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by: Becca Savino


Marketplace > Washington State University > Study_Guide_Exam_2
Becca Savino
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Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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This 6 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Becca Savino on Friday January 30, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to a course at Washington State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 01/30/15
Exam Study Guide Chapter 6 12 Common Mistakes article 1 Not picking the right manager Not getting the team behind the project Not getting executive buy in Too many projects implemented production at once Lack of communication Allowing scope to change Providing unrealistic timelines Not being exible Not having systems in place for trackingapproving changes 10 Micromanaging projects 11 Expecting too much of the software 12 Not having metric to define success om gweww Analysis Phase in Systems development lifecycle Determining Requirements 0 Be Impartial Try to understand problems from the users point of view 0 Relax constraints don t let the constraints put a limit on what the system could do 0 Attention to detail Deliverables and outcomes to determine requirements 0 Interview the people on the system or observe doing it firsthand immerse yourself in the environment of the users 0 From existing documents 0 From computerized systems to look at existing systems and see what the new improved system should be doing 0 Traditional methods I Interviewing individualsgroup I Observing workers Problem is that users tend to change their behavior when their being observed I Study business documents Attempting to get a historical and formal view of system requirements Can see what all information the system is taking into account ie Sales receipt shows time spent cash credit ect Nominal Group Technique NGT Facilitated process that supports group idea generation I Members first work separately then come together and discuss strategy 0 Contemporary Methods for Determining System Requirements joint Application Design HAD 0 Brings together all the users and they collect all the system requirements needed for the system Everyone gets to hear what each other have to say about the system They meet for an extended period of time Resource intensive Very formal agenda Participants OOOOO I Session leader I Users I Managers I Sponsor I Systems Analyst I Scribe I IS Staff Group Support System Facilitates sharing ideas and voicing opinions CASE Tools Help analyze existing systems 0 Tools that automate the process System Prototypes o Iterative development process 0 Rough draft of the system built so users can have a sense what the product will be 0 Customers can give feedback on different extra features they would wouldn t like 0 Used when I Users requests aren t clear Only a few users involved in the system When there are communication problems I Documentation is generally not great Disruptive technologies are technologies that enable the breaking of longheld business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes Chapter 7 Data Flow Diagramming DFD Rules Understand the rules of the data ow diagram be able to spot where rules are broken when given a data ow diagram Functional Decomposition process of breaking system descriptions into finer and finer detail Look at the black boxquot then dive into more and more detail Continues until you hit the point where you cannot break the sub process down into more detail or you ve gotten enough detail Primitive DFD is the lowest level 0 First you identify what process you want to break down 0 Identify inputs and outputs I Make sure inputs and outputs remain the same when you go into the next level 0 When you go from one level to the next keep the same naming convention 9 make a new decimal point for each level you Conservation Principle Conserve inputs and outputs at the next level of decomposition Balancing Conserve inputs and outputs when going to the next level diagram Data Flow Splitting data ow at a high level can be separated at the lower levels Data ow diagrams Useful for depicting purely logical information ows Only 4 symbols are used 0 Process Work or actions performed on data inside the system I Has a verb phase label 0 Data store data at rest inside the system I Noun phrase label cannot move data from one data store to another 0 Sourcesink External entity that is the origin or destination of data I Noun phrase label data can t move directly from a source to a sink 0 Data ow Arrows that depict the movement of the data Context diagram overview of an organizational system that outlines o Boundaries external entities that interact w system information ows 0 Only one process is shown no data stores are shown Guidelines for Drawing DFD s Timing 0 Not represented on a DFD Iterative development 0 Analysts should expect to redraw diagram several times before getting a good DFD Primitive DFD s 0 Identify your lowest level of decomposition Rules for stopping decomposition 0 When each process is reduced to a single decision 0 Each data store represents data about a single entity 0 You ve reached the level of detail needed DFD s as Analysis Tools Gap Analysis Helps you identify discrepancies and inefficiencies BPR business process reengineering Significantly changing a business process and reengineering it Modeling logic with decision tables 0 Matrix representation of the logic that specifies possible conditions for decisions and their resulting actions Condition stubs lists the conditions relevant to the decision Action stubs lists the actions that result for a given set of conditions Rules specifies which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions Indifferent condition a condition whose value does not affect which actions are taken for two or more rules 0000 Use case 0 Definitions and Symbols 0 Use case a single system function represented as an ellipse 0 Actors A role not an individual involved at basic level functioning represented by stick figures 0 System Boundary includes all relevant use cases represented as a box 0 Connection An association between an actor and a use case depicts usage relationship not data ow I Actors are connected to use cases w lines I Use cases are connected to each other w arrows 0 Include relationship association between two use cases where one adds new behaviors or actions to the other I Extends a use case by adding new behavior or actions 0 Extend relationship Association between two use cases where one use case uses the functionality contained in the other I Used in many other use cases 0 Abstract use case use case is initiated by another use case 0 Levels of Use Case Cockburn 0 White As seen from clouds o Kite Birdseye viewquot 0 Blue Sea level viewquot 0 Fish Below sea level 0 Black Bottom of the sea Chapter 8 Identifier Consists of a single attribute Will almost always have this Partial identifier Not a particular attribute identifies someone but a group generally 2 or 3 of attributes identify someone combination of fields Name phone number Optional Attribute Not required not every person would have it Student database ex License plate financial aid Derived attribute The value doesn t remain constant it s derived by two values Age how long you ve been a member Starbucks gold member status MultiValued Attribute there might be multiple values for each attributes Ex Knowing more than one language of courses currently enrolled in Composite Attribute composed of two or more attributes Address city zip state Entity Types Strong Entity exists by itself not dependent on another entity type for it s existence Associative Need to have at least two other entity types Relationship Degree How many entity types are involved in the relationship Naming convention verb phrase specific Relationship between entities How the two entities are connected Customer placing an order relationship between customer and order entity Unary Only one entity type One employee managing another employee Binary Two entities in a relationship Instructor book Ternary Three entities in a relationship A student a book and the professor Relationship cardinality Mandatory many Mandatory One Optional One Optional many customers can place one order or they can place many orders Naming and defining conventions Entity type Singular noun Specific and descriptive to the organization Concise Event Entity Type Named as the result of the event Entity type Include unique characteristics Make it clear what is and isn t included Include description of when an entity type is created and deleted For some entity types the definition must specify When the instance can change into another entity type What history is to be kept Attribute a named property or characteristic of an entity that is of interest to the organization Everyone in an organization will follow same naming conventions Noun and unique within the same entity Follow standard format Noun and should be unique Candidate Key and Identifiers Candidate Key an attribute or combination of attributes that uniquely identifies each instance of an entity type Identifier A candidate key that will act as a single identifier 0 Something that will not change value 0 That will never have a null value 0 Keys that don t rely on other keys Naming and defining relationships Relationship definition should 0 Explain optional participants 0 Explain reason for max cardinalities Associative Entity Entity type that associates the instances of one or more entity types and contains attributes that are peculiar to the relationship between those entity instances 0 Sometimes called a gerund 0 One to one relationships for the middle entity eg A certificate has a one to one relationship with an employee and the course I Because the same course can be completed by multiple people on different dates I Multiple employees can take different courses and complete them at different times Supertypes and Subtypes o Subtype subgroup of entities in an entity type 0 Shares common attributes or relationships distinct from other subgroupings 0 Special case of your general entity 0 Supertype A generic entity type that has one relationship with one or more subtypes 0 Person I Under person you could have employee alums student 0 Total vs Partial specialization 0 Total specifies that the instance of the supertype MUST be a member of a subtype in the relationship 0 Partial An entity of the supertype doesn t have to belong to a specific subtype 0 Disjoint Vs Overlap o Disjoint Entity instance cannot be a member of two subtypes at once 0 Ie Cannot be an undergrad and graduate student at the same time o Overlap Entity instance CAN be a member of two subtypes at once 0 Ie A alum can also be an employee Business Rules 0 Specifications that preserve the integrity of the logical data model 0 You need to incorporate the requirements that you determined beforehand into your data model 0 Four basic business rules 0 Entity integrity Unique no nulls o Referential integrity rules that govern relationships between entity types 0 Domains constraints on value values need to be valid I The set of data types amp values that an attribute can be 0 Triggering Operations Other business rules that protect validity Packages Conceptual data models 0 You buy a package of generic data models 0 Higher quality because they incorporate best practicesquot ER Diagrams o What is the identifier for the Employee identity 0 EmployeelD 0 Add a meaningful attribute to the relationships completes justify answer 0 Grade date started 0 Add a meaningful repeating attribute to the relationships Employee justify answer 0 Repeating attribute something that can have multiple values I Different languages English French German multiple skills 0 Replace relationship w associative entity


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