIsquot EH39LIE IITIIH39EII fm mmla almwi g all l h S preaem Explain the ITIEITIII ybridiza DESEI i JE haw and II Inde farm 3mm HE type Inf h ridizaf iom Inf it a b and itngE aroma in HE UNII1 2 U 3 3 HI 3 I3 3 If 3 3 1 1 P133 SIP anti 31 1131 t11 139t t ahapea me thaw LEWIS EUIIEVELM39EE anti 1115 the VSSEPR it317 m pmdict 111 l f ue 511311 If Each malacull n M33 SIR 3mg Lewis siltmenu Name miquot shape a b E 1 6 TOPIC 5 8 15 ENERGETICS Explain in terms of why a reaction for which hotli and as are positive is aoinetinaea apontaneo na and aonietinaea not Conaider the following reaction 3 ENE Ia Uaing the average bond enthalpy valuea in Table ll of the Data Booklet calculate the atandartl enthalpy change for this reaction ii The ahaol nte entroijF valuca at l K for N2 and are 193 l3 and l9 I Iii 1 inol 1 reapectixely Calculate for the reaction and explain the Sign of iii lCalculate for the reaction at 39 l K H the ammonia were prodlnced a5 a liquid and not aa a gaa state and explain the effect thisa would have the value of for the reaction De ne the term standard enthalpy of fonna on and write the equation for the atandard enthalpyF of formation of ethanol Bond enthalpiea are tabulated at average bondanthalpiar Explain what thia te n ineana Enthalpiea of reactiona for example conahnation can he calculated axing average bond enthalpies or enthalpiea of fannation The two methods give cloaer reanlta for cyclohexane than theF for henxene Explain this difference at a 3 W 2 l5 2 W Th eqlmmi m far it ccmnpmiti 0f calcium a bm mm van Etl w CHCUEQ I E 1 Ca C gtfg At 5m K fur reacti i5 1w kJ marl am 161J39K1 mum 1 Explain why fur the I39E lcti above cmmnt Ea daacrihe 35 M 1 f 213 STEM the meaning of the tam 5 If Calculat TEE value 0f G at i K and d n iina giving 3 1135011 whethar 11 um it macti will b Ep l l l The standar enthale change for the eermhuatiem of phe eil E HS IEr e it x kJ mol at 2193 write an equatie fer the eomplete eemlbuetie If phenol I IVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIV I I V I I I V I I I VI IVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIV I I V I I I V I I I VI The eta ard enthalpy eha gea of fenmttie of ea be io de C g a s If water HZU are 394 kl 111452911 and 236 1 11191 1 reepeetivelyt Ealel ate the mandate E th lp jr eha ge 0f f lmti eifphe el C HEDH V V I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI The eta ar e tmpy change ef f m If ph l C Hj H at 293 K i5 3 315 T K1 11103 1 Caleulate the free change If fermetimt 556 0f phe el at 2293 K VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI V I V I V I V I V I V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI V I V I V I V I V I V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI II VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI V I V I V I V I V I V I V I V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI V I V I V I V I V I V I V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Determine whether the reaetiem isquot apemta eem at 293 K and give a rem311 I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I II I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I II I VI I I VI I I VI I I II I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I ll I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I II I I VI I I VI I I VI I z I I I V I I I VI IVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVIIIVII I I I V I I I VI Pret iet the effeeti if any elf an inereaae in temperattu39e en the epenta eit ofthis reactiun I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I I VI I VI I I VI I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I I V I I V I I I V I I I VI IVIIIzIIVIIIVIIIVIIIzI 4 Thrc ughcut thisquot queaticn 39uae relevant infunnaticn from the Data Bucklet 3 lb a 131 a De ne the term standard enthalpy change suffnmntinn and illuatrate vunr anatver with an equaticn inclutling atate armhole far the fcrnaaticn cf nitric acitl Ipvne tm lergnea ccinplete cunthnatinn a5 fullmva TEE14 402g it 2H 201 Calculate the enthalpyF change cf thisquot reacticn given the fallutving aclcliticnal 39valuea gr cagg 3 a4 k1 incl l cf Hz l aaa 1 incl 1 Pretlict and explain whether the value cf a fur the reactinn in part tvcultl he negative clcae ten new atquot Fugitive pvne reacta with hydlmgel l HIE f wg can an2 g 4 cgngqgj ca kt Calculate the atanrlarcl ennfcpg change cf thia reacticn given the fullcraving achlltiunal infnnnatinn at ur Hag 131 I n 1 Incl 1 Calculate the atantlarcl f EE energy change at 293 K act fer the reactiun in part Uae vain anatver antl relevant infcrnnatinn fruin part Even lllllll nct chtain an anatver te part 39uae 36 3 I Iquot1 thia net the ccn ect value The lattice itllale cf an icnic ccunpcuncl can he calculated using a BernHaher cycle Using lithitnn ucricle as the example ccnatruct a BernHaber cycle lahelling the cycle with the fennulaa anal atate agnnhcla cf the apeciea preaent at each atage Twcn valuea cf the lattice enthalpiea fer each cf the ailtver halirlea are quarter in the Data Eccklet Diacuaa the handing in ailver ucirirle and in ailver iclitle with reference tn theae valuea H a if if if 63 I3 Hex l eme gee 361112 bume 1111 e pmduee eerbml diexide water HEW 3 Write an equatie e represent reaetien I b ee the ame helmw ter celeula ie We values ef 3 and ME fer the cen hustie ef hex 1 e11e S uhgmnm U2 CEHIZ CG Hz 39g Standard enthalpy inf fennarrien er He mum l 0quot 43 394 E42 Ferrell 59 J me manquot 235 3e5 214 139 i Value ef f 2 ii Value ref MEG 2 c 2 1 State whether at net the eembuetie ef hex l ene i5 spenteneeius at 25 C I e Calenlete the enthalpyr change 4 fer the reaetten It e2HE 93 E engH M4 He55 s Law and the tei ewthg mfmtm EHEDH 1 e2 4 CD2 EH21 M1 em kJ meal 1 3 e e02 3 94 kJ39 meat 1 H2 get a Hit 242 kJ marl Mathylan n can a manned by the fun119mg maE a b c r H3 iHILgHJH5g EHEEHEIZQHEHIng De ne this train Era am enfh fp 3ng aff n a valw s 11f Standard chang s if f il39 l ti jr e Enmmmmnds an Shawn in tha table Cm umd 339 an1391 Imam 4 H2131 g 242 Pm iEt a magma EFth the value uf F Hg I is 1355 lmIL grammar than 3139 Equal m the mm inf fmr H2013 2 UEE i fummtinn thi table in lb an l 39nm Table 11 Inf lm Data mkl t t1 cakulat 1113 Eh t g far H1 maEtiun 115161 in mummum mathylamainc f3 d In the manufacturing lprcceaa E 39 kg cf each reactant are tnge ner i the reactant ahcwmg jrnlnt marking 2 a alcmdate the ma a in leg nf methylannne that can he chtaine l Icnl tibia nf IE actanta Cnnaider the fallnnnnng reactinn where cnlnurleaa hrntnitle inns react with enlnnrleaa hydlrngen pernxiele tn fnlm a reelhrmwm hrnmine enlnticn EEI39 HEDEIEaq 2H c Bilquot1 l g l negative 3 Predict anti explain the e ect an the pnei nn of equilibrium when a atnall anlcnnt cf ec liunl hrcmi le anluticn i5 acme El ii a atnall anlcnnt cf ec liunl hydlrnmlele anhltinn is ethical iii a catalyiet i5 ankle fl State and explain the effect an the value nftdhe equilibrium constant when the temperature nfthe reactian la hlcreaaeal c State and explain the cnlnur change when hythnchlcric acit ia addecl tn the reactinn anluticn at equilibrium De ne the term stuntfartf enthalpy change affnnantt39nn FE e Uae tlhe infnmnatinn in the fallcwing tahle tn calculate the enthalpy change far the enmnlete C lllJllleiti cf hut 1ene accnrtling tn the fallnw ng eqnatinIL Call Ia 3953 4GB 4HEG EE Tempeuntil Cd a CD Hg 39lZE an new 11101 1 1 394 441 ii De lnce gi ng a reaaan whether the reactanta at the pmdhcta are mere atahle iii Predhct giving a reaann haw the el tthalnF change far the canlplete entnlnlatinn cf hntl ene wattle entnpare with that cf hutlene haeeel an average hand enthalpdea I f a b It a a Uaing the data helcw Cainpctnnel failIE 3amp5 Hg rfg l 39 355 J If marlquot1 calculate fer the reacticn in e at 2559C the atantiard entrcpy change ME ii the atantiard free energy change GE Predict ning a reaacn the apentaneity cf the rea eticn in at hath antzl law teinperatnrea Explain why anl tr has a lnwer icnixaticn energy than cxygen anel alac a lc39wer rst icnixaticn energy than phcaphcma 39With reference tn the cf hcntiing preaent in peric il 3 elementa explain why Mg haa a higher rnelting pcint than Nat a explain why Si hat a very high melting paint it explain why the tlIl39ET nanmetal elenienta cf periael 3 have lcw melting pcinta t j 397 Explain why ccnlplexea cf Zn are cclcnrleaa whereaa ccinplexea ccntannng Cn are calctiret l ii Give the fennnnla anti cleacrihe the ahape cf the ccinplex icn fernneti hetween Fei anti the ligand Draw a Lewis fer each cf twc iacinera with naelecnlar femanla Eli134D ii Identify the mere valatile iaciner and explain yctnr reaacning Detince the shape cf and the hcnti angle the apeeiea Eel 1 anti ErFf and explain ynnr reaanning 31quot I3 3 4 I2 3 3 I3 2 3f 3 6i a b c d E ii Baf n ill 1 Er f 39 f reaf rafpy i ff y and writ all ta illma at it lawman1 a 3mm ml 39 mama11 Ila l iil ll maniaEm af illIhanlal i5 131119 3H2I gj CHEUH g Hgi g D ll 1ml mlarag enfhafpy Uainlg valluw Emm Tab ll f ll Data EmaIda E l l t ll fan139 illnia maulum mtlla l 11f M aquot mu fallng I li mammal awning th ii acid 115 mt1aml1 a a fdamk ill l EHEUH 1 a CH I l 1 atan lalI mthlalpjr f ftitm lf QC g la Z1 11 k mill 1 ill l llatiam 39 TalllI ill 11f l ll Data Euldt almlla l ll nthalpjr Chang fur ll mammal alarm T lriml ltlldi 115ml f f ll I ti in pan 5 ar 45E 1K and 3D atria U5 Uh t li f l ll pl t pmdim and ll l39eaat 11 ill Emaitiml f emf E p nl39 t lljg inma51iillg acll af 1mg Wilma Etat willat i5 Il pan ll WEI 35 Mm with a 1mm ll Sign f a ll ajl Ill gasquotpmd1ll lb ll fallEwing mama Hdg HEIDI g EllIE g 39 g Fm this ra iml ME 2 213 H and 36 21 ll K4 U5 1315 valm It afplain why llia TEEminim i ill lt spaamaua at 2 93 K alnmlat l twlpmtamr at which it bEEEE spantanwua A 1raitim ll t ale ll Ill fll t permar lEth t l i ill ll f luwiug Eqm tl l EllI513 Na llI EH3UH N1 Gil lf tll if l f I l ti l and Shaw ll n1lllajlim ta rpr511t ll mm 391 in 1 I of pail H 5 247 Hf 2 Hf HI 10 a i ii Explain why the H l I henfl eannnt he naeel aa an example tn illnatrate average De ne the tenn average hand anthnlw39 hnntl enthalpy The equatinn far the reactinn between earhnn linxi le and hydrogen is ahnwn 39helnw in ii iii in CDE EE 4H1 3quot CH4 EHEU Uae inferrntatinn rant Tahle l in the Data Ennklet t ealenlate the enthale change far tl n39a rea etinn The fellnwing tahle ahnwa the atandlarel enItramr valuea nf the auhataneea in the tea etinn almve Sn atanee CDEEE H20 a S EJE39l man1 114 131 136 13939 Calenlate the atantlar l entrnpgr ehange far this reaetien Explain haw the aign nf 313 can he predieted frent the equatinn fer the reaetinnx Uae ynnr anawera tn part5 anti te ealenlate the atandar l free energyF ehange fer the reactinn andl an dleternline 39ta39henher the almve reaetinn i e apnntanenna at 193 K Hyatt have nnt nhtaineel anawera to parts and aaanme the fellnwing M6 l2 i k1 Infill l ancl E I K1 lnnl39l al hnngh theae are net the enrreet valueanj 21quot If 31quot a 2 3 a If a The atan lanzl enthalpy changea far the fclln wing reacticna can fennel in Table 13 cf the Data Bunklet E 539 3931 3quot ED Hiya tale Hair a caning ta a2 g a S g attic t 39Uae thia infcnnaticn tc thetennine the atantlanil enthalpy change far the fcmaticn cf cctane cin ita elementa 365 939Ha39lg CaHLaU39 A Ecrn Haher cycle can he nae l ta calculate the lattice enthalpy cf pctaaaitun ncrithek 39cnt ve kalequottan enthalpy changea The equatinn fen cne cf theae enthalpy changea the atandardl enthalpy change cf fannaticn ia ahcwn helcw tats gag 4 EF a Fat each cf the ether fnur enthalpy changea atate the nante cf the enthalpy change anal K quotmite an equaticn including atate a mahcla Lattice enthalpy trainee chtaineel 39cm Ecnt Haher cyclea are Sill r39 in Tahle 14 cf the Data Eccklet Explain actiiuna unridle NaF has a greater lattice enthalpy 1Italne than pataaainnt ueri e KP E ii Explain calcinnt ncritle lCali 2 a greater lattice enthalpy than pctaaainnt uetide KP 11 Twc atu lenta were aakedl tc uae infcrnlaticn train the Data Backlet tc calculate a value far the enthalpy cf hydhcgenaticn cf ethene tc fc n ethane Cal 14 H2 Cal lag J chn uae l the average 39hcml enthalpiea 39cnl Tahle 1U Marit uaed the valuea cf enil thallaciieisr cf ccrnhuaticn frcrn Tahle 11 a lIZC Ialculate the value fer the enthalpy cfhv rugenatin cf ethene c39hta ine l uaing the average banal enthalpiea given Table It 2 Detemajne the value fer the enthalpy cf hv rcgenaticn cf ethene using the valuea fur the enthalpiea cf ccrnhuatinn cf ethene hv rcgen and ethane in Table 11 c Suggeat une reaacn quotwhy thn a answer ia ahghtlv leaa accurate than MLarit a ailawer anal calculate the percentage lifferenc e IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I x n I I I I x n x n I I I I x n x n I I I I x n x I I I I I x I x n ll 1 12 a 13 101111 the11 eeialer ta 11eter11li e the e11tha1rir elf hydmgeimtieh 1f eye1aheae11e ten predaee cye1aheaai1e CEHIID H E 361 111 Hate the average hue1161 eatha1piea ten alenhlee a value fer the enthalpy fh f f g hf eyeleheae e in IIznzIIIIIznznIIIImanIIIznanIIIImIIIInznIIIIznznIIIIznznIIIIIIIIIIImIIIIIIII IIznznIIIIznznIIIImanIIIznanIIInmIIIIIznIIIIznznIIIIznznIIIIznanIIIznmIIIIznanI The percentage di ere ee hetweea theae twe methm a average head enthalpiea a11c1 enthalpiea ef eemhtlatie ia greater far eyeleheae e than it waa fer etheae Iahn a hwetheaia waa that it wetlld he the game Determine why the nae 1f average hea eathalpiea ia 1eaa accurate for the eyeleheaeme equation ahawit ahmr ek than it 39waa fer ethe11ez Derhlee what eatra ihfa natie ia aee leal prerviiale a mere aeetu39ate aaawern ii I I n n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I n m I I I I I n I I I I n n I I I I n I I I I I n n I I I I n m I I I I n n I I I I n I I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I n m I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n m I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I n m I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n m I I I I n n I I Ha1ege11ena1ka ea eaa tmderge auhatitatia rea yetiaha with petaaaimn hytlreaiele aahltieh State ah equatie far the reaetieh ef C4H Cl with EDII i ii Suhatitatiea reaetiaaa ereeur h either If titre meelmaiaiha aa111elyr er utliae the meaning ef the term 8H1 iii Pre iet the 111eeha11iam SH1 err ea peete far the reaetieh ef the fa11ewi11g lmlegeaaalkahea with aquee39aa KDHI 1 eh1ereihutahe ten fuzz1111tmta111e11 E ehlareE 1Jaethrlprerpa11e ta 01111 2 111eth3r1prr1paa2a1m Explain the meehaaiam euf each reaetieh 111 part a iii 11ang early arrawa ta repreaeat the mavemeat enf eleetrea pairs iv Draw fear atraetural iaeaaera af 11laleea1ar fammla C4Hm which eeataih the DH Ere mp U11 reaetiena with aeidi e l petaaaciium eliehrmnatef l twer ef the iaemera are aai iaeal in tree atepa ta pren luee pradhleta Draw the atmetara fammla af the tart prehaeta ferme ff lt eae f the iaeiaera ii A iaemer ia eai lizer ia a e atela Draw the Structural fammla ef the ergaaie peeham f l l th 1a Etate the eelerar eha ge that takes place in theae exitlatienh reaetieaa iv Identify the iaemer which reaiata eai atieh h aei li eri tiliehmmate I I3 I 31 31 a a 2 a m m TOPIC 6 amp 16 KINETICS Nilmgm l DEiElE reams with hy r gm as almwn by Why f wimg aquarium 2mg2 2rgNzcg3mz tg3 TJJE table b l w ah wi haw the rate 3f reacminm variesquot as the reacta 39m cuncentra ziama V9113 a b C Experiment lmi all ND I Initial IIIE 339 Initial rate I Inn 11114 11101 1111 39339 mu N dm 4 5 1 1 mm mm 3533111 2 HIEII ill 535K111quot 3 l l l JI 4 10112110 ll x l D t li the l quot of Ifcacf i m with I39EEPEEI 39fli NE and with I39E Eip t0 HZ Explain how yam tf t r li d it I d l for N0 m 2 d A suggeeted fer this reeetie 115 as fe ewa H2NGX fastetep KNDYHED slew step YH2 NEHEU faststep State explain whether ue meehamsm agrees with the n a 7 rate EKPTEESiD in hi 4 e why a single step meeheu snl is unlikely fer a reaetie elf 11115 kind 2 2 aygen and nitrngen nannnxide react tngether to farm nitrngen thiamine 2a t 31403 1 ENBI EE The graph helnw ahnwa how the initial rate if reaetinn changed hiring an experiment in which the initial waa kept ennatant whilat the initial 0391 waa varied IL Kip VF ff My Rate If x a x My x IE l iiall Detlnee giving a reaann the inlet ef I39E cl l with reapeet tn U2 In a aeriea nf eaperintenta the initial 02 was kept ennatant while the initial waa varied The reanlta shn39weal that the I39eaetien waa aeennafl l tl l39 with reapeet tn NU Sketch a graph to ahnw hnw the rate nfreaetinn would change if the initial waa inereaaedi e Dednee the averall cinder if this reactinn I State anti explain what would happen tn the initial rate nf I39eaetinn if the initial enneentratinn 01 NC waa dnnhletl and that Inf 39waa halvenil e When the initial valinea are U a ilz 1IK1 2m l thia 3 amt NCle 3le 2nanlalm3 Z the initial rate nf reaetinn 63 am innl thia 3 all 39Write the rate expreaainn fer thia ta reaetinn and ealenlate the rate ennatant atating its unita Nitmga mum surgi may aha 1h cmw ied i t itmgE in d at mmp mmre l awarding Th hc Equati b l w N39U CE ENE 023 3 N01131 C U zEE Skateh a graph IIf cannemtmtio nf NUEIZE grandmaii agai af i IIIE far this mac and amm ate Hill graph m 311111115 how T l l initial raft 1f lfcacti c uli 1h dmcai 3 Th regul m fmm a writs 0f exp imem s far this mac an Eh wn h w D d l gi g a masJun u l ufreacti with TEEIJ39EETE tn Eac h of lm mactanm a If N w gj I E fg 132 3 I lui al rate Em im39em munl 11114 IllEll din 3 mull tint 5 IIIml aim 393 5391 1 1 r x1 73 1n x1n73 l xl rl 44013439 2 21 an 1 n x1n73 1mxm 1 1363111173 3 l x m4 mm M173 Law 371 13631173 4 4m MW 1n x1n73 1m 1m lMxl Tg Expla in why th CI IlEI 0f 3 I39Eac ii m ca nt be nbfrzaimed linearly from h Et i llli l f ic Equati I First nrdar reacf i s have a mmtami ha f lm Warm huff 4913a txplai wl ly i1 i5 c m39atam fur fmt order Ifacf i m ii The 39V39EIILIE of It fur a rat Mar fEEilCti i5 1 Calmlat th halfIii far this reacti m If Th f Witmg mactinn 214205 g s 414 is U is is dssciibsd as rst carder with tun Ng s a b E d Writs lls rats exprsssim four that mastim If Elm pussiblrs fm mastimm is gisrsim helmw Ns s 3 NE 517311 1 Ns s 3 E sig G 517311 2 Dcssribs mt Expmssin 1th wnm l Issult if rats 1 39 w in this is i Step 1 m In Step 2 2 u i s masumsitmg what is aunt l tam fray fe far this rsastinn I 5131 what is EhmstmistiI shunt this half life if a rst aidsat f Ehi If All 3r 1 3 ELIE d E quot39 Zl E d 1313 T f a a thttermhag a nf 39 if 3 ahay if i v 39 quot quot 39v vmnmrrvnn expregsi nig MFHU E w 39 139 r minim EH 1113 the H mm nf I mgiE am 1113535112 m l din 3 i5 3 5 l 4 11ml lm a min 391 5 5 c i I H1 ii mam pruduci g was in gag pham THE quotf sham 12h ram if rem Em nm f fate 5 ml 3 5 1 new mutant3 HaltF m1 4 1 1111114 u Emma 3 E H211 i E L x 1393 3 12111 2 15 1 150m l 39a mdmufr a ii n mmwmtm M landm 3 V mi cuff whm 13h vanmama me 11 am If Hat 11 IWEEil39itP39 w fm sm mm i m fy m 3 ii 111E f i m I Ina IsiE Wd l39 L 39 Vansm it M39 1 15 fur l r unit m 0123 1am Mum 11ml d111quot w um an meal dmf m an ml quot3 m Hmii y 7 uf liaghwwninTJK i halib haw 115mg 3 J A I mam f and El 1111 ht uhia i d EM 3 5n fmamac kmus di im ug jria 414312 a g l z l D 1EiSkJ l swims and mg m39 mus m labela mr EIt Emil If If If I Hi Nitmg f reacts mi h awarding ta the fa uwimg Emmium BEIGE EarE g r ENUEI g megath The data belchw ware n btain dl Ear lm mactin ElamBen and 1l at a Ep i d t lp tl 39 and magma WEI f T 3 Initial mt mu akin35 1 1m I 511m x m4 32 Inn 3 2 201 3 var 251 x 1Ir3 15m 19 3 412m x 113 2 i 1IEIII393 130 lnzr2 a Histamine giving a magma lm mdar Hf teaHim with tn NE and the urdl r if martian wi l tn pl 2 Dmian the mtg EKpT EEi an139 thm mactiml hEt39WEE NE and HIE I 39 lE ll t the rat cmtant fur the mt EEPI39 EEi amp ri lem 1 i t l state its units d che tuna vanlnme 11quot the reactinn Inimtnute was at ennatannt tenlpemtnutes state the e eeL if an the Irate eenatatnt A eataljrat may be used in this I l ti l utline haw hefemgenanus enfnbefs mark it Draw a labelled level fur the reaetinn between and Ear with and wi mmnt tlhe nae if a eatallyet Twe aaka at equal velinlne are at the game temperature ne enntaina nxygen gaa anti the ether enntaina an equal 111335quot at methane ga a Cnrnpate the avera kinetie af exygen meleenlea with thnae nf methane maleenlea 3 anti explain year reaam ng Inflentity whether anyng 021quot methane lnnleenlea will have the yeate1quotay39 age V El il39 f at thia temperature and explann 3min ehnie e lib I n m I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I I n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I n m I I I I I n I I I I n I I I I I II n I I I I n I I I I I I n I I I I m I I I I I n I I I I I m I I I I I n n I I I I m I I I I I I n I I I n m I I I I n I I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n I I I I I n n I I I I I n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I n m I I I I I n I I I I n I I I I I II n I I I I n I I I I I I n I I I I m I I I I I n I I I I I m I I I I I n n I I I I m I I I I I I n I I Dealnee whether the pleaante in the cantannng methane is legs than greater than inquot equal tn the preaaure in the aak enntaining nxygen Explain Eren1quot choice B I I m I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I I I 39II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I I I I I I I I I Y I I I I I I I I I I n m I I I I n n I I I I n I I I I I I I I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n n I I I I I n I I I I I n I I IZIYIIIIIZIZIIIIIZIZIllllZIIZIIIIIIZIIZIIIllIZIIZIIIIllKIIZIIllIZIIZIIIIIIIIIIllllZlilllllllilllllililll H H 2 3 I3 2 I3 a b c d it nf mittagent meaide takea plaee aa fellewa am g itgli imam ifnllnwing data was nhtained at a enuatant temperature Imam me gum1 dim 5 Initial 02 me din 3 rate f me quot35 1 1 35 any2 mama2 3jxil 3 2 mamaquot 1531amquot 1521amquot 3 am an2 max 1n lemmaE i Deduee the n1 de of reactiun with IBSPEEI tn and reapeet to NC ii State the Irate expressinn fer the reactinn alem ate the value hf the rate eenatant and state the units iii 39Ealemlate the expected rate at reaetinn if the reaeta ta t expt 2 were plaeetl in a etmtaiuer n ftwiee the velunle it V Sluggeat a Feasible tarn step mechanism that is emaiatent with the rate veupreaaien mg step I E in a is faster at 323K than at 2933 Explain the increase in rate in nf enlliainn them and Maxwell Enltanlann diatrilhiutien tallawnian i5 involvelt in the induatrial pmduetinn if nitric acid fr 4NH3g 53902 E 4N g lE g E Eili It tun1391 Demibe the re ect if if eaeh at the fe nw g changes an the eqmlililhiiunl enneentratinn n f Mitregem in a particular eqmlililhiiunl give a Il39 m in each cage Increasing the pregame at animatant Iquot nu ii Inereaaing the tempemtmey at ennatant immature at a hetemgemeeua eatalyaty at animatant pregamue anti De nee the KI including units at the fnman reaetinrn in part 1 which at the ehangea in part the 1liraluue if K anti pietiet whether the 1value at K i tll l til139 demeaae 72 I 2 2 f3 5 2 2 2 2 2 Hydrangea and mitmgem tilaide mart taga har aEathvaam aa y aa fa awa 2H2 E m igl 4quot EHEULE NEE Tha tate if aia raaatim waa mea gatedl in a EEIiEfS If axpa ma ta ciaa ed nut at he Same t lp if t f the 113511113 of which HIE in tabla beluw 1 an yam3 4a yam3 41 Ema 2 41 yam339 413 ram3 an Kl 3 an amquot 41 al 39 4 an nil3 m Kl a 11 jam3 5 in am H man3 a Iaaulta Exp i lemta 1 and 2 can The mae l ta de huce that urdlar If raaatia wi h tia hjr bmgan is 1 Deduce the mder if IE EtiDi wi l ta nitragem a ream fm 3mm c USE a awaara atm manta a vl tal dadmca the rate WEESim far h mantaarm d tha table abmra calmlati g rate atquot Iaac l n air Batch af I quot i 3 and warita the tabla a U5 le IEEMI IE m 39 ill 39139 I 1 tan l c illE value DEE and 1113 units fur the rat En EtmL kif 1quot l mactim f2 SnagEst a mecha dsm for thug manna11 that IE E EiEItE llt wi h l mt IE EtiX i5 in aw pram nilfa hatamgmcnua t ljrst Explain llc if thE 1mm hgfmgmga s as app a l ta ta l ljrst Draw a lab lle 161ml that Sham thug Eem if the E t lFEt 10 a diagram the apparatus ta attach the rats sf mastitis11 hatwaam sallcaum fh t and hydra chagrin aaiv casings EHEI sq Ca lg aqjl Hg j as g qu sa um was 339 j E d uta hcjrdmsh mia acid aallc m l b i t quantitivss f raaatams said a tha ask ans aa riisd ant at mam tampsjramra wars mass if single sf Ca l s i i g WEI1m sf 111 an1111114 HEMan 511 113 halauss was sat ta saw at the start if lls shaws mass if lls ask an l ssmtamts shaugs ll 1 Mass if ask and ants ts I g Titusij i EH l iv will the maaa damaaaai If 39 lE lllll lt the in uf each Iraacta t at lm Start of Emmi l I USE anawaara II a EL anrdl this eqtmatium the mattiu ta which raattaat was aad a mess I tamarinmm was I p t l wi l small piatca af calcimml ta mmata twu ahe ad E andl 3 an he graph ta haw tha mass if 1113 ask and cantata in the vam imemm at lm 5am twperatura E E mem 31355 11139 small pieces Faluma uf LIIIIII m li III 39 in uf CaC a li 39g HEHaqth 2 23 3 50 2513 H 393 F111 TEEmm emum a n E the initial mt wag magma41 in a Sarita uf fEElEti nl39l39i d 0111 at lm 531316 t lp l tl Experiment him my Imi al El 3 Imiiialiatf a mu 1m mu 1m mu 1m mm 1 42 x m2 13 K lnzr2 33 m4 2 42 3 Hr2 39 x 1113392 22 m4 3 34313 3 39 x ur2 22 1H4 i ii iii DEd EE the mdmr f fE Eti tn A a dl tn Bi giving a mam in Each EEEEL edch rate am fur the Haitian If USE le lata fin139 Emeriment 1 tan 1 gt 39 1 E t m l far maintain11 33 i De ne th 1mm mm Hfmmc If ii 5131 am Equatinn the Emmicm if Ei l t wi h dilute amid iii rate 91quot tibia I E in E ii cam be Etuldi d r manning the V hl l inf gala E ll l d Wer a praiin if SkEtdh a gmph which Illaw the V l l of gag E ll t d chang g wi m iv is Iep ate using a smiling nf hydr chlm it aEi l with d hl this but half Ema Gmcmtmtiun IIIf thequot unigminal aEi L Draw a glean111 this gmph in part 3 iii tun Eth the ream m in thJiE Expernimmt W39th this is i mnt fir lm li H Nitf g mans at 1230 C wi m hydbmg n t0 ih39 g i and watcr maximum and pam humta we in this phasa i Emmi25 Hf l I tti wan studlim l at mia tampmatum TIM tabla im rat of Ir a ticm fm i mnt if Each manan NU 1 f i 391 3 Initial Fatef III1mm mull mggill tr mulr i 114quot mulls 393 a x 11m 5 1 mm 21m 125 mm 21m i 3 man 4m 1 11m DEd EB 1113 1de If the mactiun with IBSPEEI tin ND and H and Explain 3mm mascming H ii DEd EB l rate Expmggi m fur t39lhc Emmian iii Datmmjime the minim IIIf le mtg E t t four the r a a r 3 and St 39t i135 2 E The gag phage dmusitiu inf n h a Step 111 NEEDLE imlltgymg Ia atap 2 H1 g ji gig ggj l ram farm15 i5 ram I H11 in iii The inf i5 ml madam tan a 3E fu wa 3 H as n CHI C EH Thismac mm Hui will 3 5 mtm mtt nm amu Mawheaf mm enw a h 39 gaphufln ag n UTE l q In If If I H 12 a b c d Equatimm IIIf twn maid hast IEactim ME given helmw macaw A HEEL H213 l NH mm H39 all mammal in A Enmsists if macmnts h aman lm lies tn tlm lEs macaw H g rzaq mail mama Himmm mammal tum in E cmiats main 0f pitum bmama that z qu aib uml Ema tn tlm right i Fm Each if m mactimm A and E tie ham and uplaiu 1 water i5 acting as an amid 3139 a ii In mancm E i l ti fy m s mmgar HEB I llgar 31H a l explain Emu In Emmimm A a lill E lm Et g r and NH mt EllI3 and yum mmE1 Damib twin iEmEt m aqmmumg Salmtim f Slitmg human and a walk brag aci hii 5011mm 3 and Hf aqua 11mm pH VTHllJ E if 2 E i mlMam lm Illjr lmgEzu Jinn in lm hm a u m all ll tlm E 39 g f amid n 39 E mm 11f tlm hjr lng n in lm mm salu imm X and D t a Lem maid and mm mm am PIE lmt i5 1131 a EI mStEd L ww acid iii Draw sinmturall JImwlas ta mamamt film teaminim hetwam tlm Lewis acid as in d and a Lewig has ailEll lm minim DIE band fwnm l itm FTCth 2 2 2 139quot 395 72 I 2 HI TOPIC 7 8 17 EQUILIBRIUM The equilihrimn between gen licai e brawn aml elilnmgen tetrnxicle cnlnimleaajl ia repreaented h the chewing equation a b c 131 lN gl g Nz g negative K 1 at 323K I write the equilibrium crmatant enpreaeicrn K 3 State and explain the wi aihle that takes place as a reanlt if a decree se in precanre after eqnilihrirnn i9 reeatahlieherl I3 1quotch mclea cf N gi g and twc melee cf NEDQIEE were placer in an emptyr 1 din3 ccntainer and allnwetl ten cmne tn equilibrium at 323 Predict with reference tn the value cf Kc 3 whether the equilihriimn IIIiKI39IIIIE wcuhl contain mare cr leaa than two melee cf a Eb E d Ea The 39I 39 31 WT 1 M gcghl g H 52kI Iii u 33E Hullg tm 39IfiL39L39l1 HIM LE4 Iii ii 39 A A 39 quothmmu Inf 1h th f 23 Imlagts le lm if K fur r m am 39 39 39 K ilil twu Hui IIirlll W315 a F ynuwmmtablt m Inf K in EH name that are 1 far in 12 n am a v 2 int 1139 in m is mild m waiter 1311 ha I le EEG933E133 Hamil Emmiquot at Hi39T M13 and identi r hm Exampl a ruflm h f quot111E pH f 1 mluitci n i5 43 Using 39r39m v Hg E l i l f l l nquot39 l f j I I f quotj J phmml in 5mm K 13 4HM mm a if 3 3 If 63 3 H 3 3 Cnneider the fellnwing reaetinn in the Centaet preeeaa fer the preduetien emf aulfiui39ie aeid fer parta tn in this q ueatien a oh 2 d e ESUE n2 tad3 I Write the equilibrium eennatant expreaainn fer the reaetinn State the eatalyat uaed in thia reaetian ef the C li ct preeeaa If State and explain the e feet nf the eatalyat an the value nf the equilibrium ennatant and the rate 31 the reaetienn Uae the ealliaiern Till lfjf tn explain Wllilf f inereaaing the tentperattufe inereaaea the rate ef the reaetiern between aul n dinnide and exygen f3 Uaing Le Chateher a prineiple explain the effeet the pnaitinn eif equilibrium cf 3 inereaaing the preaaiufe at eernatant temperature remtiming aul ar trinxide 2 Uaing the fellnwing data explain whether the aheuve reaetinn i5 eanthennie er endethennie f3 Temp l mm I K Equilibrium eunstant Kai dlrn3 marl 39 3 5LT 1a 5m am a 1a 3quot 1rquot5r1u E Ht inerl f SD and l line if DE are plaeed in a MEI dang and heated at lm C until equilibrium itquot reached The nal equ ihriuin minttufe ennta ined In inn emf SUE Calculate the equilibrium eernatant Kc ef the reaetien at thia temperature include tuaita in yaur ana wer Uaing the data belnw atate and explain the relatinnahip hehtreen E l39llil lpjr nf Teapnrizatitan and intennnleeular fare e5quot 3 Enhatanee Pentalme Fmpanuie aeid Standard enthalpy ed 2quot 55 Valp l39i ti ME 5 El n l Draw a graph ten ahnw haw the 39Vapnur preaaure elf pentane changes an it isa heated aunt it melting paint t ita hailing paint Explain this ehange in tenna of the leinetie the3173 ii 3 a b a if The equaticu fer a reactiei in iurluatrjr ia CH4g H20 9 BHEq g cc g 210 1a Beeluce the equilibrium ccuata t expreaaicu far thisquot reactinu I 39Uae Le Chatelier a p helple ta pretliet the effect cf each cf the fellerwl g changea cm the pcaiticu cf equilibrium and the value cf Kc far the reactic in a Inereaai g the temperature at ecuataut preaame 3 2 ii Irtereaai g the preaaure at ccuata t temperature The equation fcr armther reacticu 39uaeel in irazluatriar ie cc g H2c g HE 3 1302 3 42 kJ Under certain ccutliticua cf tempetature auel preaaure ll 11ml cf ca bc lucltcai le aml 32 marl cf atearu were left ten reach eqjuilih tuu At equililn39itma ll 11ml cf hath h h39oge a l earhch t l l were present Calculate the a tcuuta of earheu mcucxitle and atearu at equilibrium a tl the value cf 3 ii Umler the game ccu liticua cf temperature antlpreaaurek 21 mal cf carhculuc cai le a dl ll maul cf atearn tvere left tc rea equilibrium Calculate the a muuta cf each reactant anti prctluet at equilih um vcu were u ahle tc calculate a value fcr KB in ejtfijl tree the value 911 althcugh this la hat the ecrrect value 2 Hart reverailjle reacticrla in iu luatr r tree a catalyet State and explain the effect cf a eatalgrat art the poaitia cf eqtulihriu t and the value cf Kt H a A bitatian was am ad nut in detmnina the annaaa laa biaa af E51 am af am a aalmtiom af Ethannit aai L T113 pH walla half the liquid in Ema aak waa maaamwad during the tatian The 13511115 ara Kgmrap l balaw 14 12 a a 1 PH 3 1 1393 2E 3 4H Valuing af Na H am3am i Uaa graph ta at31min ha aalmaa af pH and Hf cf the a hamaia acid aa lmtiam I iii Uaa this graph ta the if l 13111111111 aadimml hyaraail a aalmhiam manda l ta BEEEH manualize the a hamaia acid I iii alm ata tha canaamt atiml in 393 af the a lamaia acid 2 iv an indicatar that 1111a uuaadl ta t39hLa aqm valaaaa paint of the titratiam Usian tha HIE ta rapraaant lime indicating why the nindhicatmr ahangaa Eula11139 during the t l aalutia faimadl Wham tha a hamaiI aaid ia Baa1113 halfmautmljavad tam aat as a hmEar aalmtia i Uaimg infamlatia 39am Tabla l af tha Data aaklaty aalcalatva 1311a valua af in this bu ar 591mm shaming marking 2 ii Writa am aquatian ta Shaw the autism11 af tibia aalutian Wham a If acid i5 a ldedL I Ccnaider the fcllntaing reacticn where cclctnfleaa hrcinide inns react with cclcnrleaa hyth gen percxide tc fcii39na a redhrman hrcnaine aclnticn EEKr39IIZan HEDEIIZaq 21hquot EHED negative 3 Predict and explain the e ect en the pnai nn of equilibrium when a small aniennt cf acdiinn hecnaide achlticn ia added ii a entail anicnnt cf andiinn hydhcicide anhtticn is added iii a cata yat it added State and explain the effect ll the value cf the equilibrium cansta at when the temperature cf the reacticn i a increaaed e State and explain the cclcur change when h grtirccl cric acid ia added tn the reactinn achlticn at equilibrium at De ne the term atandimfenthnipy change nffnnnntinn 33 a i U ae the infcmaatinn in the fcilcwing tahle tc calculate the enthalpy change fer the enmplete ccnlhnatinn cf hut 1ene accnniing tn the furlimiting equatinn Cali 1153 ne 3 4CD 3 4HED EE Ccinlacnnd Eg g a CD1 Hg g an twin31quot 1 aa4 2142 ii Dednce giving a reaacn whether the reactanta er the pradhtcta are mere atahle iii Plft t a reaactn hnw the enthalpr change fer the enniplete ccinhnaticn cf hntl ene wm d eninpare with that cf hutiene haaed an average hnnd enthalpiea 39Uaing the data helnw Cainpcrnnd E g C C Hig t g D2 a t J K l incl 391 ma 214 139 aaa calculate fer the reacticn in e at lint the ataniiard entrch change ME the atantiard free eneii39gF change G ii Predict tting a reaacn the apentaneity cf the rea cticn in at hath and law teinperatlnfea t2 t2 t3 3 I3 3 a 3 U 31quot 31quot 31quot The felln39wing equilibrium isquot invelved in the indhatrial nf nitrie aei l frarn almnnnia 4aH3lljgjSngggj 4N0 9 with M5 an 1a mar Beaerihe the effect if any nf eaeh if the felln39wing ehangea an the equilihrinnl cane entlatinn nf nitrngen mnnnni e in a partieular equili39hrhnn mixture give a reaaern in eaeh eaaez Inereaaing the pregame at ennatant temperature ii hlereaaing the temperature at ennatant preaaure iii Ad itinn at a heteregeneerua eataly at at eenatant preaaure anti temperature Much 1f the her uae t manufaeture annnnnia i5 rna e 39uaing the fe nwing reaetinn hetween methane anal eteanl en14gg Hing enqjg aha r1n 1a a In an experiment using a niekel eatalgrat Lame1 nf 1nethane anti l rnnl 1f ateant were ad eel t a ennta iner 1f VGth 2t tint3 anel heatetl ten a eanatant temperature equilibrium waa reached the mixtun39e enntamet L5H me If earhen mnnaxi e i Caleulate the alnnunt in melee f eaeh emf the ether auhetaneea preaent Methane Steam ii Dedhee the equ ihri mn eanatant expreaainn Kc far thia reaetien I IIznanIIIznanIIIznanIIInznIIIIznanIIImznIIIIznmIIIInanIIIznznIIIIznanIIIznanI IImanIIIznanIIIznanIIIIznIIIIIIIIIImmIIIImmIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII iii Caleulate a value far Kc far this reactinn anal eledhee its unita I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I m n I I I I n m I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I I m I I I I I I I I I I I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I I I I m I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I III I I I I I m I I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I VI n I I I I I m I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I I I n n I I IIznanIIIznanIIIznanIIInznIIIIznanIIInznIIIIznmIIIInanIIIznznIIIInnIIIInnII a Canairler the fellawing equilibrium h a in ii iii in 250211ng DICE gang g ME 193 k maul Dedhee the equillhri um eartatant eapreaaian KL fur the tea etienn State and explain the eHeet af inereaaing the preaaure an the yield ef aulfur triteaide State and explain the e eet af inereaah tg the temperature an the rielel If aulfur hiuajele State the effeeta emf a eatalyat an the funaard arul reverae reaetiinna the paaitien uf eqttilihrimn arul an the value uf a mixture If 1 men ND u l mal and l marl H20 were plaeedl in a LEI thin3 aak at 3 EU the falluwing equilihrinm 39waa eatahliaheel 1ND EH2 Na lHa At equllihri um the eeneentratiun ef MD was Emma ta he l l multim S Determine the eqt lihrinm eunatant uf the rea etinn at this temperature in ii iii in t Dutline ttru di ereneea hetween an eleemlytie eell arul a 39Veltaie eell Explam auli l antlimn ehlaritle aleea at eantluet eleetrieit r hut maltem S tlii l ehlerirle oea Mnlten audium ehleritle 39mttlerguea eleetrenlyaia in an eleetrulytiie eell Far eaeh eleetrutle deduee the halfequatan arul atate whether a elatinn er redhetien takes place ledhee the equation f the averall eell reaetiert meltwlhtg atate afmherla Eleetrulyaia haa made it puaaihle tn ahtain rea etive metala atteh aa altutuininnl em their area which haa rea39ulteel in aig ti eant tlevelupmenta in engineering and teehnaluge State rune reaaern why aluminium la preferred ten in uaea Eleetrerplating it an impurtant applie atiern f eleetrnlgiraia State the eermpnaitien ef the eleetrenflea and the eleehalyte 39uaetl in the ailver eleetruplating preneeaaz If 3 3 3 at at 3 if U 3 1 TOPIC 8 amp 18 ACIDS amp BASE llle inldieatnr hrninephennl blne HIE has a farm that is yellow and an hat arr farm that is blue a Write an teqnatien to Show how hrnmephennl blne acts as an inldieater State and explain the colour of hrornophenol blne i on the additiml Ufa strong acid at the equivalence point of a titration An experiment wasquot earrie l nut tn tletennine the eeneentratinn ef an aqneena eelntien ef aninrenia h titrating it with a anlutinn 0f enl trie aeirl Inf enneentratien 15 11nnltl1n3 It was femrl that lit ef the annnnnia 5elutinn required Elli ein3 ef the aul nfie aeiel anlutien fer netttralizatinn a bl El 1 E W te the equatinn for the reactien and ealeulate the eeneentratinn in 11101 1111 3 nf the l i ael ntinn Several aeitlhaee inrlieatnra are iietetl in Table 1 nf the Data Ennklet State antl explain which cine ef the fellewing indie atere alienltl he 39n aeil fer this experiment hrninnereeel green phennl reel er phennlphthalein Determine the p l I 0f a anlntien with an anunnnia enne entratien nf 11M inn flan 3 114 of ainninnia is 435 State what is meant the term heifer a elntien and ileeerihe the enmpneitinn if an aeiil hn er enlntinn in general tenure ii lIIZCIaleulate the pH nf a mixture if Eatl e1n 3 nf ainlnnnia EGlilllti nf eeneentratien Hall 11110 lira 3 anal 50 can u l 11ml din 3 nf hytirnehlnrie aeirl enlntinn of enneentratinn Cheneing enita hle examplee iron the fellewing 01 3112 err an Hie explain using a ili erent eqtlatinn in each eaae the meaning nf the terma helew Brenated anr aeirl Lewis aeirl iii ennjngate aeielhaee pair Mentify eaeh 1nenlher ef aeitl haee I 3 a 3 a 3 H 3 I3 3 a ll Ii a E c 0 ii iii iil De ne the term pH A E crn3 sample of Him mol 1111 3 hydrochloric acid was placed in a conical and l niol din 3quot sodium hydroxide is added until a total of 511M cm3 had added Sketch a graph of pH against volume of 39Na Il aqj added clearlyF showing the volume of Na H aq needed for complete reaction and the pH values at the start the equivalence point and nish The experiment in a was repeated but39witha 2512 cm sample of I I 39 l mol dill 3 ethanoic acid in the conical ask instead of the hydrochloric acid information horn Tahle lid of the Data Booklet to calculate the pH at the start of the experiment State the approximate pH value at the equivalence point Descrihe how an indicator Illln works Name a suitable indicator for the reaction hetween ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide Use information from Tahle 1 in the data hook let to explain porn choice Identify two substances that can he added to water to form a basic buffer solution Descrihe what happens when a ainoimt of acid solution is added to the hu solution prepared in Use an equation to support your explanation De ne the terms Breastedme acid and Lewis acid For each type of acid identify one example other than water and write an equation to illustrate the de nition Predict and explain whether an aqueous solution of tilt rnol dinquot3 ii lll C Jl3 will he acidic alkaline or neutral The equation for another reaction used in industry is 0 ii COg H20g H2g C02g 42 1 Under certain conditions of temperature and pres sure 20 mol of carbon monoxide and 32 mol of steam were left to reach equilibrium At equilibriinn l6 mol of both hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present Calculate the amoimts of carbon monoxide and steam at equilibritun and the value of Kc Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure 2 0 mol of carbon monoxide and 20 1nol of steam were left to reach equilibrium alculate the amounts of each reactant and product at equilibrium If quotyou were tumble to calculate a value for Kc in ci use the value 90 although this is not the correct value The solution formed when the ethanoic acid is exactly half neutralized can act as a buffer solution it it Using information from Table 16 of the Data Booklet calculate the value of HT in this 39buffer solution showing your working Write an equation to show the buffer action of this solution when a small alnoiuit of acid is added W is I5 is 3 Hi 3 I5 3 3 239 2 I 5 Pi p mi maid is Elassji a l as a wank Bani1 3 Stan the tilf 1h tam weal arid If 5th m1 far 111E P ti 11f pmpmiI acid with water EI IIEIIIE cmngat Br nm Ed L wr pair n2 Strata giving a magnum in at ca53 hm mamadis th ll39 than ammung pH that E l d bu us l tn xl i tingmislh hatwc n lilil mu prnpanmiI acid 33112111 l l 31101 whim 3 nitric acid 2 d Wai h Mfume m quotITEM 15 in 1113 Data Emu at atn this pH if a Ll nal minim 3 E lmti Hf Tap i acid I 3 a b a A anlmtidn a 39 r d u quota I qll ji E5113 rm if Ql l maid tn f h 111 equivald uzd punint illf a titratinn i ii iii l hydkdchdmii amid S m i5 3 I Writ m1 the mactim df dmia wi m hjil if hl ii acid EHI EMlH m in mail if hfji dl39 hlll fi acid and that mad Calculate 1355 emf B d in the saluti n 1 12c 21d m3 Emu ml and ll39j39 nm 39a E lllllti l mud thug pH i5 a mtall DIE Hill Em hydbmdhlmic id has Emam1 add3d i ii i ii iii if V Sketch a graph td Shaw pH 35 hiji df hll fi amid i5 addEd m 5 u m Us a walla if 391 14 and m1 and quotF l l S l df 35 cm HIE shay df cmg USE tabla l of 1113 Dam Eunkl t td sungcsi an ddlidmm that E l d be 1156111 in 111 t f ti i Explai ning 3mm Emma Slam 111E Ep i f m1 midiu saladmu Snag51 id titji Inf an arid and ifth that Em ld 1h an iu tn a r llllti t E t j i g I M 13101 d nia in td pmpare a Explain 110w the mindm1 yum Imam 11113 ii 311 act as a Edlmtidm Wham a strung mi and a 511mg 353 ME adddd tn Emamm dfit Writ an tn luaimta l actimn in reach 353 Writ mguatim jr h mman n um m wi mam and i3 amid 45 dug a n 39 mi thBFH Than a t if aming snlmidm H135 Ewan 39H nd 513 If 2 72 5 1392 If 72 H 2 3 a bi far lu I ti l 111m 9mm Wham j Shawn quota gag diES llV E in warm is mag Hg 0 MEIan 39iaq i D t 111 wt Rm smd me HEM ii a ecmjmgat pail pmamt in llf aham3 Equati m iii ue specks in lm eqmauiam aham that BEE as a CW5 ham 5quot w A type 11f and it if I l in lm ma a11 2 in jEH IiB 13115mm fur maihylm i5 Shawn balm I39rIIII IIi h l 3 5H 43xm4 m1 lm4 quotEEHEHHJ i Write an thE mamcm bEl W E mathjr and mate ii 39Ealcm m lp H if a mol 1111 3 aquEuus mlutimn 0f n 39 S tat an in I mlil39ti l in E l l H ailenlaxte the pH of a hiu er solution by toge mer l of and l mol of HIE in LEI 339 of solution if The pKa value for propanoie acid iS given in Table 15 of the Data Booklet State the equation f l39 the reaction of propanoie acid with water 139 ii Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in lnol din 3 of an aqueous solution of U 100 lnol dJJH 3 propanoie acid 2 bi graph balmw am a apmtar Simulating ufa mam If 251 m3 af il mal 1111 3 h rdmd a a acid wi h 391 I 39 mull 4 sadium Illjr hm da a thIa rang if phenul redl in iaatm 14a 12a ma 3a PH an 4a M II Ekatah 1111 graph llat rm1111 he ah Ial maieamr rangE I I I I I I I I I I III 5 ill 15 2391 25 3E 351 4 45 5391 Valuing af l m1 11111 3 Na H MI ma a m3 Jr a iit atima if an m3 ummn m1 au pinpanmc acid with lm nan1 dim 3 P t i lm using brnmaphanal blue as an IinI licatm Tha pH ranga I39Df Elma can be fawnd in Table 16 adquot 1113 Data Eran at 141 1 an 1IIII an PH m an a I I I I I I I I I I It 3 11 15 ED 251 31 35 4D 45 in VII1m af ma ma 393 EUR 1an adda l I m3 9 a i 39 If quot A r H H ii i311 3115 Ki smite f3 1 Starla an a gt a b a all a TOPIC 9 8 19 OXIDATION amp REDUCTION Some atanttard eleetrotte potentiala are ahotwi in Table l5 of the Data Booklet State three conditions tinder which the hy lro eleetrode is i dl a potential of zero ii lIZZ39aJleulate the eel potential of a eel inane h eonneeting atantlarrl copper and zinc electroctea State the direction of electron ow in the external eirenit when the eel produeea enrrent utline the elrlangerr oeenn ing at the electrottea and in the aolntiona aring the proeeaa Using information from Table l5 rtetenniine whether or not there it a reaetion hetween eopper rnetal and a solution eontaining hydro iona Using infonnation hon Ta hle 15 a anhatanee that will oxidize hronricte iona hot not chloride ioiia ZEnpla in your ehoiee and write an equation for the redox reaetion you have ehoaen 31 current ia paaaett through molten aorlinna ehloricte Id lifj the auhatanee formed at each electrode and write an equation to repreaent the formation of each anhatanee Determine the mole ratio in which the anhataneea are forniett Smilith ehlorirfle in aqueona 5ol ntion in eleetrolyaetl l entify the anhataneea formed and their relative amo nnta when a eoneentrated aolution ia naet ii l dentiliy the anhataneea for naetil antt their relative ainounta when a 39t39reii39F tilnte aolntion i5 naetl iii write an equation for a reaetion oeennfing when aqueous Sodium chloride hot not 1noltenaothn1n ehloritte l5 eleetrolyaerl if 5 If 5 5 If If U The fallMg r I ll u 1 elade patemhiala Half eqma un E9 439 T 341an 24quot 31113 4145 44 34 4344 4434 Fawn 24 1365 4444 1an 24 5115 4414 ma a Ea 4434 1331an 5 Fam aq 443 a b C d THESE aza uaa ubtaj aad a standard Meagan ala mda the and E diti 115361 in the 511111 hj h39 g Elam A ani talzrljf F Iaba adl diagram is aaaeptablaj m the run mama 4ng in la m the list b if E 42311 waa sat Iij Sulfate mlutim and Emma in 41 4 rquot quot under 39 4 1 41 I i Calculate le ae patemini ii an amalgam thus H m I tall reacting Buth ma d mtmuaedt anatirunmpr w i it t l mmfatais arat4 li41a and water mm 39g c aaalved mm amiaat with am l the ligating 39I all Ila 111E353 m ii Elaman be 415E431 In anal math amth r the three f t f a i in ag uni Hf diaahgargadv 1 n3 am ati g Elf24 quot Sulfate is 11m if 3 If I 3 a 3 E a Eb c n a cell was aet up as below rquot F gmw ai I one y A i Iquot and its i the art f the cell la r T Write an equation for at each and hence write an oat reaction ii a a Electrol reia can he to ohtain chlorine froin molten aodinin chloride W te an equation for the reaction occurring at eaeh electrotfle anti tileserihe the two different in which electricity i5 conductert when the cell it operation In one experiment involving the electrolyteia of molten aotiium chloride M mol of chlorine wax formed DEdMCE giving a reaaon the amount of aorlitnn formed at the same In another experiment involving the electrolyaia of molten Sodium chloride the time of the electrolyeie was halverl anrl the current increaae l ham 1 amp to 5 amp coinpaare l to the experiment in Dednee the amount of chlorine formerl ahowing your working If lihlte axq lneona eorh nin chloride is electrolpzed a i emnt product i5 ohtainert at each electrode I i tlf the prodtlct fomie l at each elecno le anti write an equation ahoning its formation Two reactiona occurring the manufacture of bromine from aea water are l C lE ar aq a 21le Er2 It Be SD ElEEG 3 EIlilir H25134 Explain h reference to electrona why reaction I i5 referredl to ae a redox reaction ii State and explain whether ED is rerlnee l or oxirlizedl in reaction H by referring to the oxidation i l l ET B of enlqu in this reaction Define the term standard aleemode39 potential of an element Tahle 15 of the Data Booklet containa E vahlee for two reactions involving 1392 Idlentifjgsr the E a value of the reaction that could he need to oxithzje hromirle ions and explain your reaaoning Conetrnct a 39halance l equation for the oxidation of hromitte iona using thia reaction anti calculate the cell potential ij It If H a 2quot 3 a If 3 3 Use nifaimatian tani Tafhte 15 ef the Data Beaklet where relevant in answering this part i The diagram shows the apparatus used in an expeitnnenit nia aliviag hatf eetls Vettmeter Nickel a 1 Lead Sahitien eantaining Pat39an Sahiztien eantaiaiing Ni2 a q The reading an the Valtn1eteit is t 10 State two standard eandi tians that apply far this reading tn be obtained ii The V lt let quot is replaced by a 2 V i t pUWEI supply so that nanspantaneans teaaetians aeein39 Dediiee the halfequatinns fair these teaetians iii C Marine gas is fainted when pa tassitnn n1anganaterH is added ta eaneenttated hy diteehlnitie aeid Calenlate the eel patential fan this reae tien and dednee the equatien fat the iteaetian is Exptam why patassi inn diehtaniat vh dees net iteaet with eaneenttated hy diteehlnitie acid 2 a 3 I 5 The fullnwi g iagmm almwa a viz1min cell a b c 391 valtm er I v I REE Salt bridg i cm Electm Eilver Electm IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I ll IIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllIIllllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIILIIIIIIII I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I ll IIIIIllIIIIKIIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIK I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I ll mmIrumnuuxmuuummxxuuuuxmuuux u x u u u u u r u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u L u USE Tab 15 m HIE Data B kl t m calcula i IIIIE E t l cell p mmtiial far the Spnll llia tmm rea c minm in a u x u r u u u u u r u x u u u u u r u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u r u u u u u x u r u u u u u r u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u x u u u u u x u r u u IIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllIIllllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIILIIIIIIII I I I I I x I x I I I I I x I x I ll Draw armwa m it ahmm it imitate that direc xrzinm DIE El ct l aw U U I I 6 a hi it f 13lth quot um 75m f I half Imam all it P i l 39 v 39v a iil nmmb mraclim latmu dht madcasarm t ii State m1 f r muting 31 a w I A n E EMM i i l h madaagam t iii El nribs in lite WIFE 35 f i l iii V W J 5 my in the WIFE E 311231 E 1511 Eli1 139 His mmcaqp 511quot 1 3q AlliI20 i am a am we m ii l Mi HIE ir r III a 39 39 fmlh i ngagent u r 11 I l I 1 I A 9 an f Wlt i m part Indi t 111 m that an iii iIll mild W v i 111 cut11 and a vui l ic f3 f3 3 If If 3 If If f3 E If 5 f3 Some standard electrode potentials are shown in Table l5 of the Data Booklet From this table identify a species that will rednee hronijnie to bromide ions but not iodine to iodide ions under standard conditions Dednee the redox equation for the spontaneous reaetion that o oenrs 2 ii Calenlate the eel potential of a eell set up by connecting halteells of altnnininin and silver together under standard conditions 1quot iii The cell potential of the eell represented below under standard conditions is 0513 V Zil S l 2112 Hill Ill CUET39 t l C0 S Dednee the standard electrode potential for the follo wnag halfreaction o2 2e C o I 8 a b An slsstmshsmissl ssll is maids r an ism W swamsad In a subth Illslh ssll V lli l ii f ssllt hiidgs u standard slashsds patsntisl fsrr Es2 sq 25 Fs isl is 4345 V Tbs install ssll pstsn sl uhtsimsd whats lls sell is statude ssn liticms is 11 V ushth is mimdussd a u 39 g the spmnmeums rssstis Ds ns lls tsml sfasdims sfss ds passn ai and stats lls a 39 39 39 I sign in lm vslms sf H45 V ii alsmlsts this Vz llll ths stsn lsidl slsctmde patsntia far this ssbsl t hsl fssll Dsduss whisk spssiss arms as 1th ssi hizing agent whs the snail is spars mg is Dsduss is squstis fur lls spuntsmssus rssstis l plans whsil 111s iIsn half still is smssts l is an slim hallf cs if Ealsiil His imstis 11f lls ssllt WEE iii an slsshrssl1ssll sslll Dsduss lls mumbsi if sumssilt in tbs hallswing species ii massif iii zig iii EGEIJZL 3 if is 72 72 I m m it Am lmmle GEE is using a new dilut salutiam DEF 5911i i Draw a l b d Bf the Ed Use an tn Shaw 11m if the l tf tlll aw and 1h p aitiw and r g tiFE lammdca iii mm 111 f lm inns pmsant in the sulmtiun f2 Pm im lle umi d m Each EIEEII l and Shah the half eqmahim far lm fnrm m DIE Each prudu t if DEde lm 13111131 mining DEF 1111 pmduma nbitainal at wthle rpm I d Pm lim the prudu s by giving the ml va tt half Equ n far lm mantiecm manning at math El tf l if thc l m lljrte 11f lm 11 If A l in 1pm 2 ma Eh g l In l sudiuml EMB d ii multen Radium 13de f2 939 quotHIE 39 I flheiaumars fpm 2 Wyi lhattmdu EB and 315 C f3 summer A E E Ruling p m i f3 Ith 39 SHE u H 39u 1 a 4 r when it In 5 law in i L t my align ti I 1 I HI Ii I I if
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