Exam 1 2010 Solutions
Exam 1 2010 Solutions 290A
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This 5 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Annie Burton on Friday October 9, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to 290A at University of Massachusetts taught by William Connor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Energy Engineering in Chemical Engineering at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Name ChE 290A First Exam 18 October 2010 l 24 Energy needs and uses answer true T False F or not clear N to the following statements explaining in 2 3 sentences FOR POWER IN THE US A Wind energy is increasing more rapidly than BioFuels in the US Explain Figure 57 Biomass Consumption by Sector 24 Industrial 18 1 2 Residential Quadn llion Btu Commercial 06 Electric Power Transportation 0lto39lquotquot39quotquotlquotquotquotquot39lquot39 39I39 39 quot39Iquotquotquotquot39lquotquotquotquot 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Through 1988 electric utilities am after 1988 also includes independentpowerprodroers B Coal generation of electricity is increasing faster than nuclear generation Explain Figure 44 Major Sources of Total Electricity Net Generation 24 2 3 18 Coal g 1 2 Nuclear 39 x Petroleum and 5 Natural Gas Poer g 06 I 0 0 H droelectric Power 1 950 1 960 1 970 1 980 1 990 2000 C Coal and Natural gas sources of energy are comparable Explain Petroleum Hydroelectric power Natural Gas Nuclear Electric Power Name D Crude oil production from US sources contributes less than nuclear sources to our energy needs F Explain I A M r 7 Renewable Energy3 732 Name 2 24 Over the last century many changes have occurred in our use of Petroleum Answer the following questions as to the changes that have occurred A In 1910 how much of the Petroleum was used for what purpose Explain 1015 of PETROLEUM was used primarily for lighting needs kerosene The product was created by simple distillation of the crude petroleum B In the 1930 40s what processes were developed to increase our use of Petroleum to what fraction of the oil Explain Catalytic cracking was developed by Houdry in 1937 which increased our petroleum usage to 50 This process cut the larger petroleum to smaller molecules in the diesel range C In the 1950 s what changes occurred in our petroleum needs what technology was developed and what fraction was then transformed Explain Platforming was implemented in the 1950 s Invented by former UMASS ChE professor V Haensel while at UOP This increased to octane of the gasoline fraction and thus enabled higher compression ratio engines the mussel cars Zeolite cracking catalysts were eventually discovered raising the yield from petroleum to over 80 D What developments in petroleum processing needs and conversion efficiency occurred at the end of the last century l980 90 s Explain Hydrotreating was developed to remove residual sulfur and nitrogen from the increasingly sour feed stocks Catalytic converters became universal and the sulfur needed to be removed as they poisoned the catalysts Tetraethyl lead was phased out as an octane booster Name 3 16 What is the difference and potential advantage for a high pressure water reactor compared to a Boiling Water Nuclear reactor Explain The high pressure reactor system has two potential advantages Firstly the high pressure reactor operates at higher temperatures Which increases the thermodynamic efficiency of the primary process Secondly heat exchange from the recycled steam from the primary cooling is higher in temperature such that a secondary Rankine cycle can be run extracting additional energy for electricity generation 4 5 Professor Huber today cited World Energy usage as 10 terra watt hoursyear How many BTU syear is this From your notes 1000 kWh 341 Million BTU Thus 1 kWh 341 X 103 BTUgt 1Wh341 BTU 10 terra watt hoursyear 341 terra BTUyear 341 x 1012 BTUyear Name 440 The Stirling power cycle or refrigeration if run in reverse comprises the following four steps A l gt2 The uid is reversibly compressed isothermally at a low temperature TL B 2 3 Heat is added at constant volume which raises the temperature to TH C 3 gt4 The uid is expanded reversibly and isothermally at a high temperature TH D 4 gtl Heat is ejected removed as the uid is cooled to TL Evaluate the cycle efficiency ZW Qin for the Sterling cycle and compare this to a Carnot cycle between the same two temperatures Recall that AH is CpAT and that ZQZW 0 for a cycle 7 WnetQH 1QCQH1TCTHTHTCTH QCQH39TCTH IWI QHQC1m1L nQH TH The same efficiency as found for a Carnot cycle2002 Efficiency 1200273500273 383 Note K not 0C Draw the Stirling cycle that commences at 200 C with a compression in step A from 02 MPa to 2MPa l gt2 followed by heating 2 gt3 to 500 C at constant volume on the attached PH diagram Extra Credit Evaluate the efficiency of this process based on the data from the PH graph and compare it to the ideal relationship for a Carnot Cycle From the P H diagram 38602860 34502820 3860286037