Notes for First Exam
Notes for First Exam JOUR2500
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Date Created: 01/29/15
The Scienti c Study or Consumer Behavior Part 1 1 What is consumer behavior a Responses to products services and promotions or ideas of brands b Focus is on the consumer c Develop better products services and promotions aka develop better brands if we give time and effort to the consumer Consumer Response 73pes 1 Affective Feelings 2 Cognitive Thoughts 3 Conative Behaviors Consumer Research Strat Comm Products and Services 1 Take our brand and communicate it to the consumers and gives 3 outcomes from the brain as listed below a Affect positive or negative feelings eg happy sad b Cognition beliefs opinions attitudes and intentions c Conation purchase decisions and patterns Response In uences 1 Person Variables Individual Differences things that makes us us a Internal intelligence interests preferences etc i Eg one person shops more carefully than another 2 Situational Variables Context in which it is in a External Include 4 Ps Product Price Place Promotion i Eg buying a house can be more serious than buying a computer Why use Scienti c Method 1 Scientists amp Advertisers have similar goals a Description people do x amp Explanation better description the better explanation explanation is KEY scientists spend more time b Prediction amp Control advertisers spend more time i Science systematically reduces uncertainty We rule out certain explanations by asking questions we can test the theories or explanations 1 Intuition gives many possibilities science narrows The Scienti c Study of Consumer Behavior Part 2 We measure or progress in science by seeing how much further away we are from our goal 1 Graph 1 Positive Correlation as one variable goes up one variable goes up as well 2 Graph 2 Negative Correlation systemic linear relationships between two variables 3 Graph 3 Zero Correlations scatter plot with no systematic relationships Positive Strat CommSales Correlation 1 Increase is Strat Comm gt an increase in salesthe increase in strat Comm caused the increase in sales a BUTwe could argue that increase in sales leads to increase in strategic communication i SCSales Correlation Can Mean Either Correlations Churches as the number of churches goes up the number of crime goes up a Could be because churches are an easy target Crime as crime goes up people get scared as people get scared they turn to religion We can rule out all these explanations in order to understand gtlltgtllt Explanation could be a third variable outside of the two Confounding Variable Population because there are more people churches and crime both 90 Up Scenario 3 Economy vs Strat Comm vs Sales Economy is good so they buy more products therefore sales go up Casual Relationship Cause independent variable increase in strat Comm leads to the effect dependent variable increase in sales and vice versa 0 The dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable 0 Cause cannot come after the effect Causation Requires 1 Two variables are correlatedhave systematic relations 2 Cause Independent VariableIV Precedes Dependent VariableDV 3 Control for effects of other variables Experimentation 1 Manipulate independent variable to assess effect on dependent variable 2 Ex Compare responses dependent variable of people who see and ad experimental group to those of people who don t control group Ad presence is Independent variable 3 Examine correlation set Independent Variables and Dependent Variables order and control for other variables a In doing these three things we are demonstrating causation we can show one thing causes another Random Assignment 0 Participants grouped by chance if we chose then we could direct them into thinking what we want 0 Controls for individual differences among participants 0 Ex Without the random assignment those who saw the ad might have more money or more compulsive that could explain results 0 With random assignments those with money or compulsiveness are just as likely as not to see the ad 0 Very simply but very helpful 0 Participant backgrounds cancel out Consumer Attention Why Study Attention in Strat Comm Multitasking watching television texting playing a game on an iPad 0 We have limited cognitive capacity in regards to attention aka because of our multitasking we limit our attention 0 With all the media the audience cannot possibly pay attention to all So what are they paying attention too 0 Miller s 1956 Magic Number 7 7 or 2 units of info at a time People can pay attention up to 7 things Attention Intensity Amount of attention we can pay also limited by cognitive capacity Attention Factors 1 Prior KnowledgeExpertise morelarger chunks of info We can pay attention to various different speci c brands by categories 2 Arousal How awake or alert What are we interested in What kind of relationship do we have to the brand 0 The more arousal the more attention intensity 0 An exception could be caffeine intake therefore unable to reach high attention intensity Selective Attention Imply the fact that we are purposeful in selecting things to pay attention to voluntary attention also refers to involuntary attention where we are paying attention things we don t want to o Effort Allocation 0 quotWhere we put our attention and where our attention goesquot 1 Voluntary Attention currently relevant information such as this class we do not think about this class outside of this class This is called 2 Momentary Predisposition at this time we are listening to this class because we essentially have to we listen to another class at another time Eg in the market for a cell phone 3 Involuntarv Attention a Salience context dependent and it means difference from surroundings When something is different around the things that surround it we tend to pay attention to that thing i Novelty motion complexity intensity unexpectedness 1 All things that make something stand out b lividness Person Dependent personally or emotionally interesting to us something that grabs our attention Concrete or imagery provoking sensory spatial and temporal proximity i Enduring Predispositions chronic back pain w purple background Always thinking about it In other words 1 Salient Stimuli capture the attention of all people some of the time Ex Sirens going off when you normally don t hear them 2 Vivid Stimuli get the attention of some people all the time ex People interested in sports or not interested in sports Based on your interests is what you are attentive for Consumer Comprehension Chapter 2 o Relating new info to info stored in memory old information or quotmeaning makingquot 0 In order to make meaning to anything we need some comparison Comprehension and MIScomprehension Comprehension and belief are inseparable at least initially Just upon comprehending something you believe Just on the mere chance that you comprehend something you will believe it at rst Rejecting a false claim requires a second step Cognitive Capacity 0 With limited cognitive capacity and time we aren t always able to quotunbelievequot something or take the second step Eg Information overload distraction and time pressure Repe on Increases tendency to believe by increasing familiarity Doesn t make you sound more reasonable but it does make you more familiar o If we ask if that s true or false and it rings a bell for us we will tend to think that it is true o If we can t remember whether a claim is true we assume it is Otherwise why remember it Miscomprehension Pragmatic inferences everyday assumptions about claims that are literally true but guratively false 0 We tend to make logic out of something that is essentially false 0 Ex Using the word may as in quotBrand X may help relieve painquot 0 May vs WillMay is attached to pain therefore we think that it will help the pain So technically this is guratively false 0 Comparison Omission leave out object of comparison so consumers ll in the blank with a competing product o quotBrand X gives you greater mileagequot than other kinds of gasoHne Piecemeal Data Compare speci c attributes of a product to other products so people infer your product is better than others 0 quotMore head room than a Mercedes more leg room than Cadillac and more trunk space than a BMWquot luxtaposition of imperatives place two statements together so people infer one leads to the other 0 quotBrush with Ultra Bright Be Popular Consumer Memory Computer and Human Memory Personal Computer Ram Info Processing to Hard Drive Info Storage 0 You want more Ram when you are doing computer editing because you want more space Human Brain Short Term Memory ConsciousAttention encoding to retrieval Long Term Memory Info Storage Memory Operations 1 Encoding placing shortterm memory info into longterm memory a Works through two suboperations i Rehearsal repeating in your head ii Coding relating new info to old info 2 Retrieval bringing longterm memory info into shortterm memory a Two major types i Recognition noticing present info as familiar ii Recall naming info when not present Can be aided cues or unaided none Consumer luddments Nonevaluative and Evaluative NonEvaluative Judgments Beliefs ideas about attributes and bene ts Measured on a scale between extremes Ex Very large to very small very harsh to very gentle very boring to very interesting very dangerous to very safe Nonevaluative beliefs are not valenced although it may seem so Valence positive or negative value quotBuilding blocks for evaluative judgmentsquot meaning that attributes is the building blocks for your own judgment of products Belief Scales Semantic Differential Scale semantic means meaning differential means opposite so it means ideas or meanings that are opposites Anchored with words that have different meanings 0 Ex Uncomfortable to comfortable Likert Scale is named by the guy would come up with it They are statements which we check the extent to whether we agree or disagree So essentially a statement is made and we agree or disagree to that statement to a certain extent Guttman Scale named after the person who made it The Guttmann scale is rankordered statements meaning they start with something very small and then they ask for more and more 0 EX Dr Marten shoes are somewhat stylish Dr Marten shoes are always stylish Dr Marten shoes are very stylish You chose agree or disagree Belief Origins 1 Descriptive direct rsthand experience Meaning we had experience with the product or brand itself 2 Informational indirect secondhand info Someone else said xyz candidate will do this this and this Nondirect and not as strong as descriptive 3 lnferential go beyond our knowledge We infer from what we already know about the product however we don t necessarily know this exact product a Correlation price quality b Prior knowledge cars have four wheels c Schemas attributebene t links Evaluative Judgments Attitudes global or overall ideas about products or issues Also measured on a continuum Ex quotvery bad brand to very good brandquot they are valenced or positive or negative Nonevaluative judgments don t have valence We are talking about the overall brand in evaluative ln nonevaluative you are talking about attributes not the overall brand Ex Very bad to very good very unfavorable to very favorable very negative to very positive horrible to wonderful Zanna and Rempel Model Beliefs Attitudes Affect Behaviors gt all affect each other reciprocal relationships ConsumerjudgmentsPreference satisfaction and purchase amp intentions Preference judgments direct comparisons betweenamong options Attitudebased preferences from comparing at the global level quotAttitude must be in memoryquot Attributebased preferences based on features ex comparing A to B Auto A gt Auto B Air conditioning gt air conditioning power steering gt power steering quotiKeyquot gt 7 gt quotShiatsu Massagequot unique attributes help make the judgment Direction of Comparison most recent focal or unique is more accessible from memory gt from car example massage is focal unique evaluation leads to judgment positive preferred negative not preferred gt quotauto seatbeltsquot Satisfaction judgments from comparing chosen to rejected options or ideas about chosen after purchase in uences repeat purchase and quotword of mouthquot expectancy discon rmation 1 we form expectations before purchase 2 If meets or exceeds satis ed gt if not we re not expectations are as important as the reality of the brand product etc Attributions causal inferences about product or performance gt external or internal external fault outside oneself poor design dissatisfaction good design satisfaction internal fault inside oneself no effect on product satisfaction Prediction amp Intention judgments gt guessing about future product performance quotWill the product do what I need it toquot quotShould I buy a new car or x minequot quotWhat investments should I makequot quotWill my spouse like this giftquot quotWill I still like this house in 5 yearsquot Representativeness Heuristic similaritybased judgment if new product reminds us of old like predict we ll like new one too ex original Mac and iMac ex Other Transformers vs Bay s movies even if focus on irrelevant similarity gt package design Availability Heuristic predictions based on ease with which instances retrieved from memory Good Acme products come to mind easily we ll think new ones will be good