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Bio 102 Lecture Notes 4

by: Kate Hoffman

Bio 102 Lecture Notes 4 Bio 102

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Biology > Bio 102 > Bio 102 Lecture Notes 4
Kate Hoffman
GPA 3.9

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These notes extensively cover the chapter regarding the nervous system. Will be on the next exam.
Inquiry Into Life Human Biology
Dr. Carr
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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This 4 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Kate Hoffman on Friday March 25, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to Bio 102 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Carr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Inquiry Into Life Human Biology in Biology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
Bio Lecture Notes 3/21/16 Nervous system (quick REVIEW from last lecture) – Allows for communication between cells through:  Sensory input  Integration of data  Motor input The nervous system is divided into two sections, the central and peripheral systems CH. 24 Cont. Central Nervous System The brain and spinal cord have 2 types of nervous tissue: Gray Matter: cell bodies and dendrites White Matter: myelinated axons Pg. 487 diagram & terms THE BRAIN Hindbrain consists of: Medulla oblongata: regulates essential body processes such as blood pressure, heartbeat, and breathing Pons: connects forebrain with medulla and cerebellum Cerebellum: controls posture and balance; coordinates muscular movements Midbrain: relays information about voluntary movements from the forebrain to the spinal cord Forebrain: Involved in learning, memory, motivation, and emotion; consists of: Thalamus: Processes information and relays it to the cerebrum Hippocampus: long-term memories Amygdala: emotional center; pleasure and fear Limbic system: consists of the hippocampus and amygdala; makes up the “emotional brain” Hypothalamus: homeostatic control of the body Cerebrum consists of: White matter: transmits information within the brain Gray matter (cerebral cortex): sensory, motor, and association areas; outer layer of the cerebrum The Cerebrum also controls the qualities we consider to be the “mind”; this is divided into the left and right hemispheres.  Left hemisphere: logical; speech, mathematics, rhetoric, etc.  Right hemisphere: creative; music, rhythm, patterns, artistic sense, etc. The cerebral cortex: the surface of each hemisphere is made of gray matter that processes information; each is further divided into lobes. Each lobe has association areas that analyze, integrate, and interpret information from many brain areas.  Frontal lobe: Motor functions  Parietal lobe:  Occipital lobe:  Temporal lobe: Protection of the Brain:  Bones: skull and vertebrae offer hard protection from bumps and blows  Meninges: layered membranes cushion the CNS (damage or infection here can be fatal)  Cerebrospinal fluid: insulates the CNS from injury  Blood-brain barrier: protects from chemical fluctuations The Cerebral Cortex: Association functions occur in all 4 cerebral lobes Motor functions are controlled only by the frontal lobe Sensory integration occurs in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes  Vision, hearing, smell, touch Higher mental functions – 3/23/16 Sensation: raw input from pns to the cns, where perception is formed The cns responds to input by coordinating actions of muscles and glands via the pns General senses (all over the body) – touch, temperature, pain, pressure  Mechanoreceptors – touch  Thermoreceptors – temperature  Pain receptors – injury, extreme temperature Special senses (the head) – smell, taste, vision, hearing  Chemoreceptors – sense chemicals  Olfaction – airborne chemicals are detected by the nose  Taste – close range chemicals are detected by the tongue/taste buds  Hearing – hair cells of the cochlea detect vibration o In the cochlea, cilia on the hair cells move and produce receptor potentials in neurons of the auditory nerve  Vision – photoreceptors detect light and are located within the rod and cone cells at the back of the eye o Specialized cells in the eye send light signals to the brain, which interprets those signals as an image o Light passes through the cornea and aqueous humor to the pupil, the opening in the iris that allows light into the eye o The lens bends the light, which converges at the retina, which contains thousands of photoreceptors o Rod cells provide black and white vision o Cone cells detect color o Rods and cones synapse with other neurons, which send action potentials through the optic nerve to the brain Sense organs are made of sensory receptor cells that detect stimuli Transduction: receptors translate stimuli into an electrical signal Receptor potential:  triggered by a change in membrane potential  Must exceed the threshold potential or else the stimulus goes undetected  Receptor potentials prompt an action potential  The frequency of action potentials conveys the type and intensity of the stimulus  Constant stimulation leads to fewer action potentials (sensory adaptation)


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