Final Notes CJ 280
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This 9 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Tuesday January 13, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to CJ 280 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Matthew Dolliver in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/13/15
C 280 Test Notes Why we do the things we do 0 What s the point in arguing 0 Purpose of research exclusive motivations Exploration 0 To boldly go Description 0 The story of scope and process Explanation Why exactly Application 0 Evaluation vs problem analysis 0 Get the word out 0 Dialogue the ultimate building process Logos logic 0 All A s are B s or just more of the same Ethos character 0 Guest speakers matter Pathos emotion white coat syndrome 0 Journaling your experiences 0 Bonus Point 0 The diversity bonus The last 15 Nobel prizes have been allocated among 42 people although 3 can only win at once 0 Finding statues What matters more Agree to disagree 0 References language evidence Stalled out Where it all goes wrong 0 Fallacy 0 Systematic error in argument 0 Authority Turning to the experts EX the doctor tells you something 0 Not always right 0 Lack info C 280 Test Notes 0 Differences in opinions o The Halo Effect Research done by a prestigious school vs any other school Tradition common sense amp crowds o Shaking hands or 22 0 Dismiss evidence validate assumption Constantly validating Pos hoc ergo propter hoc 0 After therefore because 0 EX Sports The key is causation Lucky pair of socks False Dichotomy o EX Thirsty Causation creative and exhaustive Coke or Pepsi Personal Experience 0 Duck or bunny problem 0 EX those little quirks Inaccurate Observation 0 Change blindness Overgeneralization Samples and replication Attribution Errors 0 Belief and behavior Selective Observation 0 Confirmation received 0 Reliability 0 Dependability or consistency EX weight on a scale 0 Having many different kinds 0 Validity o truecorrect or the fit between EX IQ testing measuring what you think you re measuring 0 Measurement Validity 0 Face Judgment of others Dialogue I EX 22 0 Content Cl 280 Test Notes Definitions on their face EX police performance 0 Criterion Using the standard Concurrent Association EX SAT scores and college Predictive o Distinct but related 0 Pilot testing for prediction 0 Study validity 0 Internal Errors in concept Measurement or design EX IQ doesn t define our grades 0 External Generalizability People places and time EX the Surgeon General warns 0 Statistical Correctly applied actually reported EX the average race of the sample Opposite provides the balance of knowledge The scientific process 0 Partners in crime 0 Theory and research Theory s job is to explain 0 Variables and attributes o EX eye color 0 Classification and clusters 0 EX democracy vs gender sex Independent vs dependent Independent causes dependent Internal consistency Support modify replace Research grounds us in observations 0 QampA 0 Questions Claims C 280 Test Notes Creative dialogue Theory 0 What counts as a problem 0 Critical factors Been there done that Add to understanding Doable New questions 0 The introduction and literature review Problems andor questions form the conversation 0 Question factors hypothesis measure analysis work with hypothesis theory Risky business 0 Hypothesis The risk is the best part 0 Go measure Collect information 0 Analysis Test hypothesis Probability and sample 0 Key to fallacies and exceptions It all makes sense 0 Work with hypothesis Make the call RampV are back 0 Consider theory Making sense of it all Failure of fit grounded theory Questions Hypothesis Answer 0 More than a feeling 0 Null hypothesis the point of statis A place to start What are the chances probability 0 Research hypothesis make a statement Directional Group X s average score will be different than group Y on test Z Cl 280 Test Notes 0 Group X s average score will be higherlower than group Y on test Z It s all in how you say it 0 O O O 0 Be clear Take a standfrom abstraction State the expected relationship this will effect that Reflect theory andor literature Why do you think that test not prove Be to the point Distraction hurts later interpretation 0 Mr Jones birth control Testable You can go back to theory late 0 This behavior or this score on this test etc Making connections Control variables strain them out Ceteris Paribus IQ age race SES the crime connection Moderator variables Impacts the strength of the relationshipeffect Stress coping crime Mediator variables Explains the relationshipeffect Spuriousness The lurking variable Ice cream and crime Putting the cause in because 0 O Causation prediction and retrodiction Hume 1700 s treatise on human understanding Commonly said to have 3 parts 0 Must be correlated or vary together 0 Complexity mean looking at aggregates and patterns 0 Time order 0 Post hoc No outside factors 0 This is the part that makes causation so hard Necessary and sufficient conditions Necessary Must be present Sufficient Multiple ways to get the job done C 280 Test Notes 0 The difference that makes a difference 0 Constraints on data what can we know 0 Unites of analysis Nominal name Grouped by quality 0 Political party place on an exam goodbad Ordinal order 0 Group and order 0 Tall vs short place on exam better then mark Interval spaces between walls 0 Difference is clear 0 Temperature or place on an exam 70 vs 80 Ratio calculation 0 Just add zero 0 Might not demonstrate any of the behaviors or temperature in Calvin System Error 0 Bridging the gap 0 Operationalization measuring ideas PW Bridgman 1927 But we can t go to the hardware store 0 Let us get a latent construct EX Happiness But can you depend on it o How to increase R amp V Increase the number of items or observations wider range of behavior Eliminate unclear items or measures M test m Minimize the impact of external events Standardize instructions this might mean having a script in the case of experiments 0 How do you lnpw when its right 0 Methods for reliability TestRetest Same test same people different times 0 EX you want to look at recruits before and after the academy Cl 280 Test Notes Parallelforms 2 forms of the same test correleated o EX Detractor tasks like memorizing a list InterRater Reliability Compares ratersratings o EX Training people to observe behaviors Internal Consistency Correlation between items 0 EX You are designing a survey of police 0 Method for Validity MTMMMultitraitmultimethod Error in the process 0 Error Anything that cause true score and observed score to differ 0 Types of Error Systematic and Random 0 Systematic errors 0 Bias in the measurement or process 0 Random errors 0 Chance Method vs Trait 0 Method 0 From the test or situation EX hungry or sleepy o Trait 0 Something about a person EX hangover The Qualitative Approach 0 Doing it by the numbers 0 Two basic approaches ldiographic Nomothetic Getting part of the story EX This gang vs Gangs o What is Qualitative Research Focuses on the way people interpret and make sense of their experiences of the world Holloway 1997 o Interpretive o Focuses on peoples interpretations o Naturalistic C 280 Test Notes 0 Uses the Natural setting Digging deep 0 Why use a qualitative approach The achieve a deep understanding of the issues EX how do people think about an issue Willing to trade generalizability for detail telling a story or giving the numbers a face To generates a new theory or hypothesis Helps you know what is going on EX Grounded Theory 0 Includes a number of particular methodologies Ethnography interviews and historical work Staying grounded o Grounded Theory Glaser and Strauss 1967 Iterative process 0 Observation analysis and findings What is going on here truth vs meaning Adaptive purposive sampling 0 Changing focus EX younger sex workers Theoretical Saturation When you know where this is going but not when you get there 0 4stage Process Codes 0 To identify data Concepts 0 Collections of codes Categories Broad groups and collections of concepts Theory 0 Relationship between categories and interest Ethnography Puzzling it out o Ethnography coming from anthropology Putting the whole story together Naturalistic here often means 0 Field Research the power of observation C 280 Test Notes Complete participation EX the homeless Participant as observer 0 Taking part being known Observer as participant No effort to participate Complete the observer 0 EX the courts 0 Taking it all in 0 Method of recording is the key to field researcher Photographs and video Interrater check of reliability 0 Tell the story 0 Field notes What we know v what we think 0 Don t trust your memory don t intrude Sketch them in stages 0 You don t know what s important record it all Reactivity v Flexibility in question 0 Ausers guide 0 Social desirability Ethnography v other methods 0 EX seat belts What this means for validity EX asking questions 0 Reliability and field work But there are ways around this are we have seen
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