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Chapter Notes

by: Kaitlyn Robinson

Chapter Notes BSC 117

Kaitlyn Robinson
Biology II
Dr. Ward

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About this Document

An outline of Chapter 49 I made for an exam
Biology II
Dr. Ward
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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This 4 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Kaitlyn Robinson on Tuesday January 6, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to BSC 117 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Ward in Spring2013. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 01/06/15
Chapter 49 The Nervous System Different animal taxa have variously developed nervous systems A Cnidarians have a series of interconnected nerves that form a B C Peripheral Nervous System PNS A nerve net which controls contraction and expansion of the gastrovascular cavity In more complex animals the axons of multiple nerve cells are often bundled together forming nerves These brous structures channel and organize information ow along speci c routes through the nervous system Vertebrates have a Central Nervous System CNS and a The brain and nerve cords running the body length form the CNS a Protostomes have ventral nerve cords b Deuterostomes have dorsal nerve cords ii Ganglia cell bodies and nerves comprise the PNS Vertebrate Central Nervous System The brain provides the integrative power that underlies to complex behavior of vertebrates The brain processes all behavior The spinal cord runs lengthwise inside the vertebral column spine conveys information to and from the brain and generates basic patterns of locomotion The spinal cord also acts independently of the brain as part of the simple nerve circuits that produce re exes Re exes are the body39s automatic response to certain stimuli The brain and the spinal cord are made up of gray matter consists of neuron cell bodies dendrites and unmyelinated axons and white matter bundled axons with myelin sheaths i White matter is predominately on the inside of the brain and the outside of the spinal cord Both are derived from a quothollow dorsal nerve cord i Forms the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles for the brain Both are lled with cerebrospinal uid which is ltered from blood a The uid supplies different parts of the brain with nutrients and hormones it carries away wastes and it cushions the brain and spinal cord by circulating between layers of connective tissue that surround the central nervous system b Glial cells create a blood brain barrier that restricts the passage of most substances into the CNS Ill Vertebrate Peripheral Nervous System A Cranial nerves connect the brain with other organs mostly in the head B Spinal nerves connect the spinal cord and the rest of the body C Afferent neurons bring information to the CNS i The senses D Efferent neurons carry information from CNS i The motor system the neurons that carry signals to skeletal muscles mainly in response to external stimuli ii Autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment by controlling smooth and cardiac muscles of the digestive cardiovascular excretory and endocrine systems a Sympathetic division quot ght or ightquot b Parasympathetic division rest and digest c Enteric division digestion IV Parts of the Brain A The Brainstem i The brain stem functions in homeostasis coordination of movement and conduction of information to and from higher brain centers a The adult brainstem consists of the midbrain the pons and the medulla oblongata b Information transfer from PNS to various brain centers 1 Sensory and motor axons pass through medulla and pons 2 In medulla axons cross to opposite side of CNS ii The brainstem controls arousal and sleep a Reticular formation regulator acts as a sensory lter in the cerebral cortex the more information it receives the more alert a person is b Pons and Medulla cause sleep when stimulated c Midbrain has a center that causes arousal B The Cerebellum i Develops from the hindbrain ii Coordinates muscle and balance receives sensory information about joint position and muscle length as well as input from the auditory and visual systems and it monitors commands issued by the cerebrum a Information from the cerebrum passes rst to the Pons and then to the cerebellum b Cerebellum integrates sensory and motor information and coordinates motor and perceptual funcuons C The Diencephalon Develops from the forebrain Thalamus the main input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum Hypothalamus maintains control of homeostasis a Contains the body39s thermostat as well as centers for hunger and thirst b Controls circadian rhythm D The Cerebrum V Divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres which receive information from the opposite sides The corpus callosum enables communication between the left and right cerebral cortices Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex has 4 lobes frontal parietal occipital temporal Lateraization the two hemispheres have different functions a Left does math and logic b Right does spatial patterns and non verbal thinking Cerebral cortex controls emotion and personality E Cranial Nerves vi vii viii Olfactory sensory nerves for smell Optic sensory only for vision Oculomotor motor to the extrinsic and intrinsic eye muscles except superior oblique and lateral rectus Trochlear controls the superior oblique muscle of the eye Trigeminal Sometimes called the great sensory nerve of the face this is the largest of the cranial nerves It has three branches the ophthalmic maxillary and mandibular From these it receives sensations of a conscious nature and controls the muscles for chewing Abducens Its name says what this nerve effects abduction of the eye It controls the lateral rectus muscle Facial The chief motor nerve of the face to muscles of facial expression and parasympathetic to lacrimal and salivary glands Sensory for taste from the anterior two thirds of tongue Acoustic or Auditory this is the nerve bringing stimuli from the inner ear for perception of hearing and balance Glossopharyngeal Motor to the muscles for swallowing and parasympathetic to the parotid gland Sensory from taste buds on the posterior tongue and other areas as well as other conscious sensations It is also important in the xi xii sensory pathways for control of blood pressure and respiration Vagus The parasympathetic nerve to the viscera Its bers send stimuli to the heart stomach intestines bronchi and virtually every other parasympathetic effector between the head and the pelvis The vagus also provides sensory input for cardiac and respiration But the muscles of respiration are voluntary and respiration itself is NOT an autonomic func on Spinal Accessory Runs together with spinal nerves to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles Hypoglossal Motor to the muscles of swallowing


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