Criminology Review TA
Criminology Review TA crim1301
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This 13 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Savannah Cherry on Thursday January 22, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to crim1301 at University of Minnesota Duluth taught by Jeffrey Maahs in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Social Science at University of Minnesota Duluth.
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Date Created: 01/22/15
Jan 22 Characteristics of the life span perspective 393 Development is contextualall development occurs within a settingenvironmentexperience o Normative age graded in uencesshared by a particular age group 0 Biological processespuberty menopause age related reduction in testosterone production decreases in brain vmume o Speciestypical developmental changes Theory of mind abilities emerge around 32 years of life oz Socioculturaenvironmenta processesstart formal schooling at age ve or six start college at 18 or 19 retire in early 60 s oz Normative history graded in uencesshared by a speci c generation due to historical circumstances 0 JFK assassination civil rights movement WW2 great depression 911 and continued threat of terrorism 0 Technology computers iphone changes in law societal attitudes oz Nonnormative ife eventsRare or unusual occurences unique to the individual 0 Death of parent at young age win lottery reality tv home destroyed by re or storm 393 Development is the result of the interaction of biological cognitive and socioemotional processes oz Biological processeschanges in physical development nervous system hormones muscle development nutrition exercise 0 Alzheimer s diseasepresence of amyloid plaques tau tangles death of synapses in brain susceptibility genesmutations role of insulin diet oz Cognitive processeschanges in individual thought processing intellectual development and decline 0 Alzheimer s diseasesevere memory decline inability to perform daily activities oz Socioemotional processeschanges in relationships with other people changes in emotion and changes in personality 0 Alzheimer s diseasedif cult for all involved to provide ongoing care stress depression Interaction of complex factors oz Development is a coconstrution of biological cultural and individual factors working together The brain shapes culture but is also shaped by culture and individual experiences Individually we can go beyond genetic and environmental constraints and can create our own unique developmental trajectories by choosing environments that optimize our lives oz We are not locked into any one developmental trajectory oz Sociocultural Context 0 CultureBehavior patterns beliefs and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation 0 EthnicityCharacteristic based on cultural heritage nationality characteristics race religion and language 0 Socioeconomic StatusOne s position in society based on occupational educational and economic characteristics 0 Genderls de ned as the characteristics of people as males and females oz Some contemporary concerns 0 Health and well being 0 Parenting and education oz Social policya government s course of action laws reulations and government programs that promotes the welfare of its citizens 393 Minnesota Family Investment Program MFIPProvides incentives for higher wages for lowerincome families Developmental Periods 393 Developmental periodtime frame in one s life characterized by certain events as dictated by the interaction of biological cognitive and socioemotional processes 393 Developmental regularity and variability o Prenatalconception to birth 0 Infancybirth to 1824 months 0 Early childhood 25 years 0 Middle to late childhood 611 years Adolescencestarts 10 to 12 years ends 18 to 21 0 Early adulthoodlate teens early twenties into thirties Middle adulthood40 to 60 126 Issues in Deve0pment oz Nature and Nurture oz Stability and Change 393 Discontinuity and Continuity Developmental lssues o3 NatureNurture ls development primarily in uenced by nature genes biological inheritance or primarily in uenced by nurture experience the environment culture 393 Nature via Nurture Ridley 2000 oz Biologygenes sets range of possibilities How possibilities are realized depends on how it is nurtured through experienceenvironmentcultureeducation parents etc 393 quotNature or Nurturequot quotEither way it s your parents faultquot oz StabilityChange Do our traits and characteristics change over time or do they stay the same Is there capacity for change How much change 393 Big 5 Personality CharacteristicsOCEAN Does personality remain stable over the lifespan or does it change Under what circumstances 393 The LifeSpan Perspective favors plasticity 393 Continuity and Discontinuity Are changes in development gradual or abrupt 0 Does development involve cumulative gradual change that is more or less seamless and linear or it is better understood in terms of distinct stages that show abrupt transitions oz Caterpillar to butter y acorn to oak tree oz Language acquisition Theories of Development oz Theoryinterrelated set of ideas that help to explain data and make predictions 0 Darwin s theory of natural selection 0 Psychoanalytic theory attachment theory ecological theory etc oz HypothesesAssertions or predictions often derived from theories that can be tested 0 Men and Women experience jealousy differently Based on what theory 0 Theory of Parental Investment Trivers 1971 and Theory of exual Selection Darwin 1870 Psvchoanalvtic Theories oz Development primarily depends on the unconscious mind and is heavy with emotion oz Behavior is the surface characteristic of development 393 Analyze symbolic meanings of behavior and deep inner workings of the mind for true meaning of development 393 Early childhood experiences important for later development o3 Favor discontinuity between the stages but there is continuity between early experiences in life and later development Freud s theory of development oz ld Ego and superego create personality oz 5 stages of psychosocial developmentoral anal phallic latency and genital o3 Criticisms 0 Lack of scienti c rigor 0 Too much emphasis on pursuit of pleasuresexual grati cation o3 Positives o Reemphasis on study of unconscious EP IAT 0 Signi cance of early years Erickson s psychosocial theory 393 The primary motive for human behavior is social with the strong desire to af liate and form meaningful relationships with others 393 Development changes throughout the lifespan 393 Experiences at all ages are important oz Incorporates aspects of biology and culture oz Criticisms stages have positivenegative poles crisis in each stage needs resolution Codnitive Theories oz Emphasize conscious thoughts awareness decision making 393 Three major cognitive theories 0 Piaget s cognitive developmental theory 0 Vygotsky s sociocultural cognitive theory 0 Information processing theory ot Jean Piaget s cognitive developmental theory 0 Children actively construct their knowledge quotlittle scientistsquot o All children progress through 4 stages of age related to cognitive development Each stage has a distinct way of thinkingdifferent way of understanding the world Children s cognition of qualitatively different than adult s Jan 27 Piaget s four stages of cognitive development 393 Sensorimotor Stage the infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical Actions An infant progresses from re exive instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage birth to 2 0 Preoperational Stage The child begins to represent the world with words and images These words and images re ect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action 2years of age to7 oz Concrete operation stage The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets 7 years of age 11 oz Formal Operational stage The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways 11 years of age to adu hood vaotskv s Sociocultural Codnitive theorv gChildren actively construct their knowledge gSocial interaction and culture guide cognitive development 0 Learning to use the inventions of one s societyculture o Learning from social interactions with more skilled adults and peers o Social interaction creates skills necessary to adapt to culture InformationProcessing Theory gHow people interpret and use knowledge to solve problems gBrain as computer s hardware 2Cognition is viewed as computer software glndividuals acquire increasingly complex information Important to development of problem solving skills gBehavior the environment and cognition are key to development gBehavior is learned through observation and imitation modeling Behavioral and social cognitive theories oz Behaviorismpsychological studies must be based on direct observations and measurements oz Development is observable behavior 0 We learn from experiencesenvironment 0 Development is continuous not stage like o3 Skinner s operant conditioning Consequences rewards and punishments shape behavior The mind is like an empty box for experience to ll There is no emphasis put on thoughts and feelings Development is a pattern of behavioral changes determined by schedules of reinforcement or punishment 0 O O O oz Bandura s Social cognitive theory 0 Behavior the environment and cognition are key to development 0 Behavior is learned through observation and imitation modeling 0 Behavior of others is cognitively evaluated and strategies develop for successful learning oz Ethological Theory 0 Emphasis on biology and evolution sensitive periods of development and very careful observation Lorenz imprinting occurs during early critical period of development 0 Gary Larson quotImprinting gone awryquot Animals rapid learning process involves attachment 0 Praised for focus on biological and evolutionary basis of development and the use of careful observations 0 Criticized for focus on biological and evolutionary basis of development critical windows too rigid 0 John Bowlby attachment theory Critical periods of development 393 Ecological Theory 0 Bronfenbrenner s view that development is in uenced by ve environmental systems interacting together Microsystem setting where one lives including family peers school and neighborhood Mesosystem Relations between microsystems relationships with one s parents in uences relationships with teachers police officers coaches referees other adults Exosystem Links between outside social settings where the person does not have immediate control and the individual s immediate context Macrosystem the culture in which one lives Chronosystem Patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course sociocultural circumstances 0 Unit 1 assignment option b 393 Eclectic Theoretical Approach 0 Lifespan development is complex 0 Each theory contributes to the understanding of development 0 It s a mistake to stick to just one theory can select from the best of each Jan 28Absent O Jan 29 Evolution by Nature Selection oz Natural Selectionevolutionary process where the best adapted individuals in a species survive and reproduce Darwin 1859 oz Natural selection favors behaviors that increased reproductive success that is the ability to pass your genes onto future generations Cosmides and Tooby 1991 oz Evolutionary Psychology A branch of psychology that emphasizes the importance of adaptation and reproduction and quotsurvival of the fittest in shaping behavior 0 Not quotsurvival of the fittest it s a misconception 0 Survival of those best equipped to survive and reproduce The Evolutionarv Persoective o3 Evojlutionary psychology is a hybrid discipline that draws insights from modern evolutionary theory biology cognitive psychology anthropology economics computer science and paleoarchaeology o3 MetaTheoryOrganizing framework for all of psychology not a separate discipline 0 Phylogenyevolutionary history Evolutionary PsychologyCore Premises oz Manifest behavior depends on underlying psychological mechanisms information processing devices housed in the brain in conjunction with the external and internal inputs that trigger their activation oz Evolution by selection is the only known causal process capable of creating such complex organic mechanisms oz Evolved psychological mechanisms are functionally specialized to solve adaptive problems that recurred for humans over deep evolutionary time 393 Selection designed the information processing of many evolved psychological mechanisms to be adaptively in uenced by speci c classes of information from the environment oz Human psychology consists of a large number of functionally specialized evolved mechanisms each sensitive to particular forms of contextual input that get combined coordinated and integrated with each other to produce manifest behavior Evolutionary Psychology oz Phylogenyevolution of species 0 Speciestypical genome gt Species typical body brain behavior oz Like our bodies our brains developed cognitivepsychological mechanisms designed to solve recurrent adaptive challenges faced over evolutionary history for ancestral men and women oz Individual differences exist on traits but each member is equipped with a species typical body and brain evolved psychology equipped to handle recurrent adaptive challenges faced over evolutionary history oz Ancestral men and women faced different reproductive challenges due to the basic biologicalsexual differences discussed later in this chapter 0 Sexual vs emotional jealousy what is more upsetting Thought of partner committing sexual in delity sexual intercourse or emotional in delity o Ancestral men faced risk or paternity uncertaintycuckoldry o Ancestral women faced risk of mate defection loss of partner assistance Research from an Evolutionary Perspective 393 Comparative Psychology compare animal and human physiology and behavior oz Cross Culture Psychology how is behavior similar or different across cultures oz Gene s Eye perspective oz Unconscious in uences on adaptive behavior 0 Sex differences 393 Martie HaseltineGMA video interview Criticisms of Evolutionary Psych oz GeneticBehavioral Determinism oz Naturalistic fallacy oz Unveri able hypothesesquotjust so storytellingquot oz Neglect of environmentalcultural in uences Feb 2 absent Feb 3 Prenatal Development the brain Neurons are brain cells 0 We have approximately 100 billion neurons when we are born Neural tube forms 1824 days after conception then closes both ends Neurogenesisexponential birth of neurons starting approximately 5 weeks after conception o Nuronal migration6 to 24 weeks after conception cells migrate to nal resting spot in the brain 0 ApoptosisNeurons that do not form connections die Prenatal Diagnostic Tests 0 Ultrasound sonographyuses high frequency sound waves to see inner structures can be used 7 weeks after conception 2D and 3D 0 Fetal MRI provides a ner more detailed image than ultrasound Chlorionic villus sampling screen for genetic defects and chromosome abnormalties take sample of placenta 95 to 125 weeks after conception Amniocenteses samples amniotic uid 15 to 18 weeks Maternal blood screening triple screen test Alphafetoprotein human chlorionic gonadotropin estriol and dimeric inhibin A has a high rate of false positives Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratogens 0 Agents potentially causing birth defects can negatively alter cognition and behavior 0 Severity of damage affected by Dosegreater the dose the greater the effect Genetic susceptibilitysusceptibility genes Time of exposureembryonic period more vulnerable than fetal period Critical Periods Fixed time period usually early in development in which certain events can have long lasting effects 0 Prescription non prescription drugs Teratogens continued 0 Psychoactive drugs Caffeine cocaine methamphetamines marijuana and heroin Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome Nicotineink to SIDS ADHD low birth weight 0 Paternal smoking during pregnancy 0 Recent reseach shows that high doses of aspirin during pregnancy can contribute to maternal and fetal bleeding 0 Psychoactive drugs affect the nervous system Compared to the baby of a nonsmoker a heavy smoker s baby is MORE likely to suffer from sudden infant death syndrome Facial deformities defective limbs learning problems belowaverage intelligence and impaired memory development are all linked to alcohol consumption I The gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Prenatal Care 0 0 Neonatal deaths preterm births low birth weights respiratory problems and sudden infant death syndrome are linked to nicotine Cocaine exposure during prenatal development is linked to increased likelihood of being in special education and receiving support cervices impaired language development and info processing and impaired motor development and slower growth rate Newborn babies are likely to exhibit signs of withdrawal if a mother heavily used heroin Excessive crying poor sleep and impaired motor control in infant Other prenatal factors Incompatible blood types Rh factor mother s immune system produces antibodies that attack the developing fetus Maternal diseases STDs HIV and AIDS Rubella measles A mother can infect her child with HIVAIDS across placenta and through uids during delivery Diet and nutrition vitamins folic acid weight Toxins in foods mercury in sh Maternal age adolescence and over 35 years of special interest Stress linked to children w emotional and cognitive problems ADHD language delay Maternal depression linked to preterm birth and low birth weight Environment hazards toxins waste pollutants x rays Species atypicalnon optimal environments increases potential for species atypical development Prenatal care caries around the world Obtain early prenatal care discuss prenatal testing with your doctor 0 O O 0 Birth Process Eat healthy foods avoid sh with mercury Reduce caffeine intake stop smokingdrinking etc Exercise but not too strenuously Walking swimming stretching recommended 0 Stages of birth Labor occurs in three stages 1uterine contractions baby moves from uterus to birth canal 2babys head begins to enter birth canal 3after birth shortest stagepacenta and umbilical cord are detached and expelled o Cord blood banking stem cells progenitor cells white blood cells 0 Got Placenta Birth attendants 0 Birth attendants vary across cultures Midwife specialist in childbirth postpartum and well women health Doula Greek for quotwoman who helpsquot 0 Provides physical educational emotional support calmness Helps create a follow birth plan informed decisions many people are uninformed quotBusiness of being bornquot 0 Methods of childbirth Birth 0 Drugs Analgesics relieve pain tranquilizers barbituates and narcotics Demerol Anethesia blocks sensation and consciousness Oxytocin synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractions 0 Natural childbirth reduce maternal pain through education breathing relaxation techniques Prepared childbirth Lamaze method 0 Nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain Waterbirth Massage acupuncture hypnosis Methods of childbirth o Cesarean delivery Breech position birthfetus increased risk for respiratory problems during birth Bene ts and risks continue being debated 0 From fetus to newborn o Vernix caseosa protective skin grease at birth 0 Baby must withstand stress of birth 0 Assessing the newborn o Apgar Scale heart re exes and color 0 Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale 0 A sensitive index of neurological competence Neonatal intensive care unit network Neurobehavioral Scale 0 Analysis of behavior neurological and stress responses and regulatory capacities 0 Low birth weight and preterm infants 0 Low birth weight less than 5 and a half pounds at birth Very low less than 3 lbs at birth Extremely low under 2 pounds at birth 0 Preterm born in 35 weeks or less after conception 0 Small for date small for gestational age infants Birth weight below normal for gestational age 0 Low birth weight 0 lncidences Hot all preterm babies are low birth weight High rates in developing countries from poverty Rates increasing in the US in the last two decades Lowest rates in Nordic countries 0 Low birth weight 0 Causes Poor maternal health and nutrition Maternal diseases and infections Cigarette smoking is leading cause Weekly hormone injections can lower rates 0 Consequences Learning difficulties more behavioral problems 0 Nurturing preterm infants 0 Intensive enrichment medical educational 0 Neonatal intensive care unit interventions Kangaroo care skin to skin contact Stabilizes bodily functions breathing 0 Better sleep weight gain more alertness Massage therapy 0 May be bene cial because preterm infants may not experience as much touch if they are in a incubaton o Bonding o Difficult following c section drugs Consciousness and memory of event not clear 0 Special part of parent infant relationship 0 Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital Roomingin arrangements offered 0 Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development 0 Post Partum The period after childbirth or delivery 0 Lasts for approx 6 weeks or 0 Until the mother s body has adjusted returned to nearly prepregnant state physically and psychologically Physical adjustments 0 Fatigue 0 Lost of sleep sleep deprivation Stress Marital con ict Poor decision making 0 Changes in hormone production Estrogen and progesterone levels drop steeply and remain low until the ovaries start producing hormones again Emotionalpsychological adjustments 0 Emotional instability is common for new mothers 0 Approximately 70 percent report the post partum blues where they begin to feel depressed anxious or upset peaking at 3 to 5 days after birth and usually going away after 1 to 2 weeks 0 Some new mothers develop post partum depression involving a major depressive episode typically occurring about 4 weeks after delivery 0 Strong feeling of sadness anxiety or despair o lnterferes with daily tasks 0 Lasts for at least 2 weeks but can last for many months especially if untreated Antidepressants Psychotherapy Cognitivebehavioral therapy 0 Regular exercise Dads can help too Doula o Placenta encapsulationlack of research only anecdotal evidence
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