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by: Erin Hipskind


Erin Hipskind
GPA 3.02
Forest Measurements
Dr. Fei

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Forest Measurements
Dr. Fei
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
75 ?




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This 4 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Erin Hipskind on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to FNR35300 at University College Dublin taught by Dr. Fei in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Forest Measurements in Environmental at University College Dublin.

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Date Created: 01/27/15
Terms Utilitarianism a theory about what kinds of actions are right or wrong the greatest happiness principle quotactions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness consequentialism an action is right to the extend that it RESULTS in goodness hedonism the good in quotPLEASURE and the absence of painquot 0 quotnot agents own happiness but greatest happiness altogetherquot o quotthe sum total of happinessquot 0 quotgeneral goodhappinessquot social hedonistic consequentialism an action is right to the extent that it results in more aggregate pleasure and less pain for all concerned six attractions of utilitarianism focuses on PLEASURE and RESULTS is IMPARTIAL not sel sh identi es a moral quotcommon UMPIREquot CALCULATION moral issues tested No exlusively RELIGIOUS the quotswine objectionquot 1 Greatest happiness principle says actions are right if they result in more quantity and quality pleasure than alternatives 2 quotpiglike activities produce more pleasure than alternatives 3 thus GHP requires us to act like pigs 4 Morality requires selfsacri ce amp nobility not piglike behavior 5 Thus GHP cannont be the supreme principle of morality Mill s responses to the swine objection we have apacities that pigs don t have the quothigher pleasuresquot reply standar is the quotgreatest amt of happiness altogetherquot NOT the agents own distinctively human activities produce a greater QUANTITY and a higher QUALITY of pleasure and therefore produce more pleasure OVERALL than swinelike activities do quothigher pleasuresquot higher pleasures produce a higher quality TEST AND VERDICT of pleasure for the agent than swinelike activities do Mill s quotcompetent judgesquot test A competent judge is someone who has experienced both the higher and lower pleasures of life according to Mill39s utilitarianism Their role is to help to de ne the higher and lower pleasures as they have that experience and knowledge and are therefore wiser in regards to de ning the amount of painpleasure the action causes Mill s proof for the greatest happiness principle equivocation pleasure is good 0 pleasure is desired and desirable so its good pleasure is the ONLY thing good 0 defeating counterexamples like virtue money power and fame aggregate pleasure is THE GOOD 0 each person desired their own pleasure it is good 0 aggregate pleasure is a good to the aggregate of all persons two senses of desirable ABLE to be desired WORTHY of being desired Nozick s quotexperience machinequot thought experiment any experience you desired we want to do things not just have the experience of doing them want actual contact with deeper reality not be limited to a manmade reality E M Forster s machine the fallacy of composition whatever is true of each of the parts of a thing is also true of the whole welfarism the good is the ful llment of people s interests the slavery objection to utilitarianism SWC says an action is right if it results in more aggregate interest ful llment than alternatives In some circumstances the retention of slavery would clearly maximize aggregate interest ful llment Thus in some circumstances SWC would require the retention of slavery BUT we all know slavery is wrong THEREFORE SWC is false Hare s two lines of response to the slavery objection ordinary intuitions accepting the facts deep facts about human nature and enslavement challenging facts Rawls and quotthe distinction between personsquot utilitarianism requires us to quotcon ate all persons into onequot does not take seriously the quotdistinction between personsquot Jones in the transmitter room example Contrasting terms you may be asked to brie y de ne each term in the pair and explain its relation to the other quantitative amp qualitative differences in pleasures Quantitative and Qualitative Some forms of utilitarianism assume that there are different kinds and varying qualities of pleasure Mill others do not Bentham Qualitative utilitarians argue that mental pleasures and pains are different in kind and superior in quality to purely physical ones Qualitative utilitarians must consider both quality and quantity Quantitative utilitarians argue that mental pleasures and pains differ from physical ones only in terms of quantity For a quantitative utilitarian the pleasure from eating an ice cream cone or reading a classic novel are of the same type However reading the classic novel might produce a greater quantity of pleasure due to fecundity or other factors For a qualitative utilitarian eating an ice cream cone and reading a classic novel produce different typesqualities of pleasure social amp egoistic versions of consequentialism Consequentialism is a set of ethical strategies that share the following feature they tell us to maximize the sum of good consequences and minimize the sum of bad ones or if some are good and some are bad maximizing the net consequences ie the good ones minus the bad ones Ethical egoism is the type of consequentialism that instructs every moral agent or person to choose the act or policy out of the available set of acts or policies that would produce the best overall outcome for the person doing the choosing Let us call social consequentialism the type of consequentialism that tells us to maximize good consequences and minimize bad ones taking into ACCOUNT the effects on every member of the human race or every sentient being Some social consequentialists also include only effects on humans in their reasoning while others also include effects on nonhuman animals hedonism amp welfarism welfarism the good is the ful llment of people s interests hedonism the good in quotPLEASURE and the absence of painquot 0 quotnot agents own happiness but greatest happiness altogetherquot quotthe sum total of happinessquot quotgeneral goodhappinessquot


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