Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide PSYC 361 - 01
Cal State Fullerton
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PSYC 361 - 01
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This 8 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to PSYC 361 - 01 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Lisa Weisman-Davlantes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Marisol Murillo Psych. 361 – Exam #2 Review Please do not copy and paste portions of this study guide. Ch. 5 : 1. Assimilation vs. accommodation a. Assimilation: using current schemes to interpret the external world i. Ex: comfortable ideas b. Accommodation: Adjusting old schemes or creating new ones to better fit environment 2. Piaget’s sensorimotor stage: ages and major accomplishments a. Birth to 2 years i. Problem solving, anticipate events ii. Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration iii. Object performance 3. Definitions: circular reaction, object permanence a. Circular reactions à building schemes by repeating chance events caused by baby’s own activity i. Ex: Accidentally banging hand on high chair à makes noise àgets adult attention à more banging on the chair b. Object Performance (8 months and on) à ability to find hidden object, demonstrates understanding that objects still exist when they are out of sight 4. Main ideas of core knowledge perspective a. Evolutionary perspective à Infants have innate, special-purpose knowledge systems b. Core domains (physical, numerical, linguistic) prepare us to rapidly develop key aspects of cognition c. Each domain develops independently depending on experience 5. Information processing (IP) – main goals and ideas: central executive, executive function, automatic processes a. Main goal: Uncovering mechanisms of change, hoe we detect, transform, store, access and modify info b. Studies internal and external influences c. Mind is a complex symbol-manipulating system d. Focus on what people of different ages do when faced with a task or problem e. Attempts to record exact series of steps we go through when problem solving or completing a task f. Studies increases in capacity à memory, processing speed and strategy use 6. Vygotsky: zone of proximal development, learning from others a. Complex mental abilities develop through joint activities w/ more mature members b. Zone of proximal development: tasks too difficult for child to do alone but possible with help c. Kids gain mastery of self à behavior, thoughts, feelings, environment/social skills 7. Bayley Scales and other infant IQ tests: uses, what they measure a. Bayley Scale i. Used for screening ii. Predicts later intelligence poorly b. Emphasize perceptual and motor responses c. New tests tap into early language, cognition and social behavior 8. Language Development: Chomsky (Nativist) vs. Interactionist perspectives a. Nativist: i. Language Acquisition Device ii. Contains universal grammar iii. Infants biologically prepared to learn language b. Interactionist: i. Interaction between inner capacities and environmental influences ii. Social-interactionist view emphasizes social skills and language experiences 9. Language milestones: Cooing, babbling, joint attention, underextension, overextension, telegraphic speech a. Around 2 months à cooing b. Around 6 months à Babbling c. Around 11 monthsà Joint attention d. 12-18 months old à Underextension e. 12-30 months à Overextension f. 1.5-2.5 years à telegraphic speech 10. Characteristics/examples of infant-directed speech a. Short sentences with high pitched b. Exaggerated expression c. Clear pronunciation d. Distinct pauses between speech segments e. Repetition of new words in a variety on contexts Ch. 7 : 1. Piaget’s preoperational stage: ages and major accomplishments a. Ages 2-7 b. Gains in mental representation à make-believe play and deferred imitation c. Problem solving d. Social and coping skills e. Empathy f. Reasoning g. Creativity and imagination 2. Piaget: development of make-believe play and benefits of such a. Real life situations and objects (up to age 2) i. Centered on self 1. Ex: Replaying Dr. visit, using toy phone as real phone b. Objects used as symbols (ages 2-4) i. Centered on others 1. Ex: Child as doctor helping others, block used as a phone c. Understand real vs. Make believe play i. Make believe detaches from real life conditions ii. Becomes less self centered iii. Becomes more complex 3. Definitions of: egocentrism, animistic thinking, magical thinking a. Egocentrism: Focus on one’s own views/needs, ignores others i. Self as center of the universe b. Animistic Thinking: Belief that inanimate objects have life like qualities (feelings and thoughts) c. Magical Thinking: Belief that thinking about something will make it come true 4. Vygotsky: ideas about importance of make-believe play, private speech, scaffolding a. Make Believe Play i. Strengthens our ability to think before acting= impulse control à understanding social norms, culture ii. The more adults participate in MB play, the more elaborate and varied play themes become b. Private Speech i. Seen as a foundation for all higher cognitive processes 1. Helps with organization and planning c. Scaffolding i. In zone of proximal development, assisting child with difficult tasks until mastered 5. Metacognition: definition and example a. Thinking about thought, set of ideas about mental activities i. Using metaphors 1. Plant man 2. Fire engine in my tummy 6. Emergent literacy; examples a. Efforts to figure out how written symbols convey meaning i. Recognize familiar signs such as pizza 7. Language development: a. fast-mapping: connecting new words with ideas after brief exposure b. over regularization: learning to use correct grammar/structure c. recasts: restructuring inaccurate speech to correct form d. expansions: elaborating on children’s speech Ch. 8: 1. Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt a. Initiative i. New sense of purposefulness ii. Eagerness to try new tasks, join activities iii. Play permits trying out new skills iv. Strides in conscience development b. Guilt i. Overly strict superego, or conscience, causing too much guilt ii. Less make believe play iii. Related to parental threats, criticism, punishment 2. Self-concept: definition and characteristics – observable characteristics, emotions/attitudes, ideal vs. real self a. Set of attributes, abilities and values that we believe define who we are b. Consist of: i. Observable characteristics 1. Appearance, possessions, behavior ii. Typical emotions and attitudes iii. Ideal vs. real self 3. Difference between self-esteem and self-concept a. Judgments we make about our own worth, along with associated feelings vs. Set of attributes, abilities and values that we believe define who we are 4. Emotional development: understanding emotion, self-regulation; how parents help and hinder these areas of growth a. Children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions and can predict what a person expressing a certain emotion might do next b. Self regulation: strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals c. Parents help by i. Arranging informal play dates ii. Attachments iii. Parent-child conversations 5. Sympathy vs. empathy a. Feeling of concern or sorrow for another’s problems vs. feeling the same or similar motions as another 6. Moral Development: definition, characteristics, 3 components a. Conformity to rules of right conduct b. Evaluation of good vs. bad c. Empathy for others d. Sharing, cooperation with others e. Emotional, cognitive, behavioral 7. **Psychoanalytic Theory– Freud; inductive discipline/parenting a. Moral development based on emotional component b. Teaching child how his/her behavior affects others i. Teaches how to behave ii. Helps development empathy iii. Teaches reasons to keep or change behavior iv. Encourages commitment to moral standards 8. **Social Learning Theory – Skinner and Bandura; operant conditioning, modeling, punishment a. Moral development based on behavior b. Operant conditioning- reward good behavior and punish bad behavior c. Modeling- imitate others as role models d. Effective punishment includes limit-setting and a way to make amends for poor behavior 9. **Cognitive-Developmental Theory – Piaget and Kohlberg a. Moral development based on cognitive component b. Actively think about social rules, moral imperatives, social conventions, personal choice 10. Types of aggression and gender differences a. Physical: harms others through physical injury i. Pushing, hitting, kicking, or punching others or destroying another’s property b. Verbal: Harms others through threats of physical aggression, name calling or hostile teasing c. Relational: Damages another’s peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip or friendship manipulation d. Boys are more physically aggressive than boys 11. Gender typing a. Refers to any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes 12. Theories of gender identity: social learning, cognitive-developmental, gender schema a. Social learning: emphasis on modeling and reinforcement b. Cognitive development: focus on children as active thinkers about their social world, offer contemporary explanations of children’s gender typing c. Gender schema: information processing approach that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features i. Explains how environmental pressures and children’s cognitions work together to shape gender-role development 13. Gender constancy a. Full understanding of the biologically based performance of their gender i. realization that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle and play activities change 14. Child abuse: types, perpetrators, types of kids at risk for abuse a. Types i. Physical abuse ii. Sexual Abuse iii. Neglect iv. Emotional b. Perpetrators à Parents (80%) and other relatives (7%) c. Types of kids at risk i. Children with characteristics that make them more challenging to rear ii. Isolates from both formal and informal social supports iii. Likely to live in unstable, rundown neighborhoods iv. Cultural values, laws, and customs profoundly affect the chances that child maltreatment will occur when parents feel overburdened Ch. 9 : 1. Childhood obesity a. Health risks i. High blood pressure, cholesterol ii. Respiratory problems iii. Insulin resistance b. Causes i. Overweight parents ii. Low socioeconomic status iii. Parental feeding practices 1. Overfeeding 2. Overly controlling iv. Insufficient sleep v. Low physical sleep vi. Low physical activity vii. Television viii. Eating out 2. Piaget’s concrete operational stage: ages and major accomplishments a. 7-11 years b. Major cognitive development c. More adult-like thought d. Full understanding of conversation, classification e. Seriation: arranging items by length, weight size, physically and mentally 3. Gains in information processing: memory capacity, processing speed a. Improved working memory function b. Attention is selective, adaptable 4. Cognitive self-regulation and how adults can assist a. Process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts b. Parents assist by: i. Pointing out important features of the task and suggested strategies 1. Provides rational for future action 5. ADHD: population, symptoms a. Involved inattention, impulsivity and excessive motor activity resulting in academic and social problems b. 3-7% of the population 6. Purpose of the Wechsler and Stanford-Binet tests a. Identify high intelligence as well as learning problems 7. Intelligence theories of Sternberg and Gardner a. Sternberg i. Intelligence is IP skills, prior experience, culture ii. Analytical à strategies, self regulation iii. Creative à Problem solving iv. Practical à adaption, application of skills b. Gardner i. 8 Independent intelligences 1. Language, logic/math, musical, spatial, naturalist, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal 8. Reducing cultural bias in testing; dynamic assessment a. Ethnic differences are largely environmental b. Combine test scores with assessment of adaptive behavior c. Dynamic Assessment à teacher’s help students use test strategies 9. Benefits of bilingual education a. Children are involved in learning b. Acquire second language more easily