Pests, insects, rodents, pesticides, pathogens and food safety, chemicals and food safety, ionizing radiation, nonionizing radiation, noise pollution, ambient air pollution, indoor air quality
Pests, insects, rodents, pesticides, pathogens and food safety, chemicals and food safety, ionizing radiation, nonionizing radiation, noise pollution, ambient air pollution, indoor air quality PUH 220
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Lecture 11 Ancient writings of the Chinese Egyptian and Hebrew have recorded the fact the pests have plagued human kind from the beginning of history The efforts to rid of them also existed through use of chalk plant extracts mercury arsenic lead and other compounds but they were ineffective Recent pesticides are detrimental to public health Define Pest Can be any species of plant animal or microorganism that threatens human interest EX Arthropods and rodents most unwelcome pest in PH perspective 1 A loss of resources such as agricultural crops food and property damage and damage to lawns and gardens 2 Agents of disease 3 Sources of annoyance and discomfort Define Zoonosis an infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from animals to humans Ex 6 out of 10 infectious disease in humans are spread from animals Methods of transmission 1 Contact with the skin 2 A bite or scratch from an animal 3 Direct inhalation or ingestion 4 The bite of an arthropod vector Define Vector an insect or any living carrier that transports an infectious agent from an infected individual or its wastes to a susceptible individual or its food or immediate surroundings EX rodents rats and mice as well as insects mosquitoes ticks ies lice Arthropodborne Vectorborne Known as arboviral disease Malaria plague lyme disease rocky mountain spotted fever Most frequently acquired when bloodfeeding arthropod vectors infect a human host happens when warm they re usually active EX Ticks sand ies mosquitoes What are the vectorborne diseases What are the direct costs include those for treatment and prevention of the disease Malaria 1 Medicine 2 Hospitalization 3 Pesticide use Some malaria facts 0 Found in more than 100 countries 0 40 of the world s population at risk 0 Endemic regions Central South America Africa India Southeast Asia the Middle East and Oceania 0 Annual death toll over 1mi11ionyear 0 Annual contraction 250 millionyear 0 This disease is responsible for half the deaths of humans who ever lived What are some impacts of Malaria on US history 1946 created Communicable Disease Center Now known as Centers for Disease Control their first major task was to rid of malaria by 1 Liberal use of DDT 2 Drained swampland esp in deep south 3 Education about protection 4 Screens on windows and screen doors Malaria transmission transmitted by mosquitoes that carry a unicellular parasite known as a plasmodium 1 Plasmodium falciparum most deadly 2 Plasmodium Vivax 3 Plasmodium ovale ssp curtisi and wallikeri 4 Plasmodium malariae 5 Plasmodium knowlesi Transmission involves the complex life cycle of mosquitoes the vector and human hosts with human liver and human blood stages Remember West Nile Virus mosquitoborne disease Dengue Fever Aedes egypti and Aedes albopitcus mosquito is the vector Plague black death transmitted by eas harbored by rodents infectious agent bacteriumYersinia pestis Lyme disease ticks deer ticks bite human beings Rocky mountain spotted fever MOST LETHAL MOST COMMONLY REPORTED rickettsial disease in the US Bedbugs carry up to 28 human pathogens but no evidence of transmission Cockroaches exposure to cockroach antigen is an important risk factor for developing asthma Rats carrier of insects Mice their droppings can carry organisms that cause food poisoning and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hantvirus Pulmonary Syndrome HPS commonly transmitted when aerosolized urine and droppings from infected rodents are inhaled Lecture 12 Define Pesticide Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing destroying repelling or mitigating pests Ex Insects rodents weeds host of unwanted organisms What are the 4 pesticide classes Explain each 1 Insecticide A pesticide compound specifically used to kill or prevent the growth of insects 2 Herbicide A chemical pesticide designed to control or destroy plants weeds or grasses Fungicide A pesticide that is used to control deter or destroy fungi 4 Rodenticide A chemical or agent used to destroy rats or other rodent pests or to prevent them from damaging food crops etc 9 How are humans mainly exposed to pesticide 1 Contaminated drinking water Eating foods contaminated with pesticides Pesticide use in the home garden or lawn Exposure on transcontinental ights Use in agriculture consumption and drift In the production of pesticides 99 Why are children at increased risk of exposure 1 Prenatal maternal exposure Food and water sources Presence in agricultural fields with parents or working the fields themselves Contact with residues on parents clothing Exposure to common household pesticides while in the home accidental poisoning 9593 What about less developed countries exposures Reasons for higher incidence of exposures U PP Pi No protective clothing when applying pesticides Workers may be in the field during pesticide spraying Pesticide containers are often recycled to store food milk or cooking oil Pesticides products are labeled in languages not readable to the native populations Pesticides used in LDCs are banned or severely restricted in the developed countries What are the human health effects of DDT 1 Meww Cancer pancreatic breast nonHodgkin s lymphoma Impaired neurologic function irritability dizziness numbness Reproductive effects Impaired lactation Falling sperm counts Facts about DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane It is an example of an Organochlorine pesticide of which most were suspended by EPA 1970s formerly employed worldwide widespread use began during the early 1940s and reached a maximum during the 1960s 675000 tons used in the US alone used to control insects and harmful mosquitoes that carry malaria miracle pesticide was credited at one time with saving millions of people from death due to malaria concentrates in adipose fatty tissues of the body estimated halflife of approximately 10 years all living organisms on earth contain some of this pesticide a persistent organic pollutant POP carboncontaining chemical compounds that resist photochemical biological and chemical degradation due to concerns about the possible adverse effects upon the health of humans and wildlife application of DDT was prohibited in 1972 in the US most developed nations banned the use of DDT however some countries still continue to use 1t Lecture 13 and 14 What are the economic consequences welfare effects due to foodborne diseases PP P Medical Costs Loss of Wages Recalls Investigative costs Litigation expenses Foodborne illness Definition any illness incurred from the consumption of contaminated food Often occur in outbreak 2 or more people contaminated it spreads to everyone if it comes from one source Causes microorganisms chemicals or physical agents microscopic organisms such as bacteria viruses and parasites that pose an invisible challenge to food safety Pathogenic bacteria can cause illness when they or their toxins are consumed with food bacterial contamination may occur in a b C 01 raw food or cooked food that is not properly handled on the surfaces of equipment and utensils that have been contaminated by raw animal foods humans or pests such as insects and rodents in addition certain food products require time and temperature control to limit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and toxin formation Potentiallv hazardous foods Sporeforming bacteria foodborne illness Spores are inactive or dormant forms of bacterial cells that enable the organism to survive when its environment is too hot cold dry or acidic or when there is not enough food Bacteria that survive as spores can avoid being killed by typical measures taken against them such as heating and multiply in more active forms on the food that humans consume a b Clostridium perfringens diarrhea and cramps 0 3rd most common cause of foodborne illness in the US and UK 0 Enterotoxin is heatlabile destroyed gt74 degrees C 0 Spores withstand cooking so cooked food that is not consumed shortly after cooking can grow new colonies 0 Most people have developed antibodies to the toxin so most people have been infected with this bacteria Clostridium botulinum botulism 0 Spores germinate anaerobically in improperly preserved or homecanned lowacid food 0 Neurotoxins types AG A B E amp F toxic to humans 0 Muscle weakness in face spreads to body respiration is impaired coma and death Fallen from 50 to 8 mortality in last 50 years Non Sporeforming bacteria foodborne illness Exist only as vegetative cells and do not form spores Easily destroyed by heat cooking and pasteurization a Shiga Toxin Producing E coli dysentry 0 Severe diarrhea With mucus and blood present b Listeria monocytogenes listeriosis 0 2500 illness and 500 deaths annually in the US 0 Leading cause of death among bacterial foodborne pathogens c Salmonella spp 0 Chicken eggs 142000 illness and 30 deaths annually in US d Staphylococcus aureus staphylococcal food poisoning 0 Toxic shock syndrome MRSA Viruscaused food borne illnesses a Hepatitis A 0 Transmitted via the fecaloral route 0 Contamination occur by infected food workers handling foodstuffs or from food products that have come in contact With water polluted With fecal matter 0 Causes liver infection occasionally accompanied by jaundice b Norwalk like Virus Noroviruses 0 The leading cause of reported foodborne illness in the US 0 Creams cream fillings and salads are efficient vehicles no extensive heating before being served 0 Also spread by handtomouth after touching a contaminated surface 0 Symptoms include diarrhea and nausea 0 Example events Baltimorebased cruise ship Parasitecaused food borne illnesses Parasite small creatures that live in or on a living host a Anisakis spp are roundworms found in some species of fish 0 Humans are exposed to this parasite When they eat parasiteinfested fish 0 Cooking above 60 degrees C kills the parasite as does freezing 0 Common Where fish is eaten raw pickled or salted 0 symptoms include coughing if worms attach in the throat vomiting and abdominal pain if worms attach in the stomach and sharp pain and fever if worms attach in the large intestine 0 Toxins not destroyed by cooking allergic reactions occupational allergy including asthma conjunctivitis and contact dermatitis in some fish processing workers 2 harmful substances that can cause illness if ingested With food Example Lead Mercury Ironically man is responsible for many chemical contaminants found in food 8090 of our exposure to potentially harmful chemicals is from food consumption Enter the food from packaging materials agricultural applications of pesticides and fertilizers by adding preservatives or colorings to foods or by the release of industrial chemicals into the environment Chemicalrelated foodbome hazards a Toxins discussed previous lecture 0 naturally occurring such as those from seafood and mushrooms may cause foodborne illness b Radionucides Radiation is introduced into the food chain naturally 0 From mineral deposits beneath the earth s surface Primordial radionuclides 0 From the atmosphere ie ultraviolet and cosmic rays Cosmogenic radionuclides Those deposited in the environment accidentally or intentionally 0 A direct result of human activity Manmade radionuclides 0 Are of much greater concern to public health c Heavy metals When present in high concentrations heavy metals can cause vomiting that occurs a few minutes to several hours but in most cases in less than one hour after ingestion Metal poisoning sources 0 Chicken may contain high levels of arsenic Which is used as an approved food supplement for chickens to control intestinal parasites 0 Shark swordfish king mackerel and tilefish may have levels of mercury that may be high enough to be harmful to developing human fetuses 0 Methyl mercury is an acute toxin Which causes tremors neurological complications kidney failure and birth defects Fungicides amp Minamata Bay Japan Minamata Bay Japan incident caused by the release of methylmercury in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso Corporation39s chemical factory continued from 1932 to 1968 Bioaccumulated in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea Cat dog pig and human deaths continued over more than 30 years As of March 2001 2265 victims had been officially recognized of which 1784 of whom had died Candy wrappers with lead plastic and paper wrappers printed with lead contaminated ink children may handle lick or chew the wrappers Candy wrappers available in Orange County stores Tested with lead levels of 5000 parts per million nearly 10 times regulatory limits for house paint as recently as 2009 Suspected as the cause of lead poisoning in a 4yearold San Bernardino boy registered 16000 ppm lead more than 25 times the 600 ppm guideline considered dangerous by the state Biomagnification is when there is mercury on the sea bed and then it gets to the fish and then it gets to the human that eats the fish mercury will be present in human from sea most concentrated in humans who consume d Pesticides herbicides and fungicides These chemicals are applied to crops to reduce the impact of insects and other hazards Pesticides may leave residues that remain on food crops Diet is the principal means of our exposure to persistent organic chemicals which include DDT and other organochlorine pesticides amp polychlorinated biphenyls Organochlorine compounds such as DDT and chlordane organophosphates such as parathion and malathion and inorganic compounds such as arsenics have all been applied to food as a pesticide Many of the chemicals banned from use in the US are sold to developing nations who use them extensively in producing crops for export to the American market e Chemicals released from industrial processes Polychlorinated biphenyls PCB s Persistent chlorinated compounds that were manufactured for use in capacitors transformers Entered the global ecosystem and have become widely distributed Humans ingest PCBs largely by eating fish Example Yusho disease a mass poisoning by PCBs which occurred in northern Japan in 1968 Rice bran oil produced by Kanemi Company in Kyushu became contaminated when heating elements leaked PCBs Contaminated oil sold to poultry farmers for use as a feed supplement and to consumers for use in cooking 0 Poultry were dying due to apparent difficulty in breathing altogether 400000 birds died 0 14000 people had symptoms and 5 deaths ocular swelling dermal rashes chloracne irregular menses depressed immune response reports of poor cognitive development in children Example Acrylamide processing based contaminant Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in animals Certain doses of acrylamide are toxic to the nervous system of both animals and humans Building block for watersoluble polymers used as additives for 0 Water treatment 0 Flocculants 0 Papermaking aids 0 Thickeners 0 Soil conditioning agents 0 Sewage and waste treatment 0 Ore processing and 0 Permanentpress fabrics f Veterinary medicines in meat antimicrobials Antimicrobials that are similar or identical to those used by humans are employed for disease prevention and growth enhancement among animals cattle swine poultry and fish USapproved antimicrobials given to food animals include 0 Amoxicillin penicillin bacitracin erythromycin 0 Used for over 50 years help prevent diseases in animals from being passed to humans The potential problems 0 Residues of antimicrobial agents may persist in meat that is destined for human consumption 0 Can lead to antimicrobial resistance in human consumers and in the animals 0 Unable to use therapeutic intervention to kill bacterial infections due to the development of drugresistant microbial bacterial strains A study 70 of hogs and 64 the workers on several farms in Iowa and Western Illinois had MRSA Drug resistant infections have skyrocketed over the past two decades killing 70000 Americans last year g Additives used for various purposes Additives are intentionally added to food to alter taste color texture nutritive value appearance and resistance to deterioration ie preservatives are considered to be the least hazardous source of foodborne illness Preservatives 0 The function of preservatives is to arrest the proliferation of microbes such as bacteria yeasts and molds in foods 0 Antioxidants prevent fatty foods from acquiring a rancid taste also prevent some foods from turning brown and reduce the loss of vitamins 0 Antimicrobial preservatives include nitrates e g sodium nitrate BHA and BHT EDTA sulfites proprionates and parabens Nitrates and Nitrites 0 Preservative coloring and avoring agent in processed meats bacon ham hotdogs 0 Prevent the growth of Clostridium spores 0 Nitrates can be reduced to nitrites which oxidize hemoglobin and cause anoxia 0 Nitrites react with amines to form nitrosamines Cancer of the liver kidney bladder stomach and pancreas of laboratory animals 0 FDA tried to ban in 1970 food lobbyists won Cheap makes old meat look fresh Flavoring 0 Monosodium Glutamate MSG Used as a avor enhancer Chinese Restaurant Syndrome causes Headaches and possible nausea 0 Epidemiologists say evidence is anecdotal No statistical association proven Toxicology studies shown to be harmless for most people even in large amounts 0 FDA made an allowable daily intake ADI of 120mgkg has been established for individuals over one year of age 3 foreign objects such as stones bone fragments from animals pieces of glass staples and jewelry which can get into food as a result of poor foodhandling practices Common food that spread illness 0 Poultry 0 Leafy greens 0 Beef 0 Dairy 0 Fruitsnuts etc Sources of illness Poisonous plants and animals Example Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Bivalve mollusks become toxic to humans when they feed on certain dino agellates in numbers greater than ZOOml of water Symptoms include a numbness tingling or burning sensation of the lips and gums nausea headache and paralysis of the diaphragm Sources of food contamination Air water soil food handlers ingredients etc CDC identified several factors of what caused the foodborne diseases outbreaks and acted upon prevention by focusing on areas for food safety programs Example Pathogens can be transferred to food by contaminated foodcontact surfaces Crosscontamination the transfer of pathogens from one food to another Via contaminated hands equipment or utensils Crosscontamination commonly occurs when readytoeat foods come into contact with raw animal foods or with surfaces that have had contact with these types of foods Raw foods of animal origin such as red meats poultry eggs fish and shellfish are frequently contaminated with microbial pathogens Proper cooking makes food more palatable and safer to eat Cooking can kill bacteria but does not usually destroy toxins present on food Example paralytic shellfish poisoning saxitoxin is heat and acid stable Keeping foods at improper holding temperatures permits the rapid growth of infectious and toxinproducing microorganisms This rapid growth typically occurs when food is held at temperatures between 41 F and 135 F temperature range is referred to as the food temperature danger zone Healthy people can be a source of the harmful microbes that cause foodborne illness How Soiled hands and clothing infected food workers and workers who do not practice good personal hygiene are major threats to food safety Food from unsafe sources may be contaminated with biological chemical and physical hazards safety and wholesomeness can be enhanced by purchasing foods from sources that are routinely inspected by regulatory agencies and that are in compliance with applicable food safety law Food security and international contamination Protecting the food supply against intentional attackdisruption 0 Factoryscale food pooling processing amp distribution gives significant potential for small numbers of individuals to tamper with food supply of large number of people 0 Agriterrorism biological or chemical attacks against food supply Small scale intentional attacks 0 Maine 2003 15 sickened 1 died when arsenic was added to coffee at a church 0 Canada 2000 27 ill coffee vending machine tampering 0 California 1999 gt100 ill nausea diarrhea cramps headache dizziness when salt was contaminated with pesticide methomyl 0 Tajikistan 1994 9 Russian soldiers killed by cyanidelaced champagne Large scale biological attacks Oregon September 1984 Cult led by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh grew Salmonella typhimurium and sprayed it onto salad bars in ten restaurants 0 gt750 sickened 0 Trial run to see if effective enough to sway upcoming election 0 At first PH officials attributed outbreak to natural cause 0 A year later Bhagwan claims responsibility 0 Key cult members eventually convicted Lecture 15 Radiation energy travelling through space Radiant energy 1 electromagnetic waves energies and wavelengths variation 2 accelerated atomic particles energy mass and charge variation 0 What was the most harmful radiation recognized in 1895 and why The Xray because it is associated with various health effects including cancer due to ionizing radiation Ever since the Xray numerous radiation types and their health effects were discovered and characterized Atom the basic unit of elements Consists of nucleus Protons and neutrons inside atom and electrons outside atom Ion An atom that is missing one or more electrons Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an unstable atom In result of the emission the radioactive atom is converted or decays into an atom of different element that might or might not be radioactive Ionizing radiation Energetic radiation that is capable of making ions from atoms Ionizing radiations are those forms of radiation that can deposit enough localized energy in living cells to break chemical bonds and give rise to ions and free radicals Short waves 1 Gamma 2 Xray 3 UV Long waves 1 Infrared 2 Microwaves 3 Radiowaves Natural ionizing radiation sources 1 primary cosmic rays originate from outerspace the earth s galaxy and the sun and interact with the earth s atmosphere to produce secondary cosmic rays cosmic rays have the ability to penetrate and cross the human body easily Uranium a common element in the earth s crust It ores uraninite and pitchblende are found in large amounts in North America Africa and Australia Nearly all plants animals and aquifers contain tiny amounts of uranium 3 Radon an inert colorless and extremely toxic gas produced by the decay of radium and uranium which are found universally in the earth s crust in varying amounts It is classified as a Class A carcinogen and causes long term adverse health effects source of exposure 30 4 Manmade ionizing radiation sources Xrays and other procedures used in medicine medical tests and therapies consumer products smoke detectors radioactive substances used in industry nuclear power generators accidents decommissioned or abandoned nuclear power plants and storage of wastes radioactivity e g radioactive fallout from the production and detonation primarily for testing purposes of nuclear weapons QMPPP Medical procedures use largest source of exposure 40 1 Xray machines 2 Nuclear medicine 3 Radiation therapy Exposure to radioactivity can be measured by 1 Duration how long you were exposed 2 Distance how far were you from the radioactive source 3 Degree what was the rate of energy emission from the radioactive source Dose amount of radiation Dose rate time span of the body receiving the dose of radiation more important than dose because how quickly your body absorbs it is important Genetic effects of radioactivity Any cell in the body may be altered by radiation However when the DNA is altered it can cause the number and structure of the chromosomes inside the nucleus The mutated gene can also be passed on to your offspring Genetic carcinogenic effects of radioactivity Tumors caused by radiation takes years to develop and show and they look like any other tumor until it looks really bad The carcinogenic effects of radiation resemble those of chemical carcinogens in being modifiable by hormones nutritional variables and other modifying factors Types of radiation effects are additive synergistic and mutually antagonistic depending on chemicals exposure conditions Somatic cell effects of radioactivity The exposure decreases a somatic cell s ability to survive and reproduce tissues may atrophy due to reduced capacity to perform cell functions for tissues Radiation accidents remain a significant cause of injury Possible acute effects of ionizing radiation on the more radiosensitive tissues of the body include skin rashes blistering ulceration bone marrow and lymphoid tissue hemorrhage depression of immune system intestine possible fatal dysenterylike syndrome gonads reduction of sperm count sterility respiratory tract in ammation respiratory failure lens of the eye opacity cataracts whole body radiation sickness chronic radiation sickness localized radiation injury skeletal and gland injuries How do we preventstop it 1 No activity involving ionizing radiation should be considered justifiable unless it produces a sufficient benefit to those who are exposed or to society at large to offset any harm it may cause The dose or likelihood of exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable ALARA Radiation exposure of individuals resulting from any combination of such activities should be subject to dose limits low enough to prevent harmful effects as much as possible AND facilities dealing with ionizing radiation must U PP N Be properly designed Carefully plan and oversee its operating procedures Maintain a careful radiation protection program Ensure workers are adequately trained and supervised Maintain a welldeveloped and wellrehearsed emergency preparedness plan Lecture 16 Nonionizing radiation Radiation that has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate but not enough to remove electrons Nonionizing radiation examples 3 bands of spectrum based on wavelength 0 UVA 315 to 440 nm or black light 0 UVB 280 to 315 nm most harmful to health 0 UVC 100 to 280 nm UVR confined to skin and eye injuries Sunlight main source of radiation for the public varies in intensity with 0 latitude 0 elevation 0 season Fair skinned people extremely vulnerable Can cause photoaging of skin increased pigmentation freckles retinal damage etc UVR protection includes staying out of sunlight from 114 using UVRscreening lotions protective clothing and UVRblocking sunglasses consists of electromagnetic waves ranging in wavelength from 400 nm violet to 800 nm red common high intensity sources other than the sun include 0 lasers 0 electric welding or carbon arcs 0 tungsten filament lamps Lights too bright can damage eyes but too little light can cause eyestrain and aggravate SAD seasonal affective disorder a kind of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year usually in the winter consists of electromagnetic waves ranging in wavelength from 7 X 105m to 3 X 102m Such radiation is emitted by all objects with temperatures above absolute zero but potentially hazardous Sources of IR include 0 molten glass and molten metal 0 furnaces and ovens 0 welding arcs 0 heating lamps Injuries caused by IR are mainly burns of the skin and cataracts of the lens of the eye consists of electromagnetic waves ranging in frequency from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz Sources of MWRFR occur in 0 radar 0 television and radio 0 cellular phones and cell phone towers 0 various industrial operations household appliances and medical applications High intensity exposures can cause cataracts of the lens of the eye The biological effects appear to be primarily thermal when MWRFR can penetrate deeply enough it can burn dermal and subcutaneous tissues burns that heal slowly Lecture 17 What is sound Sound is a form of energy that is produced by the vibration of objects which compress and expand air water or solids to produce sound waves It is measured by 1 Frequency Hz pitch high medium low 2 Amplitude dB loudness high medium low Noise sound that is unwanted including when it interferes with tasks distracts annoys or disturbs causes losses in hearing alters physiology in a negative way PP Ni Determining damage 1 Intensity Loudness dB the higher the intensity the greater potential for damage 2 Frequency Pitch Hz the higher the pitch the greater the potential for damage 3 Duration time the longer the exposure the greater the potential for damage Sound pressure level SPL is a measure of the intensity or loudness of sound SPL is reported on a logarithmic scale that uses decibels st An increase of 10dB represents a 10fold increase in sound intensitv every 3 dB increase DOUBLES the sound energy Ototoxic agents that can produce hearing loss loud sounds drugs antibiotics etc When is loud too loud 0 when there s a need to speak very loudly or shout directly into the ear of another person 3 foot rule 0 ringing sensation or hearing noises in the ears esp after the work day 0 when the sound of speech and music seemed muf ed after leaving noise but hearing clears by the following day Agents of occupational disease 0 Noise 0 Dust 0 Toxic heavy metals 0 Carbon monoxide 0 etc Noise in the workplace during an 8hour shift is 85 dB by NIOSH This increases safety and decreases hearing loss Noise and psychological stress Noise pollution can cause 1 Annoyance and aggression High stress levels Hypertension Ischemic heart disease Sleep disturbances Decreased immunity 7 Tinnitus and other hearing loss Stress and hypertension are the leading causes to many health problems and tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness severe depression and at times panic attacks 99 There is over 40 billion per year economic loss due to noise The bulk of the loss is from traffic noise alone that s harming the health of workers and causing less productivity Control measures for noise 1 Engineering controls 2 Administrative controls 3 Personal protective equipment PPE Lecture 18 Ambient Air Pollution Definitions Air pollution or air quality the degree of pollution of clean air Standard air the dry atmosphere air found in rural areas or over the ocean far from air pollution sources Carbon monoxide CO a colorless odorless tasteless nonirritating gas hard to detect produced from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels Sulfur dioxide S02 a gas that is produced from the combustion of sulfurcontaining fuels and materials such as coal and metal ores Components of air 0 78 nitrogen highest amount 0 21 oxygen 0 1 argon 0 0035 C02 0 00001 CO lowest amount 4 ways to classify ambient air pollution 1 how the pollutant molecules form a Primary pollutant a pollutant that is directly emitted carbon monoxide CO b Secondary pollutant a pollutant formed in the atmosphere through the physical and chemical conversion of precursors Ozone 03 2 natural or manmade a Biogenic natural sources volatile organic compounds VOC from vegetation pollen dust volcanic gases b Anthropogenic result of human activity NOx 3 its physical form a Gases b Particles 0 Aerosol relatively stable suspension of solid particles or liquid droplets in a gaseous medium 4 how it is regulated a Criteria pollutants the major pollutants including 0 Carbon monoxide CO 0 Lead Pb 0 Ozone 03 0 Nitrogen dioxide NOx 0 Particulate matter PM 0 Sulfur dioxide 802 These 6 specific ubiquitous pollutants regulated by EPA to protect human health and welfare as they have known health effects key outdoor pollutants defined by CAA 1970 b Hazardous air pollutants aka air toxics include a number of volatile organic chemicals pesticides herbicides and radionuclides Known to cause cancer or some other significant disease Does not include ALL known hazardous air pollutants and includes some for which hazard level is unknown Defined by the CAAAs of 1990 CAA Clean Air Act CAAAs Clean Air Act Amendments NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards Hith Eelnb lit y asee Ammunia Emmme Hydmgeru holeride Sulfur iuei Intermediate Eullllil1nj1j139iFFr m Ehflmiine F Lee S mllllh 39 39 f Gueee Flueriue eidee u lf39uitlmgen Ejeene Herbert menexide F39heegeue Pollutants Definition Source Health effects CO a colorless 0 Motor vehic1es Toxic to all forms of aerobic life carbon odorless tasteless highest source 6400 concentration ppm monoxide nonirritating gas 7000 064 causes hard to dCtCCt concentration ppm 0 Headache and dizziness in l to Pmduced from thG 0 Gasoline 2 minutes incomplete 0 Natural gas 0 Convulsions respiratory arrest combustion of 0 Oil and death in less than 20 fOSSil fUClS 0 Coal minutes 0 Natural atmosphere level lowest source 01 concentration ppm Pb Antiknocking o Leaded fue1 Ingestion of lead paint non 1ead agent 0 Sme1ters airborne source is now a larger 0 Meta1 processing concern than airborne lead 0 Battery recyc ng Can be harmful to health at low centers 10868 0 Contaminated soil Damage to dust 0 Nervous system and kidneys interferes With RBC formation 0 Reproductive function 0 Gastrointestinal function 0 Cardiovascular high blood pressure 0 Heart disease 0 For children neurological behavioral problems learning deficits lowered IQ NOX A category of 0 Combustion fossil 0 Short term decreases in lung nitrogen highly IGaCtiVG fuel function dioxide gases With nitrogen 0 Car and truck 0 Increased respiratory symptoms and oxygen engines and infections for children SUCh as nitrogen 0 Stoves and heaters 0 Irritation to eyes nose throat at diOXidG N02 and 0 Tobacco smoke higher concentrations nitrogen mOHOXidC 0 Epidemiological studies linked to NO higher morbidity and mortality Maj or determinant in 03 formation 03 Colorless insoluble Precursors include shortterm exposure in healthy Ozone gas NOX volatile organic adults associated with Secondary pollutant formed in troposphere through complex nonlinear chemical reactions compounds VOCs I in the presence of sunlight 1 D Temporarily decreased lung function bronchoconstriction D Acute epithelial injury D In ammation D Increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing D Asthmatics are particularly susceptible to health problems associated D with ozone exposure D Cardiovascular effects SOZ a gas that is Power plants major Highly soluble in water so most sulfur produced from the source inhaled 02 is absorbed by the dioxide combustion of mucous membranes of the upper sulfurcontaining airways with little reaching the fuels and materials lung scrubbed such as coal and An immediate irritant and easy to metal ores detect Exposure has been SOZ can be associated with converted to D Reduced lung function Sl fllfiC aCid D bronchoconstriction increased contributes to acid airway resistance rain WhiCh harms D respiratory symptoms VGthation Wildlife Dhospitalizations from and 0th f mat fials cardiovascular and respiratory Also contributes to causes thC formation Of l eye irritation and Pa iCUIate matter adverse pregnancy outcomes linked to increased morbidity and mortality although difficult to establish causality because it occurs with PM At 00010006 ambient air has 16 ppb At 500 concentration ppm it is not possible to voluntarily inhale PM a generic class PM includes solid or particulate rather than a liquid particles matter particular suspended in air individual regardless of their pollutant with a specified chemical structure Particles are generally categorized according to their size pretending it is spherical PM 25 microns um in diameter PM 10 microns um in diameter Nanoparticles one dimension is no more than 10 nm chemical composition The composition of PM differs by geographic area and can vary with season source and weather Eastern US PM has high sulfate content Western US PM has high nitrate content the particles can also carry on them other contaminants and can be a vehicle by which other toxins can reach the depths of the lung l Particles quot2 I um rr 39 a Particles 510 um Particles It 5 um 0 Increased hospital and emergency room admissions 0 Respiratory symptoms decline in pulmonary function 0 Susceptible populations include people with underlying cardiovascular and respiratory diseases Timeseries studies indicate acute exposures associated with increased mortality 0 Longitudinal studies indicate chronic exposures also associated with increased mortality Air toxics includes mostly cars trucks buses known or suspected to cause hazardous organics metals industry power cancer or other serious health air etc plants effect pollutants EPA how has 187 biogenic sources pollutants on the includes volcanoes HAP list forest fires Hg naturally occurring health effects of mercury depend mercury but can be released on its chemical form into the atmosphere soil or water through human activities Coalfired power plants are largest US source of airborne Hg Fish exposure through food intake Exposure through inhalation skin contact or ingestion VOCS a category of natural sources 0 Irritation of the respiratory tract volatile organic chemicals primarily vegetation 0 Headaches organic with a high vapor such as oak and 0 Carcinogenicity compounds pressure maple readily evaporate trees at normal industrial processes temperature and chemical pressure processing use of benzene solvents chloroform power generation formaldehyde transportation isoprene methanol including motor and hundreds of vehicles and additional offroad compounds transportation VOCs are sources such as precursors of ozone aircraft construction equipment and lawn mowers Other air hydrochloric acid EXpOSUI CZ inhalation 0 damage to the neurological toxics captan parathion ingestion immune respiratory and naphthalene biphenyl vinyl bromide methyl bromide dioxin and cadmium reproductive for example reduced fertility systems 39 developmental problems and some cancers Claude monet Indoor air is often more polluted than ambient air and poses a greater health risk There is higher London s smogladen atmosphere Thames and Houses of parliament Lecture 19 Indoor Air Quality concentration of air pollutants indoors than there is outdoors with the exception of sulfur dioxide and ozone Indoor air pollution now counts in top 5 environmental risks to Public Health Energy conservation construction of homes that allow less natural air ow accumulating air toxins in the home Acceptable IAQ when recognized authorities see no harmful concentrations and 80 or more of the people exposed show no dissatisfaction more than 20 have to complain to make a change Three major ways air enters a building 1 Natural ventilation outdoor air ows through opened windows and doors 2 Infiltration outdoor air ows into the house through openings joints and cracks in walls oors and ceilings and around windows and doors 3 Mechanical ventilation air is drawn out of the house with vented fans and air exchange systems Little of the above list can cause the air exchange rate to be low and for pollutant levels to increase over time In the past 15CFM per person of fresh air now it s 5 Air exchange rate the rate at which outdoor air is replaces indoor air Immediate or acute effects such as 0 shortness of breath 0 cough 0 dizziness 0 nausea 0 sneezing 0 nasal irritation 0 eye irritation 0 dry throat 0 Headaches 0 fatigue 0 sinus congestion 0 sun irritation If you feel sick at home and not elsewhere then the reason for the sickness is due to indoor air pollution exposure Must identify time and place of symptoms Buildingrelated illnesses BRI 2 this term is used when welldefined illnesses occur in a building and they can be traced to specific building problems Results Asthma Legionnaire s disease hypersensitivity pneumonitis in ammation of the lung tissue Sick building syndrome SBS 2 when a number of occupants of a given building display acute symptoms without a particular pattern and the varied symptoms cannot be associated with a particular source the phenomenon Attributed to exposure of VOCs inadequate fresh air supply house dust etc It can also be caused by psychological stress inadequate lighting noise excessive heat or cold Generators sources of indoor air pollution 0 Cleaning products and pesticides 0 Products for personal care and hobbies air fresheners 0 Cooling and humidification systems 0 Radon 0 ETS environmental tobacco smoke 2nd hand etc Products of combustion 0 ETS 0 Particles and gases CO Biological contamination Major threat moisture damp carpets high humidity no exposure limits available for mold molds mildew viruses bacteria dust mites cockroaches pollen animal dander and cat saliva Toxic molds release mycotoxins inhaled absorbed through skin ingestion Microbial agents and molds a Respiratory reactions a ingestion Organic gases and pesticides such as VOCs 0 automotive products 0 hobby supplies 0 volatile office supplies etc Common inhouse concentrations are 5 times those of ambient paint stripping indoors can be over 1000 times ambient To decrease exposure 1 properly dispose of unneeded products 2 follow instructions on label and only use in wellventilated areas if indicated 3 use nontoxic alternatives Where possible Radon measured in DCiL 0 A colorless odorless gas that occurs naturally by the decay of radium and uranium 0 very high in soils that are rich in granite shale phosphate and pitchblende although most soils contain amounts high enough to be dangerous 0 outside radon dilutes in the open air and is harmless but accumulates in enclosed spaces like basements and crawl spaces 0 estimated that the average person receives 55 of their annual ionizing radiation from indoor radon 0 estimated to cause 21000 lung cancer deaths a year 0 2nd leading cause of US lung cancer deaths 0 Points radon can enter homes crack in oor crack in walls openings around pipes top row of block etc 0 To reduce use a sealant for all cracks and spaces turn on fan that leads to outside so it can escort the radon out of the house 0 Measures in pCiL purchase alpha track detectors to measure ambient levels are 04 pCiL average home is 13 pCiL 4 pCiL or above calls for action 6 of US homes gt4 gt20 pCiL is a serious concern and requires abatement Fun fact Phenomena related to haunted houses strange visions etc can be attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning It causes confusion delirium emotional disturbances and hallucinations