Final Exam Prep
Final Exam Prep ANTH 205
Popular in Human Cultural Diversity
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 18 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Kasey Fell on Thursday January 8, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to ANTH 205 at Purdue University taught by Laura Zanotti in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 266 views. For similar materials see Human Cultural Diversity in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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1 ANTH 205 Final Study Guide Culture 0 What is culture Culture a system of knowledge beliefs patterns of behavior artifacts and institutions that are created learned and shared by a group of people Learned and taught Sha red yet contested Symbolic and Material 0 What is cultural anthropology How is it different from other subfields of anthropology Physical Anthropology The study of humans from a biological perspective particularly focused on human evolution Paleoanthropology The study of the history of human evolution through the fossil records Primatology The study of living nonhuman primates as Well as primate fossils to better understand human evolution and early human behavior Archaeology the investigation of the human past by means of excavation and analyzing artifacts Prehistoric archeology the reconstruction of human behavior in the distant past before Written records through the examination of artifacts Historic archaeology the exploration of the most recent past though an examination of physical remains and artifacts as Well as Written Linguistic Anthropology The study of human language in the past and present Descriptive linguists Those who analyze languages and their component Parts Historic linguists Those who study how language changes over time Within a culture and how languages travel across cultures Sociolinguists Those who study language in its social and cultural contexts Cultural Anthropology the study of people s communities behaviors beliefs and institutions including how people make meaning as they live work and play together participant observation key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life on the people being studied ethnology analyze and compare ethnographic data across cultures look at more general patterns of human behavior and to explore how local experiences intersect with global dynamics 0 What are some anthropological skills for the twenty rst century 0 What is the difference between cultural relativism and ethnocentrism Cutura Relativism a cognitive tool says that cultures and cultural practices should be interpreted and viewed in its quotproper cultural contextquot fosters a dialogue of understanding no culture is superior to another culture VS Ethnocentrism value judgments rendered about other peoplescultures on the basis of a belief in the superiority of one s own culture standards and way of life 0 What is culture shock cuture shock confusion over how to behave surprisedisgust loss being rejected loss of selfesteem loss of control doubt 0 What is ethnology Ethnoogy comparison of cases from around the world data collected by other ethnographers generalizes 0 What is ethnography ethnography a written text orderly description of ones detailed observation and prolonged rsthand experience research method 0 What does the witchetty grub have to do with cultural relativism witchetty grub cultural relativism anthropologist looked at the eating of the grub through that particular culture 0 What is the relationship between culture and globalization culture and globalization intensi es the exchange and diffusion of people ideas and goods creating more interaction and engagement among cultures homogenizing the spread of cultural fueled by goods images and ideas from western cultures will diminish the diversity of the world39s cultures as foreign in uences inundate local practices products and ways of thinking people migrate with their beliefs allowing the ow of people to transform local cultures increasing cosmopolitanism broad global outlook rather than a limited local one History of anthropology 0 Who was Franz Boas Franz Boas founder of American anthropology extremely involved with immigration debate conducted studies that showed the wide of physical forms within groups of the same national origin as well as the marked physical changes in the children and grandchildren of immigrants as they adapted to the environmental conditions in their new country politically an ideal country Historical particularism 0 Who was B Malinowski B Malinowski Polish structural functionalism ethnography of the Trobriand Islands published Argonauts of the Western Paci c 0 Why was the Chicago World Fair important for anthropology Chicago World Fair It aloud Americans to come together in one city to explore and to be enlightened about different cultures quotbroadening opening lighting up dark corners 0 What are mental maps of reality mental maps of reality cultural classi cations of what kinds of people and things exist and the assignment of meaning to those classi cations our mental maps organize the world into categories that helps us sort out our experiences and what they mean 0 How do norms values and symbols shape culture Norms are ideas or rules about how people should behave in a particular situation and act towards certain people Values re ect shared ultimate standards that should guide people s behaviors as well as goals that people fell are important for themselves their families and their community Symbols convey meaning to other participants that are understood within one s culture 0 What do anthropologists mean by the term agency agency the potential power of individuals and groups to contest cultural norms values symbols mental maps of reality institutions and structures of power 0 What is historical particularism historical particularism idea attributed to Franz Boas particular history of each culture invention and diffusion l invention similarities among cultures emerged through independent invention as different cultures independently arrive at similar solutions to similar problems 0 What is structural functionalist anthropology structura functionalism elements of society serves a function politics economics kinship religious system static 0 What is an interpretivist approach interpretive approach urged anthropologists to explore culture primarily as a symbolic system in which even simple seeming straightforward actions can convey deep meaning Fieldwork 0 What are the steps to setting up a eld project steps to setting up a eld project iterature review designed research anthropoogist s toolkit eld equipment permission to conduct study in said area funding ethics opens and honest consent AAA code of ethics mapping 0 What are some different ways of collecting the data ibrary ethnographers rely upon eld notes and eld diaries participant observation gt participate in daily lives enables elworker to distinguish between what people should doidea and what they actually do real 0 What are fieldnotes eld notes the anthropologist s written observations and re ections on places practices events and interviews 0 What is participant observation participant observation key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life on the people being studied 0 What is the difference between unstructured semistructured and structured interviews unstructured questions are no prearranged spontaneous ques ons throughout semistructured guided interview structured set prearranged questions What the Interviewing Interviewing Advantages enhances rapport actual vs expected behavior permits observation of nonverbal behavior Disadvantages practice only for a small sample size dif cult to obtain standardized data incomplete data due to problems recording information obtrusive effect 0 What is a life history interview ife history interview a type of interview that asks about a person s memories and life story 0 What is informed consent informed consent making sure participants are fully informed of the goals of the project and have clearly indicated their consent to participate 0 What is the IRB IRB Institutional Review Board protects the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in a research study 0 What are AAA ethics AAA ethics Do no harm obtain informed consent ensure anonymity 0 What does do no harm mean for anthropological practice them studying a culture can have no negative effect on the people or its environment 0 How is fieldwork changing in response to globalization Fiedwork and globalization changes in process gt communication and transportation have altered the ongoing relationship between the anthropologist and the community being studied changes in content gt ethnographers are increasingly integrating the local with the global in their studies Kavap Case Study 0 Where do the Kayap live Brazil over 400 indigenous lands in Amazonia 0 Why are Indigenous Lands considered conservation units protects biological and sociocultural diversity environmental protection 0 What are the different kin and nonkin relationships the Kayap have ceremonial friends informed friends 0 What is a naming ceremony Why are naming ceremonies important have many names name giverascending crosssex kin 8 types of beautiful names that can be given during a ceremony naming ceremonies brings the community together as a whole Gender and Sexuality 0 What is the difference between sex and gender Sex biological differences differ physically differ genetically XX vs XY chromosomes VS Gender expression of social meaning selfidentify 0 What is the importance of gender roles lmportance of gender roles appropriate behavior is de ned relations of power are worked out and inequality and strati cation are created enforced and contested 0 What is the gendered division of labor in Kayapo communities mutual cooperation sexspecific tasks exibility unpredictability of resources ceremonial life 0 Why does Fisher say that Kayapo gender is socially constructed 0 How have anthropologists examined the relationships between gender and power Gender and Power quotwho is allowed to do what with whom and whenquot the way systems of power interconnect to affect individual lives and group experiences Division of Labor 0 What are some examples of alternative sexes and alternate genders Caster Semenya A Theory of Five Sexes TwoSpirits in Native North America Hijras in Hindu Ritual 0 What are some gender stereotypes Kinship Marriage and the Family 0 What type of residence patterns do Americans practice Residence Patterns neolocalgt new couple sets up an independent household patrilocalgt lives with or near husband s father s family matrilocalgt lives with or near wife39s family 0 What is marriage marriage transformative sexual access legitimacy of children kin relationships symbolic central to the formation of social groups af nal 0 What is the difference between polygyny and polyandry poygyny multiple wives VS polyandry multiple husbands 0 What are some of the reasons given for divorce 0 What is kinship kinship decent groups permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to de ne their mutual expectations rights and responsibilities 0 What are four main kinship symbols used on kinship charts triangle male circle female 1ine descendent married filledin shape ego of diagram 0 What is lineage lineage a type of decent group that traces genealogical connection through generations by linking persons to a founding ancestor 0 De ne bilateral kindred bilateral Americans and Canadians male and female lines tracing kinship back between both the mother and the father all people linked to that individual overlapping membership 0 De ne matrilineal vs patrilineal matrilineal join the mother s decent group when born fathers kids are not of his lineage patrilineal join father s decent group when born in a patrilineage a Women s kids are not of the same lineage o How is kinship important in Kayapo livelihoods somewhat ambilineal Omahapattern of kinship organization 0 Why is kinship important today Avatar 0 Who was Ishi and how did his life in uence the works of Ursula K LeGuin daughter of anthropologist Alfred Kroeber 3 o How do anthropologists analyze science ction texts such as Ursula K LeGuin s the Word for World is Forest and popular movies like Avatar 0 What is the relationship between anthropology and lm 0 How do anthropologists analyze of lm and media 0 What is the basic plot of Avatar 0 Does Avatar reproduce popular narratives and stereotypes about indigenous groups If so how Subsistence Food 0 Define foragers pastoralists horticulturalists and intensive agriculturalists foragers oldest human subsistence strategy gather wild plants and hunt wild animals within their home range Forgers neither plant crops nor raise animals Food is where you nd it Form 80 of the diet pedestrian travel and hunt by foot equestrian travel and hunt by horse and have a greater range and access to resources aquatic relies on water resources for food pastoralists rely on animal husbandry the raising and breeding of animals Usually herbivorous herd animals animals are dominant gure and often the focus of important events rituals and ceremonies nomadism follow irregular migratory patterns of their herd and do not migrate between xed locations throughout the year live in portable shelters Transhumant follow the regular migratory patterns of their herd usually between grazing areas and often have permanent settlements in each area cowboys and ranchers horticulturalistsz small scae farminglow intensity use simple tools to raise domesticated plants in a garden and to tend to small domesticated animals such as pigs or chickens central and south America intensive agriculturalistsz small number of full time farming use large equipment 5000 years old monocropping Nonindustrialized use irrigation fertilizers and additives to improve crops use beast of burdens ndustrialized instead of animals they use machinery larger scale food to larger populations 0 What is the difference between horticulture and intensive agriculture above 0 What is a food collector versus food producer food collector gather fish hunt food producer domesticated plants and animals 0 What type of subsistence strategy do the Kayap practice HorticutureOrchards Foraging Agriculture Hunting Fishing Swidden agriculture aka slash and burn 0 What are ways that food shapes culture and culture shapes food not just vitamins minerals and energy sources culturally constituted religion identity civility pleasure economics and the environment we are what we eat 0 What is food according to Guthman many in the eld have used food and food practices to think about how various social boundaries are made or alternatively breeched still a very non centralized study 0 Why is it important to study subsistence strategies 0 How has the history of the Amazon region mining timber cattle affected Kayap villages 0 What is Amazonian Dark Earth See Schwartzman et al 2013 and how does it shape Kayap uses of the land Belo Monte 0 What is Belo Monte 0 What do the Kayapo think about the dam project 0 How are the Kayapo resisting the dam project 0 How are celebrities like James Cameron involved with Kayapo resistance efforts 0 What are ways in which the Kayapo combine ceremonial practices with their resistance efforts Space 0 Space is our primary means of orientation in the world List the three arenas that Delaney identifies as important to spatial organization Physicay Maps Socially and CosmologicalyMap Mundi Allow us to occupy space experience the sensual world and interact with others 0 How do maps tell us the cultural significance to what we are seeing It shows how one orientates themselves and how they give meaning to a a place 0 How is inequality mapped out spatially Berin Wall Wall in Detroit Racially Sexually Age Social Groups Ghettos Class 0 List some nonWestern notions of land and territory 0 What is participatory mapping 0 What are the different ways cities and public spaces create gendered spaces 0 How is status reflected in workspaces 0 What are the ways in which houses re ect local values 0 What is the importance of maps to Kayapo resistance efforts 0 How do Kayapo subsistence practices determine the way villages are organized spatially How is space represented in Kayapo villages What cultures perceive as valuable Enviroment things grown in an area division of labor Body Decoration Art 0 What type of body painting do the Kayapo do What colors do they use 0 What does red and black signify for the Kayapo Body Painting is a continuous deeply rooted social meaning Expresses their culture and gives them meaning of who they are Backtuk Genipapo Charcoal trunk of the body extrasocial Redkamrek Urucum calves feet and forearms vitality energy and sensory acuteness 0 What is art 0 What are different forms of artistic expression Why do people practice body decoration Reasons 0 What are the anthropological theories of body decoration 0 What are all the different types of body decoration 0 What does the social body mean 0 What is the relationship between body decoration and activism 0 What kinds of art forms do the Kayap6 use 0 What is unique about how anthropologists study art 0 What is the relationship between art and power 0 How do art and media intersect Life and Death on Mt Everest 0 Who are the Sherpas What is the distinction between being Sherpa as tied to an ethnic identity and being a Sherpa for work 0 Who are the Sahibs How have the categories of Sahibs changed over time Why does Ortner use the term even though its usage stopped in the 1970s in the region 0 What is Ortner s concept of encounter Give an example from the text 0 What is Ortner s concept of risk Give an example from the text 0 What is Ortner s concept of games Given an example from the text 0 What are some Sahibs impressions of Sherpa culture and behavior 0 Discuss the difference between big people and small people in Sherpa society How did this impact who decided to join climbing teams on Everest 0 How has the SherpaSahib relationship changed over time eg gender equality activities on the mountain 0 What is the relevance of the development of monasteries in the region to climbing cultures of Mt Everest 0 What religious or spiritual beliefs do Sherpas and other ethnic communities in the region have about proper relationship to Mt Everest What activities are encouraged What activities are discouraged on the mountain 0 How does the perceptions of death and mourning vary crossculturally 0 Why are Sherpa deaths considered invisible 0 What are the roots of today s global economy How does that impact Everest expeditions 0 What is dependency theory World systems theory 0 What is an economy and what is its purpose How does it impact who decides to climb or work on Everest o How does today s global economy link workers with consumers worldwide 0 How does the movie Into Thin Air depict the Sherpas How does Into Thin Air depict the international mountain climbers Identity Race Other 0 What is the difference between race and ethnicity 0 Do biologically separate races exit 0 How is race constructed around the world Japan Brazil US 0 What is racism Distinguish between individual and institutional racism 5 0 What does Guest mean when he talks about racial ideology 0 What do ethnographies like Deep Roots Farmers in West Africa and the African Diaspora and Worked to the Bone tell us about the history of US racial categories 0 What role has colonialism played in climbing cultures on Everest o How does Ortner discuss race and ethnicity in Life and Death on Mt Everest What are some examples 0 What are three main points the understanding race website says about race httpwwwunderstandingraceorgHOMEHTML According to Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie what is the Danger of a Single Story Aids and Accusation Introduction 0 Who is Paul Farmer 0 What kind of anthropology does he practice 0 What is this book about 0 What four approaches does Farmer combine in his ethnography and what does each entail 0 What is Applied Anthropology 0 What do applied anthropologists do 0 What do applied anthropologists have to offer 0 What are some jobs that Applied anthropologists have 0 What is the difference between clinical and critical anthropology Body Disease and Healing o How does culture shape our ideas of health and illness 0 What is Medical Anthropology o How can anthropologists help solve health care problems 0 Why does the distribution of health and illness mirror that of wealth and power 0 How is globalization changing the experience of health and illness and the practice of medicine 0 What is the difference between disease and illness 0 What is Paul Farmer s main message in Aids and Accusation 0 What is the Geography of Blame 0 Explain why the ndings of ethnographies like The Spirit Catches You and You Fall down are important to medical care 0 Explain what social justice has to do with medical care 0 How do racism negative stereotypes fear and conspiracy theories circulate during epidemics What are ways to critically evaluate news sources Aids and Accusation 0 What is the main purpose of Paul Farmer s ethnography 0 What is Anita s Story 0 What is Dieudonn s Story 0 What were some explanations of SIDAAIDS 0 How are local ideas about illness and treatment important 0 What is citysickness 0 What is sent sickness 0 What are some ways to compare the Ebola and HIVAids epidemic 6 Human Rights 0 What are human rights 0 What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 0 What are some of the issues with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 0 How does the concept of human rights apply to Haiti 0 What is a rightsbased approach to care Why did Paul Farmer start Partners in Health 0 How is Partners in Health an example of a rightsbased approach to anthropology 0 What are some examples of discrimination of Haitian immigrants in the United States Key Terms Adoption Aesthetic experience Affinal Agency Ambilineal Anthropology Anthropology and Film Archival Research Art Authenticity Avatar Bilateral Biomedicine Body Experience Body Image Body Modifications Body Orientation Body Painting Colors Bridewealth Cities Collecting Data Colonialism Commodity chain Consanguineal Consequences of dams timber and mining Core countries Cosmopolitianism Critical medical anthropology Cultural Anthropology Cultural Relativism Culture Culture Shock Cyberspace 7 Dependency theory Descent Development Disease Division of Labor Divorce Domestic Violence Dowry Economy Emic Emily Martin Ethics Ethnocentrism Ethnographic Fieldwork Ethnography Ethnography Ethnology Ethnomedicine Ethnomusciology Ethnopharmacology Etic Eugenics Family Femininity Fieldnotes Fieldwork Fine art Food Consumers Food Producers Fordism Gender Gender alternatives Gender ideology Gender Roles Gender Stratification Generation Global city Global mediascape Globalization Health Health transition Hegemony Historical Particularism Horticulturalists Houses and Rooms Human microbiome Human Subjects Hypo descent Illness 8 Illness narratives Incest Taboo Indigenous Lands Individual racism Industrial Revolution Informed Consent Institutional racism Intensive Agriculture Interpretivist Anthropology Invisible Spaces Ishi Kayapo Body Painting Kayapo Reasons for Body Painting Kayapo subsistence patterns Kinetic orality Kinship system Kula Ring Life History Interview Lineage Male Bodies Maps Marriage Masculinity Materials Matrilineal Medical migration Medical pluralism Mental Maps of Reality Miscegenation Modernization theories Nations Neoliberalism Norms Participant observation Pastoralism Patrilineal Periphery countries Photographic Gaze Polyandry Polygamy Polygyny Popular art Public Places Race Racial ideology Racialization Racism phenotype Reasons for Body Decoration Reciprocity 9 Redistribution Relatedness Research Design Research Preparation Semi periphery countries SemiStructured Interview Sex Social Body Social Media Structural functionalism Structured Interview Swidden Agriculture Symbol Symbolism of Kayapo Body Painting Tattoos and Scarification Techniques of the Body Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Types of Body Decoration Underdevelopment Unilineal Universal gaze Unstructured Interview Value Visual Anthropology Whiteness Work Space Helpful Websites Kinship Terms httpwwwdumneduclafacultytroufsanth1604cakinshiphtml