Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 PSYCH101
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Saturday January 10, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to PSYCH101 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Lauren Graham in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 543 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 01/10/15
PSYCHE 101 Study Guide for Exam 1 Lectures 925 930 and Chapter 1 Psychology amp science The science of behaviour and mental processes Descartes French philosopher Interested in the material body and soul Dualism Dualism Descartes The body and mind function seperately no interchange Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism Wundt Study of mental experience and ideas how they combine using introspection lntrospection L Observation of one39s mental and emotional processes William James US Psychologist Functionalism L Describe human behaviour in terms of their evolutionary purpose Sigmund Freud has opinions on what makes up consciousness ld Ego Superego ld Bases of primary desire ie hunger sex pleasure Ego Personality reality Superego Moral social conscience John Watson Believed that psychology should study how organisms respond to stimuli in their environments Behaviorism T View of psychology that 1 Should be objective 2 Studying behaviour without reference to mental processes Cognitive neuroscience Study of brain activity linked with mental activity perception thinking memory lanuage Psychology s current perspectives Common subfields of psychology Biological Cognitive Clinical Social Developmental Basic amp applied research Basic Explain describe fundamental properties of behaviour from within psyche Applied Deal with eral world problem Towards the outside world Four big ideas in psychology 1 Critical thinking 2 Biopsychosocial approch 3 Twotrack mind 4 Exploring human strengths Hindsight bias iknewitallalong phenomenon The tendency to believe that we could have predicted an outcome after knowing it Overconfidence Thinking we know more than we actually do Scientific attitude Curiosity SkepticismDoubt Humilitymodest Scientific method Observe events form theoriesrefine them via new obesrvations Theory Explains observable behaviours and events in a meaningful way Hypothesis A testable prediction Operational definition Statements used to describe the exact procedures of a reserach study Descriptive method Describe behaviours using case studies observations surveys 1 Case study lndepth analyses of special individuals 2 Naturalistic observation descriptive Observing and recording individuals39 behaviour in a natural study 3 Survey Selfreports in which people answer questions about their behaviour or attitudes Random sampling A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Correlational method By associating different factors Correlation coefficient direction and strength A number that reveals the extent to which two things relate Correlation amp causation Correlation does not prove causation Experimental method Researchers vary one or more factors to observe the effects Random assignment T When participants of an experiment are assigned to experimental and controlled groups by chance minimising difference between the groups Control and experimental groups Control The group that is not exposed to the treatment thus judges the effect of it Experimental The tested group the group is usually the independent variable Placebo effect Results caused by expectations alone psychological Doubleblind procedure Where both the participants and researchers are blind about who39s receiving treatmentpacebo Independent variable The manipulated factor Dependent variable The factor that is measured Lectures 101 106 and Chapter 2 Biological psychology Links between biology and behaviour Neural communication Parts of the neuron neural structure Dendrites gt Cell body gt Axon gt Mylein Sheath gt Terminal Branches Action potential Nerve lmpulse messages that neurons carry Threshold Level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Allornone response A neuron39s reaction of either firing or not firing Neurotransmitter Neuronproduced chemicals that cross synapses to carry messages to other neurons or cells Dopamine Learning and reward processing make us more adaptive GABA Inhibitory quotstopquot Reduces neuron excitement halt signals Glutamate Exhibitory quotgoquot Excites neural cells increases signaling The Nervous System Sensory Neuron Carries incoming info from sensory receptors to CNS Motor Neuron Carries outgoing info from CNS to muscles and glands lnterneurons Within the brain and spinal cord communicate between sensory inputs and motor outputs Central Nervous system Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Sensory and motor neurons connecting the CNS to the rest of the body Methods of studying the brain EEG MEG Uses electrodes on scalp to record electrical wave activities at brain39s surface Bad spatial location details Good temporal timing details PET amp fMRI PET View of brain activity where radioactive form of glucose goes fMRl Revealing blood flow show brain function uses magnetic fields radio waves Good spatial location details Bad temporal timing details Old brain Brainstem Medulla Pons reticular formation Oldest part and central core of the brain responsible for automatic survival functions Cerebellum Processing sensory input and coordinates voluntary movement Thalamus Directs sensory messages to the cortex transmits replies to the cerebellum Limbic System Amygdala Hypothalamus Hippocampus Amygdala Involved in emotions Hypothalamus Body maintenance Hippocampus Processes conscious memories Cerebral Cortex amp four lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital Control and infoprocessing center Motor cortex Frontal lobes Control voluntary movements Somatosensory cortex Parietal lobes Processes body touch movement sensations Crosswiring of the brain amp body The left brain controls the right side of the body nerves from the brain connects to the opposite side of the body Association areas lnvolved primarily in higher mental functions ie learning remembering Plasticity Brain39s ability to modify itself through experiences and damages Neurogenesis Formation of new neurons Divided Brain Corpus callosum Neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them Split brain lsolated brain hemispheres when the corpus callosum is out between them Laterality rightleft differences in intact brains Left Hemi Quick language processing Right H Advanced language processing Emotion processing Brain States and Consciousness Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment Selective attention Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus lnattentional blindness When our attention is directed elsewhere we miss out Change blindness Failure to notice changes in the environment Sleep and Dreams Circadian Rhythm lntenal biological clock 24 hour cycle Age and experience can alter our circadian rhythm Sleep activities can be measured by EEG electrodes used to record electrical activity Sleep Stages Stage 1 NREM1 Stage 2 NREM2 Stage 3 4 NREM3 Deep sleep REM During sleep different parts of our brain39s cortex stop communicating Each sleep stage is around 90 mins Alpha waves Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state REM Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Recurring sleep stage where dreams occurs most vividly Paradoxical sleep muscles are relaxed Motor Cortex is active internally aroused by externally calm General Order of sleeping through the night Awake gt 1 gt 2 gt 34 gt 2 gt REM gt 2 gt 3 gt 2 gt REM gt etc Theories of why we sleep HeredityGeneration and cultural factors influences our sleep patterns Reasons to why we sleep 1 Sleepshade protects human from predators It helps us restore and repair brain tissue Sleep helps us remember rebuild memories lt boosts creative thinking and learning Sleep also supports growth a hormone for muscle development is released in the pituitary gland when we sleep 91900 Sleep deprivation Effects of sleep lose Sleepy drained of energy Slow reactions Low concentration levels Increase errors Can lead to weight gain due to increases of ghrelin hunger arousing hormone Higher chance for depression Long terms deprivation of REM sleep may lead to REM rebound The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation Sleep Disorders Insomnia Recurring problems with falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy Uncontrollable sleep attacks sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep Cataplexy Muscle weakness triggered by emotions may cause knees to buckle or head to drop Sleep Apnea Where a sleeping person repeatedly stops breathing until blood oxygen is so low it awakens the person just long enough to draw a breath Night Terrors Attacks that wakens a child SleepwalkingSleeptalking Usually childhood disorders happens during NREM3 sleep Dreams Dreams are usually negative but are vivid emotional bizarre Common themes Failure rejection being attacked etc Our twotracked mind is monitoring our environment even while we sleep Sensory stimuli odorsound may be instantly woven into a dream story Why do we dream 1 To satify our own wishes Signmund Freud Dreams allow us to discharge feelings that cannot be expressed in public Manifest content Freud The remembered story line of a dream Latent content Freud The underlying meaning of a dream 2 File away memories Dreams help organise and arrange a day39s events into out memory Memory consolidation 3 Develop and perserve neural pathways 4 To make sense of neural static random neural activities spreading upward from brainstem 5 To reflect brain maturation and cognitive development knowledge and understanding Lectures 107 109 and Chapter 5 Sensation VS Perception Sensa on Process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by our sensory receptors and nervous system Perception Process of organising and interpreting sensory info in our brain transforming it into meaningful objects Bottomup processing Analysis from sensory receptors gt Brain Topdown processing T Working from the general gt Specific perceptions drawing on our expectations and expenences Transduction Converting one form of energy into another Senses 1 Receive sensory stimulation via receptor cells 2 Transforms them into neural impulses 3 Deliver neural impulses to the brain Thresholds Absolute threshold The minimum stimulation required for us to detect a particular stimulus m of the time Subliminal Stimuli you cannot detect 50 of the time below our absolute threshold Difference threshold The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time Weber s Law Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentaoe for them to be perceived as different Sensory adaptation Reduction in sensitivity in response to a constant stimulation Benefit Allows us to focus on information changes in the environment without being distracted Our eyes are always moving in order to ensure that stimulation on the eyes39 receptors is always changing Perceptual set A set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects what we perceive usually causes by our experiences Context effects how things are perceived in different contexts Culturally ie Africans VS Westerners It can also influence the meaning of spoken words Perceptions are also influences by our motivations and emotions Vision Wavelength Distance of one wave peak to the next Determines colour Amplitude Height Influences brightness The eye Pupil Controls amount of light entering the eye Cornea Eye39s protective covering Lens Focuses light rays into the retina Retina The light sensitive inner surface of the eye Contains receptor rods amp cones Fovea in the retina Center of focus Optic nerve Nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to brain Blind Spot The point where the optive nerve leaves the eyes no receptor cells quotblindquot Retina Cones Sensitive to detail and colour Most concentrated in the fovea Retina39s area of central focus Rods Sensitive to faint light enable black and white vision Located around the outer regions of the retina Visual Information Processinq Feature detectors In visual cotex occipital lobe Nerve cells that respond to specific features of a stimulus ie edges lines angles One temporal lobe by the right ear enables face perceiving and recognising them from different viewpoints Parallel processing When teams of nerve cells simultanelously process a scene39s movement and construct perceptions by integrating everything together Includes Motion depth form colour Visual Organisation Gestalt processing Our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful words Form perception Figureground Organisation of the visual field into objects the figures that stand out from their surroundings the ground Grouping T Organising figures into meaningful form Proximity Grouping nearby figures together Continuity Perceiving somoth and continuous patter rather than discontinuous ones Closure We fill in gaps to create a complete whole object Depth perception Seeing 3D allows us to judge distance Binocular cues depends on the use of two eyes A depth cue judge distance of nearby objects ie retinal disparity Retinal disparity By comparing images from two eyes the brain computes distance Greater disparity difference between the two images the closer the object The image would seem to quotjumpquot less Monocular cues depth cues available to each eye separately Types Light and shadow Relative motion Relative size Linear perspective lnterposition Relative Height Perceptual constancv Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change Colour constancy Shape and Size constancy Experience and Visual Perception Perceptual adaptation Vision The ability to adjust to an artifically displaced or even inverted visual field Hea ng Sound waves Molecules bump into each other creating waves of compressed and expanded air Our ears then detects these brief air pressure changes Sounds are measured in decibels O decibels absolute threhold for hearing Frequency Number of complete wavelengths that passes a point in a given time Determines pitch Long waves low frequency low pitch Amplitude The height of a wave Determines loudness Processing sound waves Sound waves gt Auditory Canal gt Eardrum membrane vibrates gt 3 tiny bones in middle ear transmits them gt Cochlealnner ear gt Cochlea39s membrane oval window vibrates gt Fluid inside Cochlea ripples gt Blends hair cells gt Triggers impulses in nerve cells gt Axons from these nerve cells Auditory nerve carries neural messages gt Thalamus gt Auditory cortex in temporal lobe Cochlea sound waves traveling via the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses Hair cells Helps translate physical movement of a membrance into a neural signal Localizing sound Head shadow effect A listener39s ability to identify the locationorigin of a detected sound in direction and distance We39re better at ocaising leftright directions than updown Touch 4 basic touch sensations Pressure warmth cold and pain Experience of pain depends inherited genes physical characteristics Pain Relief Distractions Endorphins A natural painkiller released by our brain Hypnosis A social interaction when the subject responds to a suggestion by the hypnotist that certain perceptions feelings thoughts or behaviours will spontaneously occur Hypnosis inhibits painrelated brain activity Produces a dissociation between normal sensations and conscious awareness Posthypnotic suggestion StatementsSuggestion given to people while under hypnosis that the person acts on when in a full waking state mell amp memorv relationship Process Taste Info from taste buds gt Area between frontaltemporal lobes Taste sweet sour salty bitter umami Process Smell Info from nasal cavity gt Frontal lobe Many receptors combines and send messages to the brain39s olfactory cortex These combinations activates different neural patterns allowing us to smell things In the brain there is an area to which it39s connected with a memory storage station explaining the reason why a smell may trigger a memory Body Position and Movement Kinesthesia The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts ie limbs Kinesthetic sense receptors are located in our muscles tendons and joints Vestibular Sense The sense of body movement and position including the maintaining balance Vestibular sense receptors are located in our inner ear Sensory interaction The principle that one sense may influence another ie when smell of food influences its taste Smell Texture Taste Flavour Embodied Cognition The influence of bodily sensation gestures and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments ie physical warmth promoting social warmth Synesthesia L When two or more senses become joined in a condition one sort of sensation produces another ie hearing sound leads to seeing a particular colour ESP Extrasensory Perception perception without sensation Telepathy Mindtomind communcation Clairvoyance Perceiving events from far away Precognition Perceiving future events