asia final review
asia final review HIST0400
Popular in East Asia Civilization to 1800
Popular in History
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Kamukara period 11851333 Court society to warrior society Central administration to local administration in provinces decentralization Began after the Genpei war 11801185 between Minamoto or Taira Kamakura shogunate is best remembered as a regime of law and jusUce Beginning of dual rule 0 Two different capitals Kyoto Warrior government in Kamakura Bakufu 0 At rst the Bakufu is helpful but then there were two attempts by imperial courts to overthrow the Bakufu Muromachi period 13331573 Dominance of warrior clans Came to be after Ashikaga Takauji overthrew Emperor GoDaigo s Kenmu Restoration government 0 Con ict between government in Kyoto and Go Daigo s Southern Court Bakufu government 0 Led by Ashikaga family Emperor GoDaigo alliance with Ashikaga to bring down Bakafu Started after the Kenmu restoration 1333 First half of the Muromachi period is also known as the age of War Between the Northern and Southern Courts Violence in 14005 0 Succession dispute among Ashikaga o Onin War Warring States period 14671573 Greater control of different provinces Similarities with Chinese warring states More warring provinces Military leaders expand territories Consolidation of territories Warrior clans have more responsibility in provinces Chance for social mobility Taira Kiyomori 11181181 Asserted family s dominance Unrivaled military leader Assert independence and asks for new court ranks Acts with heavy hand in capital Acquired steadily higher court ranks and of ces eventually becoming chancellor the court s highest appointive position Married his daughter into the imperial family Crowned his infant grandson as Emperor Antoku Minamoto Yoritomo 11471199 In Civil war the Minamoto family wins and he establishes himself as the dominant military gure in Japan Exiled as a youth to the Kanto twenty years earlier in the wake of the Minamoto defeat in Heiji con ict Emerged as supreme Minamoto commander in Genpei War Under his orders the Minamoto forces nally defeated and annihilated the lse Taira at the naval battle Remained at his headquarters at Kamakura while directing the Minamoto in battle from afar and establishing of ces of what became Japan s rst warrior government the Kamakura shogunate Emperor GoShirakawa 11271192 Cut into other brothers chances at throne Brother contests ascension 0 Plot with leader of Minamoto for a coo to overthrow Go Shirakawa Another Fujiwara aligns Three families break apart in alliances Opportunity to become head of throne Minor civil war between three families First time war in capital since Asukara period 0 Taira family bene ts most Become Shirakawa s aid OOOO Jien 11551225 Histories of the medieval age ofJapan Gukansho Came from high ranking court families Opened new avenues of inquiry into the study ofJapanese history Stood out from previous historians ofJapan because he divided Chinese history into periods and were at pains to analyze and explain the reasons for the transitions from one period to another Viewed the past in terms of the central issues of the times in which thye lived and interests of the class to which they belonged Sought to interpret and use the past with the express aim of in uencing and directing the course of the country in present and future Branch of the Fujiwara family Wrote about the start of the quotage of warriorsquot Backed by Yoritomo Divided Japanese history into sevon periods History is a process of long term decline or deterioration in accordance with Mahayana Buddhist notion of its passing through three downward moving stages Idea age was medieval Kitabata ke Chikafusa 12931354 Came from high ranking court families Opened new avenues of inquiry into the study ofJapanese history Stood out from previous historians ofJapan because he divided Chinese history into periods and were at pains to analyze and explain the reasons for the transitions from one period to another Viewed the past in terms of the central issues of the times in which thye lived and interests of the class to which they belonged Sought to interpret and use the past with the express aim of in uencing and directing the course of the country in present and future Former prominent minister at court Went by sea to Kanto region in an effort to rally support among eastern warriors for the Southern Court Served as one of the Southern Court s leading ministers Both a history and a political tract His work Direct succession was product of a Shinto revival in Kamakura period Concept of shinkoku or that Japan was the quotland of the godsquot Asserted that the Sun Goddess s mandate guaranteed that Japan and its ruling family would continue forever Emperor GoDaigo 12881339 Successful in getting rid of the Bakafu Overthrew Kamakura shogunate in 1333 Led the Kenmu restoration in 1333 Thought all that was needed was direct military control Regulating and encouraging commerce Reestablishes ties with China during mongol rule Ashikaga turns on him and chases him out 0 Moves south and sets up his own court 0 Next 60 years competition with imperial lines Saito Dosan 14941556 Merchant with no rank in Warring States period Became a warlord Started as servant to warlord Worked in town as magistrate Used connections to build a personal network used it to overthrow his warlord to replace him Demonstrated the chances for more social mobility in the Warring States period Minamoto and Taira clans Surnames of former imperial princes who had taken up posts in the provincial governments become warriors and established positions of power in the regions where they served Branched out very rapidly because many men not related by blood joined them to call themselves Taira and Minamoto to share in the high prestige of the names Minamoto plotted against Taira to overthrow Kiyomori and the lse Taira Taira western warriors Minamoto eastern warriors Three privatizations Kamukara period Land 0 Government had owned all land and rented it out goods sent to court as taxation during Heian o Aristocrats start to nd new ways to privately own land 0 Entrust courtier who would use their power to protect land manager from tax still getting taxes from country 0 Privatization of land 0 People at top still economically bene t Military 0 Early Heian chose aristocratic families skilled in warfare and invested heads as military generals heads were shogun Aristocratic generals eventually return title to court Mounted archery o Aristocratic families were descendants of royal princes given non royal status 0 Ex Tale of Genji Turned into a nonroyal Minamoto and Taira clan monopolize military maneuvers Options of previous royal families given economic independence as heads of warrior clans Privately running military Easily assert autonomy bargaining lmperial family 0 Fujiwara system 00 o If the emperor doesn t go along with Fujiwara encouraged abdication Tool to control emperors and succession Change line of emperor family Easy model for others to utilize Works until late 10005 Then not enough women to produce heirs Emperor comes in not born of Fujiwara mother dangerous he abdicates throne in favor of his son to ensure succession will go to who he wants OOOOO Rules behind the scenes now still running the show as a 39retired emperor Acting as a private family after own interests Assemble private estates Compete with other private families for land Genpei War 11801185 Civil war between Minamoto or Taira in Japan Con ict between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the last Heian period ofJapan Resulted in the fall of the Taira clan and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate under Minamoto Yoritomo in 1192 Minamoto comes out as winner establishing itself as the dominant military gure in Japan End of Heian period beginning of Kamukura Establishes Bakufus o Warrior government 0 Kamakura o Shogunate Ba kufu Warrior government Shogunate shogun s office or administration house of the general suggested a private government Government of a feudal military dictatorship Military headquarters Warrior regime Originally Kamakura and Muromachi Revived by Tokugawa leyasu in attempts to establish a stable regime forJapan Kenmu Restoration 1333 Three year period Go Daigo returns to power and says he has the sole right to control the whole country ofJapan under his rule When Go Daigo overthrew the Kamakura shogunate and proclaimed the restoration of governing power to the imperial court in Kyoto Place military and civil authority under his rule Attempt to militarize government of cials Tons of laws sent out Eventual uni cation of one imperial court Ashikaga Takauji turned against Go Daigo and forced him to ee to Yoshino in the south of the capital 0 There he still claimed to be the rightful sovereign and founded Yoshino or the Southern Court Failed Onin War 1467 Succession dispute among Ashikaga in Japan Civil war that lasted 10 years during the Muromachi period in Japan Most ghting happening in Kyoto center ofJapanese society Warrior families continue to ght each other Initiated the Warring States period Long drawn out struggle for domination by individual daimyo resulting in a mass power struggle between the various houses to dominate the whole ofJapan Low point of centralization Social mobility arises Ashikaga bakufu completely fell apart Effects 0 Exodus from Kyoto resettle in other places culture lost coos against leaders 0 Little gain from those at the top 0 Filial piety thrown away lots of family ghting o Meaninglessness of this war violence for the sake of violence quotLow overthrowing the highquot Lowly positions overthrow those of highly ones Warring States period in Japan Ex Saito Dosan Song Dynasty 9601279 China s golden age High culture but lots of instability from foreign invaders 0 Not known for its power and stability O Struggled to bring back under Chinese rule all the lands once held by the Tang 0 Printing provided means for widespread education 0 Cultural achievement as opposed to military aggrandizement Economy 0 00000 By the 11th century China s population had doubled Food surpluses Importation of rice from SE Asia New population distribution in South of China New market for goods Commerce expanding Diversi ed economy New paper currency Market commercial economy First to print paper money New group of entrepreneurs rice merchants Argues that this was a modern capitalist society Technology Printing press more available texts Gunpowder Examination system 000000 00 O O Expanded use of Confucian exam system Only means of driving in new government officials Exams path to civil service Jinshi degree Vibrant and competitive exam culture Importance of memorization especially Classics and Analects Provided new socializing forces Importance of exams to ensure position in government service Subculture of those who failed exams and moved onto other ventures Number of scholars exceed the number of posts available Neo Confucianism Confucian revival O Brought about a heightened interest in history 0 Foreign encroachments 0 Song constantly battling with Jurchen tribes Yuan Dynasty 12711368 0 Period when Mongols ruled Established by Kublai Khan 0 O Officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style in 1271 First foreign dynasty to rule all of China Yuan was the Chinese dynastic name for Mongols Mongols dominated both Korea and China for nearly 100 years and forced Koryo into a subordinate position Under Mongol domination Koryo leaders were foced to spend years at the Yuan court and to explain every Koryo move Choson Dynasty 13921897 Process of reshaping Korean society Focus on civil rather than military culture Cultural and technological achievements Changes because of embracing NeoConfucianism o Emphasized the importance of Confucian learning for activating people s moral nature Pro education movement Military to civil rule Buddhism to Neo Confucianism Respect for education and scholarship Scholars and officials were accorded the highest prestige in Choson society Achievements in science and technology Korean alphabet in 1443 Aristocracy to education focus Status conscious society 0 Social strati cation 0 Men being recruited into government after schooling were the elite Late Choson Korea 0 Problem government factions Yangban Succession disputes Factions splintered into other factions 300 new academies Practical Learning School 0 New pride in Korean identity OOOOO Wang Anshi 10211086 NeoConfucianist Regarded as one of China s most celebrated statesmen Embarked on an ambitious program of reform 0 New monopolies on industries for government 0 Revamp tax system 0 High state level of involvement 0 Revamp examination system Great intellectual of the Song dynasty Reputation as an outstanding writer and classicist o Ties of cially and intellectually to the leading gures in the Confucian revival Wanted to achieve the restoration of the ancient order that they believed to be the only solution to China s ills quotYour Majesty should take the sage kings Yao and Shun as your standardquot 0 rst concern was the interests of the Chinese state and secondly the welfare of the Chinese people 0 in the long run the scal interests of the state were bound up with the general economi welfare of the people 0 Controversy over his interpretations of the classics Sima Guang 10191086 0 Against Wang Anshi o Historian Political antagonist Great intellectual of the Song dynasty Scholarstatesman of the Confucian revival Had a long and distinguished career in high of ce when he left the government in 1070 out of opposition to Wang Anshi s policies 0 Then devoted himself to writing the monumental general history of China 0 Brie y served as prime minister Responsible for abolition of many Wang s reforms Principal author of a chronological account of 1362 years preceding the Song with his own comments on events and principles inserted which he then presented to the emperor Zhu Xi 11301200 0 Most important NeoConfucian Least political with involvement 0 Social orientation 0 Li and Qi 0 Expression of Song spirit in the elds of history and government as well as in classical scholarship and metaphysics 0 Gave importance of history but also priority to the study of enduring principles in the classics 0 Believed in human perfectibility Spoke of his teachings as quotrealquot or practical learning because it was based on natural human sentiments and could be practiced in daily life through normal intellectual and moral faculties quotLearning for ones selfquot 0 His approach was plainly intellectual reinforcing the traditional Confucian emphasis on scholarship Important ideas for the reform of education examination system and the Imperial College 0 Have students study what will be practical to society as well as moralintellectual self cultivation Kublai Khan 12151294 Invaded and captured all of China and parts of Korea Established the Yuan dynasty Leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan Proclaimed the Yuan dynasty in traditional imperial Chinese style In addition to Emperor of China he also claimed the title of Great Khan supreme over all the other successor khanates Founder of the Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and China a division of the Mongol Empire First nonHan Emperor to conquer all of China Sejong the Great 13971450 Choson dynasty in Korea Embraces Neo Confucian ideas in policy Funds separate research institution Intent on recruited learned scholars in government Creation of Korean alphabet hangul Reinforced Confucian policies and executed major legal amendments Encouraged advancements of scienti c technology One of only two Korean rulers honored with the appellation quotthe Greatquot Cho Kwangjo 14821520 Illustration of court factions Neo Confucian literati Scholar official who continued to pursue the Neo Confucian dream Became the recognized leader of an ideological and political restoration movement that centered on the embodiment of the Way in government Emphasized value of scholarship for an enlightened rule Most prominent victim of the literati purge of 1519 Prime mover in the founding process of the new Choson dynasty Born into highest government court faction 0 Born into Hungu switched to Sarim Essay got attention of king king invited him to join government Minister in order of censor of government 0 Involved in keeping tabs on other government officials to ensure no abuse of power 0 Appointed lower ranking member o Noticed censor wasn t doing what it was supposed to be doing so he decided he can t work there but the king res all censorate and hires new people Very powerful at court Pursue radical reforms inspired by radical Neo Confucianism o Empower local villages for self rule 0 Need separate Confucian exam 0 Suggest recommendations for certain people to take simpler tests 0 Helps Cho build loyal group around him Hungu faction plots against him King started to distrust Cho Hungu came with warrant for Cho s arrest King exiles Cho and has him killed NeoConfucianism Legacy of Han Yu Practical minded political argumentative strong opinions Rede ne role of state and Confucianism Ideas at the time were hotly contested Strongly oriented towards the humanities and less to naturalpure sciences Prominent in Song and Ming dynasties Attempt to create a more rationalist and secular form of Confucianism by rejecting mystical elements of Daoism and Buddhism Revival of the various strands of Confucian philosophy and political culture Li principle and qi essence Liprincipe qi material force Zhu Xi Can t have one without the other Principle is unseen pure moral good channeling through everything Qi is the matter the principle is being formed around Li is what s going through everything and is in everything We re endowed with principle that s always good If we stray from that then bad things come Mind and heart as the same thing Principle is one s moral nature which is fundamentally good In the universe there has never been any material force qi without principle Ii or principle without material force Jurchens Barbarians to the north that fought constantly with the Song Jurchen s staged an uprising against other barbarians in the North and established their own dynasty Jin Conquered the northern half of China Jin pushed back Song captures original Song dynasty MongoB Additional threat to the Song dynasty Mongols defeated the Jurchen Attacked southern China Kublai khan Jinshi degree 0 Highest degree in Confucian exam system 0 Part of the expanded examination system of the Song Dynasty in China Allowed you to get a higher government post since govt posts were now decided upon if you passed a certain test or not Hangul Korean phonetic alphabet Created under King Sejong the Great of the Choson dynasty A group was called together to create Korean alphabet system 0 Each symbol is a syllable on its own 0 See all letters in one symbol 0 Effective way to produce sounds Single greatest cultural contribution of Korean history 0 Way to write their own language as it sounds 0 Departure from Chinese 0 Move towards cultural independence Ming Dynasty 13681644 Founded by Hongwu emperor Most Ming schools and academies established with Zhu Xi s curriculum 0 Most scholarship in the Ming developed along lines already set by Zhu Xi o Accomplishments Doubled population Agricultural revolution lntensive trade with Asia and West In ux of silver into Chinese economy Renovation of Grand Canal 0 Improved trade and communication Downsides o Combative relationship between Confucian scholars and emperors Warring States Period Japan 14671600 00000 Japan broken up into provinces by warlord families weakened imperial institution Daimyos 3 men uni ed Japan 0 Oda Nobunaga o Toyotomi Hideyoshi o Tokugawa leyasu Hongwu Emperor 13281398 Born Zhu Yuanzhang First emperor of the Ming founded the Ming One of the poorest men to become emperor Joined secret societygang to escape poverty 0 Using symbols to tie regime together colors clothes scriptures o Sophisticated group induction ceremonies Marries daughter of gang leader to rise to top of gang Anti Mongol guerilla group 1368 declares himself emperor Autocratic government 0 Ruled with a heavy hand 0 Reinstated corporal punishment 0 Persecuted scholars who disagreed Decides to take over correspondence positions himself Paranoid couldn t trust anyone in government Importance of personal entourage Euneks Emperor Yongle 13601424 Ming dynasty in China Decrees encyclopedia to be created to document all info Chinese have to offer Tried to ease relations between emperors and scholars Third emperor of the Ming Dynasty Zheng He 13711433 Ming dynasty in China Positively viewed euneck Appointed leader of naval expeditions for Ming expansions Explored India and Africa Court eunuch explorer and diplomat during China s early Ming dynasty Commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia South Asia Middle East and East Africa Favorite of the Yongle Emperor Rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Wang Yangming 14721529 Ming dynasty Teachings and personal example had the most explosive effect His views of the mind and heart dynamized the conception of self sagehood and the individual Understood his own mission in the world against the background of Zhu Xi s concept of repossession of the way and the deep sense of personal responsibility for the Way that was characteristic of the great man Revolution in sage learning Reformulation of the Learning of the Mind and Heart Method of discrimination and oneness as a means of preserving the mind of the Way 0 As something already complete within the mind it requires nothing external to it but only unmixedunobstructed expression of its human feelingsits natural empathy for all things Doctrine of innate knowing o Represented the authentic renewal of the tradition of the Way and succession to the mind of sages Placed a prime value on the feeling of love for or oneness with all creation and on the natural integrity of the mind Mind and principle are identical Active political life 0 Career as an official and general 0 Martyred herosage Policy of paci cation through reeducation Admiral Yi Sunsin 15451598 Admiral in the lmjin War quotGod of Warquot most effective with the naval campaign for the Koreans against theJapanese developed the turtle ship Korean naval commander Famed for his victories against the Japanese navy during the lmjin war Yu Song nyong 15421607 Scholar official of the Joseon dynasty of Korea Oda Nobunaga 15341582 One of the men that helped unify Japan Toyot O Aligned with Daimyo in the east First to march to Kyoto Suppressed religious institutions Massacres Buddhist monks One of rst warlords to use muskets Kicks out shogun in 1573 Asserts himself as military leader De facto leader ofJapan Gained 13 ofJapan Japanese attacked by his own vassal then killed himselfassassinated omi Hideyoshi 15361598 One of the men that helped unify Japan Supporter of Oda Marched his army to region where Oda was killed surrounded the killer of Oda Next military leader in Japan So poor he didn t have a last name Took over all ofJapan Campaign against Korea 0 Sends letters asking Korea to help extend his power abroad by taking over Ming China 0 Korea very intent on not upsetting Ming so they deny request Tokugawa leyasu 15431616 One of the men that helped unify Japan Succeeded where his predecessors had failed Managed to establish a stable regime that gave peace to the Japanese islands for 250 years 0 Bakufu military headquarters after precedents of Kamakura and Muromachi Centralization of feudal state and society went further than it had in previous periods 0 The whole ofJapan was ruled by the shogun and approximately 260 feudal lords called daimyo who were appointed by the shogun Emperor had no political in uence or administrative responsibility He led a secluded life in an imperial compound in Kyoto The country ruled by warriors can best be conceived as a country under martial law enforced by a standing army 0 Secret Society Triad Chinese transnational organized crime organizations Arose out of antiQing sentiment and efforts to restore the former Ming dynasty in the wake of Manchu conquest of China Imjin War 15921598 Japanese invasion of Korea Korean military was extremely unprepared 0 Korea didn t believe Japan would actually attack 0 Korea was too preoccupied with Northern border China barbarians Farmable land in Korea reduced 66 o Hurt agricultural economy 0 Lack of food famine disease Estimated 180000 Korean casualties 5060000 Koreans captured enticed to ee or taken to Japan 0 Some sold as slaves to Westerners Many captured Koreans toJapan stay in Japan 0 Brought printing pottery techniques l cultural innovations Turtle boats Tool utilized in the Imjin War Metal spikes on the top to dissuade people from boarding Attack boats Gunscannons come out when needed Admiral Yi Sunsin very skilled at using these Larger than most Japanese warships Equipped with cannon Japanese had trouble outrunning it and had virtually no way to trap and board it Greatly diminished the ability of the Japanese army to advance to the Chinese border Daimyo Stronger army better leaders Amassed great number of troops Increased number of combatants Reliance on foot soldiers More successful ones implemented guns Prominent in Warring States Japan Kang Hang 15671618 Korean captured by the Japanese during the Imjin War Wrote reports to Korea on life in Japan Given a lot of freedom and respect as emigrate to Japan Better life being captured by Japan and saying Went back to Korea and sent report describing Japan land military tactics l negative view ofJapanese Lady Hyegyong 17351816 Late Choson Korea Princess from elite family Married crown prince of Korea Sado Had son who was in line to throne only young man in line after Sado Sado was very mentally ill had outbursts then depressed could become violent and responsible for some deaths 1762 king forces Sado to crawl into chest and locks it and Sado suffocates o If he executed him Sado s son would ve been striped of his rank Yangban Korean scholar class Elite families that had access to education Aristocratic elite families Designated to status by birth Only access to government positions Needed to maintain status through passing Practical Learning School sirhak Korean intellectual movement More cosmopolitan approach to scholarship Some learning of Western ideas from Catholicism Accused yangban families of exploiting people Late Choson Korea Period also Tokugawa 16001868 Regime change after Hideyoshi s death 2 years after the Imjin War New Bakafu in Edo Ways Tokugawa maintained control 0 Reserved right to con rm new lords replace daimyo if they got unruly o Forced daimyo through an indirect tax to sponsor public works projects o Kept tabs on productivity of domains and ranked them which affected the tasks they were asked to do 0 Forced all daimyo to travel to Edo once every few years in residence in Edo away from their own territory Francis Xavier 15061552 0 Spanish Jesuit who arrived in Japan in order to spread the doctrines of the Catholic fate in 1549 o Began the quotChristian centuryquot 0 Led extensive mission into Asia mainly in the Portuguese Empire of the time 0 He had less success in Japan Englebert Kaempfer 16511716 0 German physician Spent a few years in Japan working with the Dutch as an interpreter His History ofjapan was a chief source of Western knowledge about Japan throughout the 18th century Stayed in Japan for two years during which time he twice visited Edo and the Shogun Conducted extensive studies on local plants Collected materials on Japanese traditions and rituals Buddhism acupuncture moxibustion His tact diplomacy and medical skill overcame the cultural reserve ofJapanese and enabled him to elicit much valuable information 47 ronin 47 masterless samurai ronin who avenged their masters death 0 inviting a diversity of opinion among many schools of the Tokugawa period thought 0 demonstrated samurai loyalty 0 following the exerpts are referred to as exemplars of Confucian values the concepts of honor duty revenge vendetta and ritual suidice derive from medieval Japanese traditions Alternate attendance system Edo period in Japan 0 Way Tokugawa maintained control Forced all daimyo to travel to Edo once every few years in residence in Edo away from their own territory 0 Disconnect daimyo from land 0 Family of daimyo had to stay in Edo heirs raised in Edo so they were disconnected from their home land 0 Very costly o Chance for domains to show off their powers competition through parades and processions reaching Edo Tozama daimyo Category of domain lords Lands further from Edo Further on the outer circle Not allies Tended to be stronger seen as a threat Kept out of important decisions Tokugawa not strong enough to tax them directly Fudai daimyo Category of domain lords lnner closer allies with Tokugawa Given perks in system because of loyalty Owned half the land in Japan Samurai farmers artisans merchants ldealized social system in uenced by neoConfucianism Main line was enforced between warriors and everyone else Distinctive styles of dress Not very accurate not everyone was represented outcasts like scholars royal family monks shinto priests Warriors govt service Farmerspeasants backbone productive Artisans amp merchants chonin townspeople unnecessary for survival not sustaining society Deshima Small fan shaped arti cial island built in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 Remained as the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period Built to constrain foreign traders as a part of sakoku the self imposed isolationist policy Used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 to 1853 Helped facilitate cultural exchanges and introduced new things into Japan Shimabara Rebellion 1636 Uprising in southwestern Japan during the Edo period Largely involved peasants most of them Catholic Christians One of only a handful of serious unrest during the relatively peaceful period of the Tokugawa shogunate s rule Taxes were drastically raised which provoked anger from local epasants and ronin Religious persecution of the local Catholics exacerbated discontent which turned into open revolt Japan s national seclusion policy was tightened and official persecution of Christianity continued Floating World Euphemism for brother district in Edo Japan Way Bakafu contained these issues Beginnings of Kabuki theater Centers of entertainment Celebration of courtesans celebrity status of prostitutes Origins power of samurai class Ako lncident 17011703 Uprising of the 47 ronin to avenge their masters death Lord Asano Naganori the daimyo of the ako domain was forced to commit ritual suicide for attacking Kira Yoshinaka in Edo Castle a rude and arrogant master under the Tokugawa shogunate The loyal 47 ronin took over a year and planned their raid on Kira s mansion 0 They killed him 0 Went to their masters grave and turned themselves into the authorities 0 For commiting such a vendetta the 47 ronin were requested by the Shogun to commit seppuku ritual self diembowelment Ming Dynasty 13681644 Outstanding literacy Growing urbanization Prosperity among elites Signs of unrest 0 Urban and rural protests o Peasants protesting unjust rents Qing Dynasty 16441911 Qing 39pureclear Declared by the Manchus Manchus subdued Korea started taking over Northern China Main issue how to get rid of the rest of the Ming how to rule such a large population 0 Destroyed any town that supports Ming Manchus destroy towns to show their power Manchus relatively successful in defeating Ming in uence Continuation of Banner system 0 Stationed strategically among capital 0 Most loyal stayed closest to the capital Reinstate Confucian exams to get more scholars in government Manchus paranoid of becoming too Chinese Li Zicheng 16061645 Low ranking post station employee laid off Tried to enroll in military but not accepted Created rebel group that would plunder around China esp in No h Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China brie y as the emperor of the short lived Shun dynasty Dethroned Emperor Chongzhen the last emperor of the Ming Joined the revel cause in 1630 following a great famine that causes much unrest in the northern part of the country Superb military leader who gradually increased his following and began to organize raids into neighboring provinces Easily took over the capital because the last Ming emperor was betrayed by a group of his eunuch generals Emperor 15631620 Ming Dynasty Increasingly retreated from government involvement Stopped holding court offices because of their criticism Emperor retreats more eunecks Forbidden City Sent euneks to city to collect taxes Confucius scholars rallied against euneks Euneks sent out armed guards to arrest and kill officers Chongzhen Emperor 16111644 Tried to curtail problems curtail power of eunecks Problems too great for one man to solve Last emperor of the Ming dynasty Did his best to save the Ming dynasty Attempts at reform didn t take into account the decline of Ming power Overthrown by Li Zicheng who captured the capital Nurhaci 15591626 Tribal leader ofJurchen Organized political force Created the bannermen Said he broke ties with Ming started aligning with otherJurchen and Mongols in North Claimed he would help the poor and all will work on the eld in an equal way Tried to convince Chinese to join him 0 Starting to construct a mini empire in the north 0 Very broad vision as a ruler Cracking down harshly on any uprisings Kozinga Zheng Chengzhong 16241662 Anti Manchu Fought Manchus off guerilla style Qing dynasty Moved to Taiwan to launch pro Ming campaign 0 Not successful but still seen as a heroic gure Kangxi Emperor 16541722 Studied the four books and ve classics Confucius Qing dynasty Leaked the news that he was learning these to the courts so people would think that he was sagely Matteo Ricci 15521610 0 Most effective Jesuit in getting Christianity understood by the Chinese 0 Italian Jesuit priest One of the founding gures of the Jesuit China missions o Introduced the ndings of European exploration to East Asia Started learning the Chinese language and customs One of the rst western scholars to master Chinese script and Classical Chinese Forbidden Palace 0 Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty Located in the center of Beijing China Served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing and began construction 0 Captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng Manchus The Jurchen Barbarians to the north of China and Korea Declared the Qing dynasty after taking over North China Ming general decides to join the Manchus and took over the capital Paranoid Manchus of becoming too Chinese 0 Tried to maintain their identity including translating the most important documents into Manchu 0 Only visible symbol of Manchu domination was forcing Chinese men to wear their hair in Manchu style queue Bannermen o Organized different families 0 Distinct colored banners to make distinctions Continued into Qing dynasty o Stationed strategically among capital 0 Most oya were put closest to the capital 0 Often bilingual important translators o In the power system they were right below the Manchus Often Chinese amp Mongols o Administrativemilitary divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed o In war they functioned as armies Basic organizational framework of Manchu society helped with uni cation of fragmented Jurchen people and the Qing s conquest of the Ming dynasty Queue 0 Manchu hair style 0 Only visible symbol of Manchu domination in the Qing dynasty was forcing Chinese men to wear their hair in queue 0 Hair is long and worn in a ponytail Penalty for getting rid of the queue was death 0 Cutting it off was a political act of subversion Rights Controversy 0 Dispute among Roman Catholic missionaries over the religiosity of Confucianism and Chinese rituals during the 17th and 18th centuries 0 Debated whether Chinese ritua practices of honoring family ancestors and other forma Confucian and Chinese imperial rites quali ed as religious rites and thus incompatible with Catholic belief o Argument if ceremonies honoring Confucius and family ancestors were too tainted with superstition as to be incompatible with Christian belief 0 Jesuits believed that they were not and that they could be tolerated within certain limits Dominicans and Franciscans took the opposite view Qianlong Emperor 17111799 Ruled 17361799 longest ruling reign of a Chinese empeor Qing was an ethnically diverse dynasty Many tactics to keep control over Qing Grandson of Kangzi emperor Reigned as a young boy then started taking broader control Manchu identity Aware China was a multi ethnic empire 0 Used this as good PR for emperor 0 Used Western painters Kept tabs on country broadly o Conducted tours to Yangzi River that had largest population 0 Way to check out conditions and check out suspicious people 0 Patron of arts and literature 0 Engaged scholars to make encyclopedia 0 Send scholars to recopy books to compile into encyclopedia 0 Wanted to root out vicious ideas or anti Manchu sentiments Proto sinologists Leibniz Very focused on nding the key to chinese language Obsessed with cracking the code ot Chinese to make it easier 0 ldea that China was the primitive language 0 Figured a lot of the ancient societies Europeans knew about had died out except for China Believed in some common universal basis of languages 0 Belief that Chinese was perhaps the Biblical Primitive Language Literary inquisition Official persecution of intellectuals for their writings in Imperial China Qing particularly notorious for this practice 0 The Qing were particularly notorious for their use of literary inquisitions because writers reinforced the difference between Han Chinese and the Manchus who were traditionally viewed as barbarians 0 Get rid of any books that were pro Ming or anti Manchu sentiments Persecutions could be due to a single phrase or word that the ruler found offensive 9 macroregions of China 0 Different core economic regions of China 0 Manchuria o Xian PekingShandong o More rural 0 Good for cotton as cash crop also tobacco 0 High crime rate 0 Nanjing o Hangzhou O 0000 0 High migration New laborers with mixed loyalties Thriving commercial center Banksgqus Long distance trades Major oods Siquan o Fujian 0 00000 0 Coastal Trade with Taiwan and Southeast Asia Cosmopolitan culture Tea farms Credit and banking High real estate prices High gap between rich and poor social problems CantonGuangzhou o Yunnan Hokkaido sheries Remote area that had impact ofJapanese economy Two different kinds of sheries 0 Independent and factories Government controlling land and sea because they made permits for sheries Capitalism hurting the people Howell thinks that sheries are how capitalism will evolve l small into factories Division of skilled and unskilled workers 0 Specialization of labor 0 Skilled people shing 0 Unskilledmanual labor
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