HD205NotesTEST1.pdf HD 205
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This 7 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Kaitlyn Robinson on Tuesday January 6, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to HD 205 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Burns-Nader in Spring2013. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/06/15
HD 205 Notes Test 1 Chapter One I Behaviorism amp Social Learning Theory A Classical Conditioning 1 A stimulus causing a response 2 Watson and the Little Albert Experiment B Operant Conditioning 1 Reinforcement a ALWAYS increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur b Two types i Positive Reinforcement a Introduction of a stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will happen again b Example treats or praise ii Negative Reinforcement a Removal of a negative or aversive condition that increases likelihood that a behavior will occun b Example putting on your seatbelt in the car makes the beeping stop therefore you are more likely in the future to buckle up to stop the noise 2 Punishment a ALWAYS decreases the likelihood that the behavior will occun b Examples scolding giving extra chores or taking away of privileges C Social Cognitive Approach 1 Albert Bandura s Social Learning Theory a The Bobo Doll Experiment 2 Piaget39s Cognitive Developmental Theory a Sensorimotor Stage 02 years old i Child relates to the world through their senses and motor skills ii Child begins to develop object permanence at the end of this stage a Object permanence is the understanding that things still exist even when you cannot physically sense them ill Child begins to understand symbols at the end of this stage a Example C AT means the 4legged furry animal b Pretend play b Preoperational Stage 27 years old i Child is egocentric ii Child starts to think in symbols iii Difficulty understanding logical concepts YouTube video a Concrete Operational Stage 711 years old i Child starts to think logically ii Understands the liquid displacement experiment a Formal Operational Stage 11 years old and up i Child starts to think in abstract terms ii Child becomes interested in broad social issues that go beyond logic and what can be seen Politics religion etc 3 Information Processing Theory a Think of a computer i Encoding Information is sensed perceived and attended ii Storage The information is stored for either a brief short term memory or extended period of time long term memory depending upon the processes following encoding iii Retrieval The information is found at the appropriate time and reactivated for use on a current task the true test of effective memory 4 Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory a Cultural and Social Interaction 5 Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Theory a Microsystem consists of activities and interactions in the immediate environment b Mesosystem consists of connections between microsystems such as home school neighborhood c Exosystem consists of social settings that do not contain the child but in uence the child d Macrosystem consists of laws customs and values 6 Dynamic Systems Theory a A change in a person39s environment disrupts other aspects of their world domino effect ll Studying the Child A Scienti c Research 1 Hypothesis 2 Research methods and designs B Systematic Observation 1 Naturalistic Observations in the natural environment 2 Systematic Observations in a laboratory setting C Sef reports 1 Clinical Interview b Pros Flexible changes to t the participant c Cons May not be accurate 2 Structured Interview a Pros Each participant is questioned the same way b Cons Not as in depth D Case Study 1 Pros Wide range of information can study unique types 2 Cons May be subjective E Ethnography 1 Living with a group and understanding through participant observation F Correlational Studies 1 Studies that compare participants to determine whether the variables are related to one another 2 Correlational Coef cient R a Ranges between 10 and 10 b 1 indicates a perfect relationship 3 Positive Correlation a As one variable goes up so does the other 4 Negative Correlation a As one variable goes up the other goes down Pros Generalizes well may have direct application to real life Cons Does not prove cause and effect G Experimental Studies 1 Studies in which the experimenter manipulates the environment Control Group Group that isn39t changed no experimental Experimental Group Group that is changed experimental Experimental studies must have a Random Sampling children are assigned to experimentalcontrol group at random b Large Sample Size at least 20 children 10 in each group 5 Independent Variable 6 Dependent Variable 7 Pros Can make statements about cause and effect may generalize to other children 8 Cons Arti cial setting may cause children to act different from normal H Measuring Change Over Time 1 Cross Sectional Design OWU1 lgtUU a Study different age groups at the same point in time and the results from each age group are compared 2 Longitudinal Design a The same individuals are studied over time at different points in time to study developmental changes 3 Cohort Sequential Design a The same children are tested at several points in time but new participants are added at each time Children39s Research Rights Protection from harm Informed consent Pnvacy Knowledge of results Bene cial treatments U39gtUU 39 Chapter Eight Physical Development in Early Childhood I Body Growth A Body growth slows 1 More streamlined B Skeletal growth continues 1 New growth centers emerge ll Brain Development A Signi cant brain growth between ages 2 and 6 90 of adult B size Cognitive skills increase 1 Coordination perception attention memory etc 2 Control of emotions Increase in synaptic connections Frontal lobe develops 1 Planning and organization Left Hemisphere is active during this time 1 Left hemisphere develops faster than right hemisphere a Left hemisphere language b Right hemisphere special recognition 2 Hand preference handedness begins to develop a Shown as early as age 1 but early damage to left hemisphere can change handedness b Affected by position in the uterus culture and practice Cross section of the human brain 1 Cerebellum balance and movement control 2 Reticular formation alertness and consciousness 3 Hippocampus memory and spatial awareness 4 Amygdala processes emotional information 5 Corpus calosum connects the two cerebral hemispheres Ill In uences on Physical Growth and Health A Environmental In uences on Development 1 Lead is a highly toxic element and exposure to it is linked to lower Qs and behavioral problems B Heredity and Hormones 1 Size and growth related to parents 2 Genes in uence the pituitary gland to release two hormones a Growth Hormone GH that triggers cells to duplicate and cause growth b Thyroid stimulating Hormone TSH prompts the release of thyroxin which is necessary for brain growth and development C Emotional well being 1 Children in stressful and emotionally insecure environments are impacted physically 2 Psychosocial Dwar sm a Growth disorder that affects children ages of 215 b Caused by extreme emotional deprivation c Characterized decreased GH short stature immature skeletal age and serious adjustment problems D Sleep 1 Sleep is needed for body growth because GH is released during sleep 2 Also contributes to cognitive performance a Lack of sleep affects the brains ability to form neural connections while asleep b Impact of lost sleep is more prominent in low SES poorer families because those children are typically less stimulated while awake 3 Children39s poor sleeping habits also affect the parent39s sleep and functioning 4 Cosleeping sleeping with child napping and sleep routines differ depending on ethnicity E Nutrition 1 Appetite is more unpredictable but they do prefer familiar foods 2 Social environment in uences food choices a lmitate admired people b Repeated exposure to the same foods c Parental pressure 1 Restriction of certain foods increases the desire to have them 3939If you don39t eat your vegetables you can39t have dessert d Poverty 3 Children who have a nutrient de cient diet have more attention difficulties lower IQ scores and behavioral problems 4 Nutritionally rich diets include a b Iron prevents anemia Vitamin C facilitates iron absorption and wound heaHng c Calcium strengthens bones and teeth d Zinc immune system neural connections and cell dupHcaUon 1 Children in third world countries that don39t have access to clean water take zinc supplements e Vitamin A eyes skin and internal organs F Infectious diseases 1 Poor diet can suppress children39s immune system and make them more susceptible to disease 2 Childhood diseases have declined over the past half century 3 About 20 of American infants and toddlers are not fully immunized G Childhood injuries 1 Boys are about 15 times more likely to be injured than girls and their injuries are usually more severe 2 Temperament affects the numberseverity of childhood injuries 3 Poverty single parenthood and lower parental education all increase the risk of injury 4 Laws can prevent many injuries safety seats child proof caps etc IV Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood A Gross motor skills bigger muscles 1 Walking running 2 Catching throwing swinging riding B Fine motor skills smaller muscles 1 Self help dressing eating 2 Drawing a Scribble with varied pencil grips during 2 39 year b Representational forms Label already made drawings at age 3 ii Can draw boundaries and people at 34 years iii Tadpole images c Start to quotdraw words around age 4 d More realistic drawings preschool to school age e Early printing writing ages 46 Begin to realize that writing stands for language identify individual letters ii Adult pencil grip by age 5 C Individual Differences in Motor Skills 1 Body build a Taller and more muscular bodies move quicker and acquire skills faster 2 Gender Differences a Boys are better at power and force b Girls have better ne motor skills balance foot movements etc c Social pressures help channel activities boys in football girls in ballet D Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development 1 Mastered through every day play a Formal lessons have little impact b Preschoolers should have at least 60 minutes of unstructured play every day 2 Daily routines support ne motor development washing hands eating with a spoon etc 3 Provide age appropriate play space and equipment 4 Promote fun and positive attitude
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