Intro to World Music: Notes and review
Intro to World Music: Notes and review MUSIC - 0311
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This 17 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Heath Fienman on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to MUSIC - 0311 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Pinkerton in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Music in Music at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
Heath Fienman 1514 World Music Introduction to World Music MUSIC 0311 Dr Emily Pinkerton Unit 1 North America Ethnomusicology studies MUSICCULTURE Sound 0 Ideas Music ethnicity race 0 Actions styles sounds 0 Institutions Record companies entertainment industry 0 Objects instruments Race Music 0 Bo Chatmon Corrine Corrina 0 Excluded Middle Chistopher A Waterman Armenter Chatmon 0 18931964 0 Great grandson of a female slave and White planter born on Mississippi plantation to a prosperous family 0 Performed on bass banjo and guitar for barn dances in White and black communities 0 Also performed Jazz Blues and popular music Corrine Corrina 1928 0 Derived from African American String Band tradition 0 Oldtime country song With ties to traditional southern stock repertoire 12 bar blues form 0 Pop tune With connections to vaudeville and Tin Pan Alley Cosmopolitan sensibility Race vs Hillbilly Records 0 In the 1920s and 30s AfricanAmerican musicians were encouraged by record industry gatekeepers to move away from string band repertoire in the interest of marketability 0 The advertising categories of race and hillbilly music contributed to misperceptions of the hybrid character of the repertoires of both black and White ensembles Structure in Music 0 Rhythm 0 Melody 0 Texture 0 Form Listening Practice 1 Personal Reaction 0 What stands out to you on first listen Why 0 What aspects or moments do you like or dislike 0 Are there adjectives images or metaphors that seem to match the quality of the sounds or the progression of sounds 2 Musical Analysis 0 Consider each aspect of musical structure 0 Rhythm melody texture and form 0 Music concepts vocabulary explanations 0 Emic insider understanding Rhythm 0 Time relation between sounds 0 Ordered Timing 0 Most music has more than 1 rhythm 0 You can tap your foot in regular time intervals 0 Fast and slow Meter 0 Regular cycles of beats 0 234 etc 0 What the music is counted in 0 In a piece of music all instruments melodic and percussive play specific rhythms Metrical 0 Has a BEAT 0 Beats are organized into cycles of 2 or more 0 Corrine Corrina in cycles of 4 beats NonMetrical 0 Lacks a steady beat 0 Does not mean that rhythm is not important 0 Example Taqasim improvisation in ME classical music Polymeter 0 2 or more overlaid rhythm cycles 0 More complex than just multiple simultaneous rhythms that adhere closely to meter 0 Example Agbekor from Ghana Melody Tune The most prominent line Pitch How high or low a sound is frequency of a sound wave Melodies are played by pitched instruments trumpet piano saxophone voice Many percussion instruments are considered unpitched because they generate so many simultaneous frequencies that there is hard to hear a fundamental pitch Organization of pitch varies crossculturally A melody that sounds out of tune usually signals a scalar system that is different from your own Example 7 pitches form the major scale in Western classical music white keys of the piano Other ways to describe Melody Timbre Tone quality clear breathy sweet etc Emphasis short long soft punchy etc Ornament orid active dense etc Texture Layers of different melodies interacting with each other The simplest textures is monophonic one melodic line Sometimes melodies are harmonized as in the 2 voices in Corrine Corrina Musical textures often defy easy categorization but we will explore terms like HOMOPHONY and HETEROPHONY to help us hear more detail in our listening examples Form Structure How a performance progresses How a melody rhythm and texture are put together Examples 12bar blues ThroughComposed Flashes in Gamelan Gong Kebyar Interwoven Melody Fragments in Navajo Yeibichai Corrine Corrine is a STROPHIC with instrumental interludes The text from it could be described as AAB Each line of text has a different melody A B C Corrine Corrina where you been so long Corrine Corrina where you been so long Ain t had no lovin since you been gone FIELD RESEARCH PROJECT 1 YOUR CLASSMATE S MUSIC Interviewer Consultant 1 What is one of your favorite musical stylesartists songs 2 Can you remember when you first heard this music 3 What do you think might have drawn you to this music What makes it sound good What does this music have that other styles don t 4 Where do you most often listen to this music 5 YOUR QUESTION Compare and contrast your answers Heath Fienman 12215 World Music Midterm Part 3 Essay 2 page minimum 1 Describe how Bo Chatmon s Corrine Corrina is an example of a hybrid musical style Be sure to describe the song itself Bo s personal history and the mediating forces of the record industry Describing the song itself Derived from African American String Band tradition It is an old time country song with ties to traditional southern stock repertoire 12 bar blues form AAB Form First 2 lines are same but both are different from the 3rd However Melody is in the form of ABC Instruments include guitar piano and voice Hybrid Combining multiple different elements into a unique mixture Although it is in the 12 bar blues form it is a pop tune with connections to vaudeville and Tin Pan Alley with a cosmopolitan sensibility It has become a standard in number of musical styles including blues rock and roll Cajun and Western Swing In fact the name of the song depends on who recorded it in what genre Performed for both whites and blacks not just one group of people Broader pattern of musical circulation across boundaries of class race and religion Bo developed professional skills such as carpentry he does not fit the stereotypical mold of the foot loose harddrinking Mississippi bluesmanBo Bo s personal history Real name is Armentor Chatmon Born in 1893 1964 Great grandson of a female slave and white planter born on Mississippi plantation to a prosperous family Performed on bass banjo and guitar for barn dances in white and black communities Also performed Jazz Blues and popular music Mediating forces of the record industry In the 1920s and 30s AfricanAmerican musicians were encouraged by record industry gatekeepers to move away from string band repertoire in the interest of marketability The advertising categories of race and hillbilly music contributed to misperceptions of the hybrid character of the repertoires of both black and white ensembles Performed for barn dances in BOTH white and black communities Bo did not fit the typical mold and that angered many especially the record industry Heath Fienman 12115 World Music Pinkerton Music Expert Extra Credit A common misconception in music is that an individual who isn t musically talented thinks they have no idea or any basis in music As the article states everyone has an innate tendency for music that they are more or less born with but essentially music can be learned Simply put music is all around us and we are captured and enamored by it every single day without even realizing it As a child even a small infant you hear noises that are unfamiliar to you all the time and you must soak it in Over time these sounds become very familiar to you and you naturally learn As noted in the article She has acquired a deep unconscious understanding of how chords relate to one another As Sigmund Freud a famous psychologist points out People don t express their knowledge in their unconscious until given motivation to do so For example I don t sit in my room and listen to Shake it off by Taylor Swift However I probably know the lyrics as well as anyone else simply by hearing that song all the time and mixers and on the radio Furthermore I wouldn t be bored and just say the lyrics in my head or be able to but when I hear the song come on I have the ability to retrieve it from my unconscious and dance and sing the exact words from start to end Another interesting topic is that of relative pitch which is the capacity to hear patterns such as that of the theme song from the Simpsons or Family Guy The words may not be familiar but the sound or the pitch is very familiar and hearing it in a different sense is almost uncomfortable As the article states one needs not to be a prodigy to be able to do this or learn lyrics of a song such as Shake it off The most interesting point I saw in this article is as paraphrased The difference between a musical expert and novice is not nearly as drastic as one would assume In fact it is a much smaller gap than most realize It is not easy to become a talented musician I will never argue that I played music as a child and it simply got too time consuming and difficult However the innate ability to learn music at any early age and experience it without realizing it on a daily basis is absolutely amazing The average person is much more of a music expert than they might assume and it is refreshing to know that we actually know more than we think we might I definitely hope to learn more about music and become more of an expert in the near future Heath Fienman 12215 World Music Mid Term 1 Vocabulary Musical Terms 1 Melody A sequence of single notes that is musically satisfying tune voice or line is a 10 11 linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity Rhythm The element of music pertaining to time played as a grouping of notes into accented and unaccented beats Texture The way the melodic rhythmic and harmonic materials are combined in a composition thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece Heterophony type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line Homophony texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony the relationship between them creates chords Form The structure of a piece of music Timbre Tone color quality of sound that distinguishes one verse or instrument to another It is determined by the harmonies of sound Pitch The frequency of a note determining how high or low a sound is Meter categorized as simple compound or complex These three categories can explain all rhythmic patterns in Western music Each of the categories of meter is defined by the subdivision of beats The number of beats per measure determines the term associated with that meter Traditional Music music transmitted orally or as music with unknown composers It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles Falsetto A style of male singing where by partial use of the vocal chords the voice is able to reach the pitch of a female OldTime Bo Carter Armenter Chatmon Wrote Corrine Corrina performed in barn dances in white and black communities born in Mississippi Whitetop Festival Old time music supporters like Henry Ford promoted the music as market of AngloSaxon pride and Charles Seeger called it a feast paradox OldTime Acoustic instruments in the rural southeast mountains and had to do with agriculture mines and mills Today people who have a common urbanbased experience play it Fiddle A type of violin used especially with folk music Banjo a stringed musical instrument with a long neck and a round openbacked body consisting of parchment stretched over a metal hoop like a tambourine played by plucking or with a plectrum It is used especially in American folk music 10 ll 12 Clawhammer a style of banjo playing in which the thumb and fingers strum or pluck the strings in a downward motion Mike Seeger Multiinstrumentalist who inspired generations of folk revival musicals who performed Walking Boss Born in NY and son of Charles Seeger Carolina Chocolate Drops String band from Durham NC who came together at 1st black banjo gathering performed traditional and modern songs and studied with Piedmont fiddler Joe Thompson He wrote Cornbread and Butterbeans Native America Powwow A traditional Native American ceremonial and spiritual gathering featuring food singing and dancing Sioux Grass Dance Performed at fairs rodeos and powwows performed by the Navajos Costumes were very elaborate for competitive dancing Had romantic and evolutionist perspectives Variety of percussion instruments and has a complex melodic and rhythmic structure Delayed Evolution Doesn t acknowledge the sophistication of Native American musical traditions Vocables a word considered only as a combination of certain sounds or letters without regard to meaning The Fenders Johnny Cash song performed by Johnny Cash in 1966 Folsom Prison Blues Several bands on the Navajo Reservation and nonnative American musicians are also popular R Carlos Nakai Wrote Origins and was part of the Native American Flute revival Arliene Nofchissey Williams Wrote Proud Earth Native American and Euro American elements with Navajo and Mormon messages Yeibichai Nightway ceremony or curing ritual that restores a person s balance with the natural world and has a tense vocal production with a swooping melodic movement Has intricate combinations and Vocables along with shouts ornamentation and falsetto Nightway The dreamer and his brothers One man nicknamed The Dreamer and scorned by his brothers is invited by the Holy People to live with them and learn the Night Chant He returns to teach it to his family Ritual Drama reenactment of origin myth of ceremony Call of the Yei Hi ye hi ye hoho ho ho call of the gods Hozho a concept found in Navajo Native American culture that refers to interconnectedness between beauty harmony and goodness in all things physical and spiritual that results in health and wellbeing for all things and beings Medicine Man uses divination rituals to determine why an individual is out of Hozho and what ritual is required possess magical or supernatural powers Heath Fienman 11415 World Muisc Native America Navajo Music Yeribichai Song Nightway Popular Music Navajo Way of Life Largest Native American tribe in the US Reservation includes parts of Utah Arizona and New Mexico Strong traditional culture open to new ideas Farming raising livestock weaving silversmithing Coal uranium oil natural gas lumber Educational and health care funds from Department of the Interior Wide range of incomes Native American Country Music Is the sound of memory I don t know how it happened but I m really kind of glad I m an Indian cowboy and being both can t be so bad Indian Cowboy Apache Spirit homophonic An important way for Native Americans to link social memory and sociopolitical position David W Samuels 2009 Evokes connections to land and place especially rural Employs narratives of loss vehicle for protest Looks toward the past connects the historical and the personal Cover versions bands often viewed as the original singers and has unique elements to performances Songs by nonNatives also popular and mediated and reinterpreted by listeners Original songs by Native bands Local topics images identity Drums by Red Blaze Social critics Protest and Native Language Folsom Prison Blues Johnny Cash song performed by the Fenders 1966 Country music Several bands on the Navajo Reservation Nonnative American musicians are also popular New Modes of Composition Arliene Nofchissey Williams 0 Proud Earth 0 Native American and EuroAmerican elements 0 Navajo and Mormon messages R Carlos Nakai 0 Origins 0 Native American Flute Revival Hozho in Chantways 0 Restores balance and 0 recalibrates patients regarding social and supernatural relationships and their attachment to place and time Paul F Moulton All illness is rooted in the spiritual world 0 The physical and the psychological are one 0 Walk in Beauty 0 From Blessingway Ceremony 0 Frequently spoken motto 0 Good health balance harmony and beauty 0 A manifestation of a deity s need or demand from humans 0 A medicine man uses divination rituals to determine why an individual is out of Hozho and what ritual is required 0 Song is the most powerful element Physical Balance Reunites family and community 0 Family member seeks out medicine man 0 Ceremony requires significant amounts of time and financial resources on the part of the extended family 0 Expresses kinship and clan relationships 0 Includes PUBLIC EVENTS and social dances Spiritual Balance All chants retell creation legends 0 To harness the power of these supernatural acts 0 Including physical placement of celestial bodies and the topographical features of the Navajo reservation 0 Origins of Chants 0 In embodying the hero the one sung over comes to understand that his or her life is an extension of those supernatural origins Moulton 0 Connection to deep past and place Nightway 0 The Dreamer and his brothers 0 One man nicknamed The Dreamer and scorned by his brothers is invited by the Holy People to live with them and learn the Night Chant He returns to teach it to his family Yeibichai Song 0 Nightway ceremonial curing ritual 0 Masked dancers represent the presence of gods 0 Ritual restores a person s balance with the natural world 0 Shouts ornamentation falsetto 0 Tense vocal production 0 Swooping melodic movement 0 Intricate combinations of musical phrases 0 Vocables Call of the Yei Context of Performance 0 Last night of a 9night curing ritual 0 Singers organized in teams 0 Teams prepare music costumes and masks 0 Dance of the Gods 0 Ritual drama reenactment of origin myth of ceremony Classical Navajo Music 0 Great ceremonial chants 0 Series of songs that accompany ritual procedures 0 They are classic because they 0 Are part of a tradition that goes back many generations 0 Very long and complex hundreds of songs per chant 0 Encompass Navajo beliefs about the natural and supernatural world 0 Recount Navajo spiritual history as complex as the Vedas of India or Greek mythology 0 Few recordings because many feel they are too sacred to be public 0 Fragment of Shootingway chantprayer 0 gtgt httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvaFT3oBh9YTU 0 Subtle variation 0 Highly repetitive Frank Mitchell 1 88 l 1968 0 Blesingway singer and community leader 0 Ceremony for exible occasions anytime 0 Remembers families staying close together in his childhood 0 Participated in ceremonies 0 Parents were suspicious of school recruiters If you don t learn any songs you Will have nothing to go by Worked in many professions on and off the reservation Returned to take care of inlaws and became apprentice to his father in laW Chooses singing over farming Native America Intertribal Dance and Song Sioux War Dance Grass dance or Omaha dance Popular Native American dance and singing style Performed at fairs rodeos and powwows Performed by nonPlains Native Americans including the Navajo Competitive dancing that is a display of virtuosity Costume as elaborate as vocal style European reaction of 1900 s Music of the true Savages Romantic and evolutionist perspectives Music connects directly to emotions Fewer instruments Simple textures Delayed evolution doesn t acknowledge the sophistication of Native American musical traditions Immense variety of percussion instruments Complex melodic and rhythmic structure Musical observations Falsetto Swooping melodic movement heavy slides at the end of phrases Pulsation of voice Nonlexical syllables Driving drumbeat With complex relationship to vocal part Zuni Lullaby 1950 Different vocal production than Plains singing Grass Dance Words With meaning Flexible melody With 2 pitches Repetition prominent in many Native American music styles 0 Subtle variation Heath Fienman 11215 World Music Old Time Music Appalachia Transforming Tradition Traditional Music 0 Passed on orally from generation to generation 0 Unchanging over many years 0 Not commercial 0 Authentic 0 Rural Types of Music 1 Classical 2 Traditional 3 Popular OldTime 0 Rural Southeast Mountains 0 Acoustic instruments 0 Agriculture 0 Mines and mills 0 Today played by people who have a common urbanbased experience Inventing OldTime Music 0 The term was coined in the 1920 s by music promoters radio stations and record companies 0 Festivals such as the White Top Folk Festival and oldtime supporters like Henry Ford promoted the music as a marker of AngloS axon pride Minstrel shows 0 Banjo was essential 0 First blends of white and black music The White Top Folk Festival 0 193 1 1939 0 Charles Seeger called it a feast paradox OldTime Musicians Mike Seeger 0 Funny looking kid from the city 0 19332009 born in NY 0 Multiinstrumentalist Folklorist Son of Charles and Ruth Crawford Seeger Began field recordings in the 1950 s Founded the NY City Ramblers in 1958 Inspires generations of folk revival musicians Performed Walking Boss Walking Boss Banjo and voice Strophic Banjo doubles voice heterophony Claw hammer Technique vs 2 or 3 finer picking Right and left hand rhythms Tommy J arrell Steady as a rock 19011985 from Mt Airy NC Fiddler Banjo player Became well known during the 1960s Folk Revival Toured mentored young musicians and sold many recordings Round Peak style is a staple of OldTime repertoire Wrote Poor Ellen Smith Poor Ellen Smith Fiddle and Voice Heterophony Strophic Crosskey tuning AEAE Rocking the bow Drones pulse syncopation Thomas Maupin Let your feet do the talkin Buckdance atfoot dancer from Murfreesboro TN Improvised percussive step dance with roots in European and West African dance Learned from family and friends at hoedowns and barn dances Winner of many national dancing competition Tours with grandson and family Carolina Chocolate Drops String band from Durham NC Members came together at the 1st black banjo gathering in Boone NC in 2005 Banjo fiddle guitar harmonica snare bones jug kazoo beat box Studied with Piedmont fiddler Joe Thompson Perform traditional and modern songs Cornbread and Butterbeans Cornbread and Butterbeans Clawhammer banjo fiddle bones jug Strophic Harmonized vocals HeterophonyHomophony What is Bluegrass Bluegrass developed from oldtime music using many of the same instruments Incorporates elements of Scottish English and Irish traditional music mixed With elements from blues and jazz Like jazz bluegrass alternates periods of collective improvisation With instrumental solos Emphasis on vocal block harmonies a stack With the lead in the middle and upper and lower harmonies added Most bluegrass songs are newly composed like other contemporary popular music Named after Bill Monroe and His Blue Grass Boys an early group to popularize the style in the 1940s Bill Monroe and His Blue Grass Boys Train 45 Summary OldTime 3 key instruments Fiddle Banjo Clawhammer style guitar Texture Polyphony heterophony homophony Vocal None or solounison Repertoire Mostly traditional tunes Form AABB Blue Grass 5 key instruments fiddle banjo 3 finger Scruggs guitar mandolin bass Texture Polyphony with collective improvisation and homophony Vocal none solo or block harmonies Repertoire Mostly composed songs Form Strophic
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