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what if life? Cells: organization and communication, Inheritance, genetics and molecular biology (Chapters 1, 4, 20)

by: miami305

what if life? Cells: organization and communication, Inheritance, genetics and molecular biology (Chapters 1, 4, 20) BSC 2023

Marketplace > Florida International University > BSC 2023 > what if life Cells organization and communication Inheritance genetics and molecular biology Chapters 1 4 20
GPA 3.72
Human Biology
Paul Sharp

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In these notes you can find information both from the book and from the class that I regularly attend. I underlined the most important concepts so that you can find them easily, and the material is...
Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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This 10 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by miami305 on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/15
HUMAN BIOLOGY Biology study of living organisms and their environments 7 basic characteristics of living organisms Organization From microscopic units cells to organisms Reproduce Acquire materials energy and nutrients Plants get them by synthesizing compounds using solar energy Animals get energy by ingesting nutrients Grow and develop able to adapt to your environment means staying the same it39s a state of body equilibrium where the body39s internal environment remains stable in physiological limits When we detect changes in our bodies we respond to them modifying some aspects of our behavior consciously or not Evolutionary history Respond to stimuli Homeostasis helps organisms to stay alive with the use of feedback or loops Negative feedback reduces or eliminates the changes detected by stimuli receptors Positive feedback are rare an eX is childbirth The positive feedback amplifies the original stimuli EX sweating when it39s hot shivering when cold Atoms are the smallest particles It39s the smallest unit of an elements that has the characteristics of that element Atoms combine to form molecules Molecules combine to form cells the smallest unit of life Cells with similar characteristics combine to form tissues The human body has 4 major types of tissues muscolar nervous epithelial connective tissues working together combine to form organs Similar organs combine to form organ systems Organic systems combine to form organisms Taxonomy the study of classi cation based on similarities and common ancestry Kingdom high level taxonomic classification The domain EUKARYA includes organisms with nuclei and internal membranes The four kingdoms in Eukarya are Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista The two remaining kingdoms are prokaryotic Eubacteria and Archaebacteria THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The is used by the scientists to answer questions about the physical world Only questions which requires experiments can be answered by the scienti c method An is one possible answer to the question or problem of interest recognize a problem or unanswered question develop hypothesis to explain the problem Make predictions based on hypothesis perform experiments to test hypothesis analyze data and reach conclusions share knowledge with other scientists 9959959 We develop a hypothesis with inductive reasoning creating a general statement based on our observations We develop experiments with deductive reasoning moving from general to specific When designing experiments we must control all the variables A variable is a factor that can be changed during an experiment to see how it affects the outcome After many hypothesis have survived without being disproved they create a theory A theory has undergone several experiments and it has not been refuted CELLS The study of cells is called cytology Cell smallest unit of life Ex human cell Cells are seen through microscope most are between 10 and 100 um diameter over 200 different cell types in human body 50 to 60 trillion Ex Ameba made of 1 cell and it can take any shape Why are cells so small Diffusion Everything that happen to our body happens because of diffusion ex that39s how we get oxygen in our bodies Cell theory major theory in biology that states a cell is the basic unit of life all living things are made up of cells new cells arise only from preexisting cells cells are made of hereditary materials they pass to daughter cells the chemical composition of all cells is similar The metabolic process associated with life occurs Within cells There are 2 categories of cells Prokaryotes lacks a membrane bound nucleus and membranous organelles EX bacteria Eukaryotes has membrane bound nucleus and membranous organelles EX plants animals fungi Not all eukariotic cells are the same Plant cells contain chloroplasts Where energy is created CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Plasma membrane outer membrane that regulates what enters and leave the cell It39s a boundary between the outside and inside of the cell It39s selectively permeable allows certain molecules to enter and exit the cell It39s composed of a phospholipid bilayer with attached proteins It39s uidmosaic model based on the changing location and patterns of protein molecules in a uid phospholipid bilayer It is composed of two layers of phospholipids This bilayer has two heads hydrophillic towards the acqueous part of the environment and the hydrophobic lipids sandwiched in between the bilayer We can nd Glycolipids and Glycoproteins sugar attached to the outside of the layer These sugars create an outside layer called glycocalyX which defines the cell belonging to a specific organism Blood and tissue type are de ned by this Inside the plasma membrane we nd the cytosol which contains organelles Each of them have a different function The most important organelle is the nucleus All the other organelles are referred as cytoplasm Cytosol is made of water dissolved materials and molecules called inclusions They vary and they can be carotenes melanin and keratin Organelles maintain homeostasis Glucose gt sugar gt 6 carbon ring structure Cholesterol increase the integrity and viscosity of the cell structure Diffusion movement of ions or molecules from a region of higher to lower conc It doesn39t require energy it39s a passive transport Osmosis diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Tonicity the osmotic characteristics of a solution across a membrane lsotonic same concentration of nondiffusable solutes and water on both side of the membrane Hypertonic Higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water outside the cell than inside Hypotonic Lower concentration of solutes and higher concentration of water outside the cell than inside The cellular membrane cannot maintain homestasis unless it allows some molecules in the cell The membrane is semipermeable Some items can move freely others require energy others again cannot move in the membrane Facilitated TransportPASSIVE transport ltration diffusion facilitated diffusion Use of a plasma membrane carrier to move a substance into or out of a cell from higher to lower concentration No energy required passive transport DIFFUSION is the movement of a substance towards an area of lower concentration Ex oxygen The plasma membrane blocks the movement of acqueous molecules such as glucose which are needed Therefore we have integral and peripheral proteins that are channels to enter and exit the cell OSMOSIS is the movement of water inside and outside the cell Water moves to balance the amount of solutes in each side of the cell Usually the extracellular uid is isotonic which means the amount of solutes is the same in both sides If we put a cell in a hypotonic solution water with lower concentration of solutes than the cell can cause the cell to burst If we put a cell in a hypertonic solution with higher solutes will remmove water to the cell and cause it to shrivel up Active Transport Use of a plasma membrane carrier to move a substance into or out of a cell from lower to higher concentration Energy is required usually ATP move the molecules inside the cell endocytosis or outside the cell exocytosis Exocytosis is used to remove secretory from from the cell Ex calcium ions are usually transported like pumps with the use of proteins The cytosol is highly organized and it is composed of cytoskeleton which is attached to the plasma membrane in many places It is composed of 3 laments and gives support to the cell It has 3 types of protein structure micro laments intermediate laments microtubules micro laments are the thinnest Responsible for muscular contraction cellular locomotion and movement during cellular division Composed of actin Intermediate stronger Protect cells from mechanical stresses microtubules organelle movements Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur in a cell Enzymes A protein that is capable of speeding up a speci c chemical reaction by lowering the required activation energy Active Site Surface of the enzyme where substrate binds and reaction occurs Substrate A reactant in a reaction controlled by an enzyme Mitochondria Organelle with 2 membranes that carries out cellular respiration converts chemical energy of glucose to chemical energy of ATP Cristae Folded extensions of the inner membrane ATP production occurs at the cristae Matrix Gellike uid of inner space surrounded by cristae Contains enzymes for breaking down glucose products Intermembrane Space Space between the inner and outside membrane Cellular Respiration Metabolic reactions that use energy primarily from carbohydrates glucose to produce ATP molecules Glucose Oxygen gt Carbon Dioxide Water Energy 3 Pathways Involved Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Glycolysis Anaerobic breakdown of glucose that occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD A coenzyme that carries hydrogen and 2 electrons Citric Acid Cycle Kreb Cycle Aerobic process that occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria pyruvate enters matrix and completes the breakdown of glucose Produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule Electrons and hydrogen are picked up by NAD as NADH Electron Transport Chain Passage of electrons along a series of membranebound carrier molecules from a higher energy to a lower energy level Hydrogen is moved to intermembrane space by active transport Proton hydrogen gradient will yield 32 ATP FLAGELLA AND CILIA agella are long structure to propel cells forward Only sperms have it Cilia beat synchronously to move mucus ENDOPLASMATIC RETICULUM Humans have two types of ER Rough ER studded of ribosomes of the side of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm Smooth ER continuous with RER but doesn39t contain ribosomes Synthesizes phospholipidis GOLGI APPARATUS found near the end of SER resembles saccules Modi es lipids and proteins and package and distribute them LYSOSOMES membranous sac produces by the golgi Contain hydrolytic enzimes When it fuses with a vesicle it pours its content in the vesicle and it begins breaking it down decomposing the cell the destroy bacteria NUCLEUS contains the cell39s genetic library Covered by the nuclear envelop made of two complete phospholipid membranes The envelop is punctuated by nuclear pores which allows molecules to enter and exit and nucleus It containes DNA which is read by RNA When RNA has copied the DNA it exits the nucleus and create the proteins This process is called Transcription MITOCHONDRIA inner fools called cristae They convert nutrients into energy in the form of ATP They require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide while producing ATP this process is called cellular respiration The breakdown of glucose to produce ATP takes 4 steps the first one happens outside the other ones inside 1 glucose is brought in the cell within facilitated diffusion and is broken down with glycolysis It stores the energy in 2 ATP and releases two pyruvic acid 2 Pyruvic gets taken into mitochondria where is broken into acetyl coA energy from acetyl coA is stored in ATP NADH and FADH 4 NADH and FADH are brought into the inner membrane of mitochondria and here are used for the electron transport chain They are converted int usable ATP CELLULAR COMMUNICATION Circulating hormones travel through blood and reach long distance cells Paracrines local hormones affect only cells in the vicinity When a quick response is needed Gap junctions such as heart mucles and cells is communication via diffusion Small distance During mitosis DNA and organelles are duplicated and it ensures that the parent DNA is perfectly copied and given to two daughter cells Before the cell is divided it is in interphase The DNA is loose in chromatin threads and nucleoli are present The rst phase of mitosis is prophase which includes the dissolution of the nuclear membrane the separation of centriolis formation of the spindle apparatus and condensing of the chromatin The DNA condenses from chromatint to chromosomes than can easily moved as a unit In the metaphase the chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell In the anaphase the chromosomes are divided one for each daughter cell In the telophase the chromosomes condense into chromatins Nuclear envelop forms in the center of the cell CHAPTER 20 Our chromosomes contain our genes and our genes contain our DNA The genotype are the sequence of alleles present in each one of us for a particular trait often indicated with letters Ex aA BB DNA contains the information to make genes and genes to make proteins A DNA sequence is a sequence of all the bases guanine G cytosine C thymine T and adenine A on a chromosome G matches with C and T with A Genes are located in DNA and each human has 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 23 came from the egg 23 from the sperm This means that the egg and the sperm don39t have 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 they39re not diploid Instead they39re haploid carrying only 23 chromosomes Chromosome 11 for example contains the same basic info for all of us genes for blood proteins insulin metabolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase The speci c for chromosomell however are different from the ones of the person sitting next to you Gregor Mendel studied the inheritance of traits in garden peas an easy to grow plant with specific traits and that produces a simple ower He discovered the dominant allele that exerts his phenotypical effect on the heretozygote The recessive allele exerts its phenotypical effect only on the homozygote MITOSIS occurs during growth and repair and occurs when a cell divides itself into two daughter cells having the exact same chromosomal and genetical makeup of the parent cells 1 INTERPHASE the cell is not dividing but carrying its own duties It39s not considered part of mitosis 2 PROPHASE only happens in sex cells Passing on your genes requires you to create haploid gametes In order to form gametes the reproductive cells that will form a new individual the diploid must be cut in half This way two haploid unite to form a zygote and the original number 46 is restored Homologous a sequence of genetic information are not randomly separated but they come together and then are separated one to each gamete l chromosomes have duplicated Homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis and crossingover occurs Crossingover is an exchange of chromatid segments between homologous it increases genetic variability 2 tetrads are homologous chromosomes that stay together until they39re pulled apart in anaphase I 3 homologous chromosomes separate and go towards the poles 4 creates two cells having one chromosome from each homologous pair The cells then go through Meiosis II and go through the same process of meiosis I In the end of the meiosis we have 4 daughter cells The phenotype is all your characteristics that results from genes and alleles The phenotype differences emerge from differences in genotype our set of genes and alleles carried in chromosomes It is the difference in genes that give the difference in alleles When the two alleles are identical the genotype is homozygous for the trait controlled by the alleles A homozygous gene is usually denoted by two identical letters AA or aa The capital A indicates dominance for the trait and the small a indicates reessiveness Homozygous individuals can be homozygous dominant AA for both alleles or homozygous recessive aa Is heterozygous when it has a dominant trait and a recessive trait Aa Incomplete dominance produce different phenotypes based on the combination of alleles in heterozygotes Ex wavy hair indicates an incomplete dominance of curtly hair Codominance when the effects of both alleles appears in the heterozygote Polygenic when the phenotype is the expression of several genes not only one Multifactoral traits are polygenic traits also in uenced by the environment body Sex chromosomes are X and Y there are more alleles on the X chromosomes than on the Y meaning there is no matching alleles between them If a woman is carrying a color blind gene she is not color blind but her sons could be in danger If a male is carrying the color blind gene he is blind Xc color blind gene ch carrier not color bling XcY color blind How does DNA control the production of proteins Two steps transcription and translation Transcription is copying the information in the same language translation is converting one language to another is copying the information to make proteins which are found in DNA to messanger RNA mRNA DNA and RNA are different The base thymine found in DNA is replaced by Uracil during RNA synthesis Here it pairs as G with C and U with A in the ribosomes with tRNA the language is translated translating three bases at a time called codon The matching three bases on the tRNA are the anticodon A genome is a complete set of genes and alleles in a organism


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