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Text Book questions PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
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PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
Barbi Della Polla
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PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
Barbi Della Polla
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This 24 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Barbi Della Polla on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 264 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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TEXT STUDY QUESTIONS EXAM 1 PSY 110 Text Study Questions Chapter 1 1 Psychology has four goals description understanding prediction and control What do each of these terms mean Description making detail record of scienti c observations Fail to answer the Why questions What is the nature of this behavior Understanding we can state the causes of behavior explain an event Why does it occur Prediction is the ability to forecast predict behavior accurately Can we forecast when it will occur 1 Control ability to alter the conditions that affect behavior What conditions affect it Psychology s goals are a natural outgrowth of our desire to understand behavior 2 De ne palmistry phrenology graphology and indicate why they are considered to be pseudo psychologies Palmistry is a falsi ed system that claims lines on the hand revealed personality traits and predict future Phrenology personality traits are revealed by the shape of the skull Graphology personality traits are revealed by their handwriting All of three are considerate as pseudopsychologies because they are a false and unscienti c system of belief and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior 3What is the difference between a psychologist a counseling psychologist and a psychiatrist Counseling psychologist psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances Psychiatrist a medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders Psychologist teach at universities or conduct psychological research V Uncritical Acceptance tendency to believe claims because they seem true or because they would be nice if they were true V Con rmation Bias the tendency to remember or notice information that ts one s expectations but to forget discrepancies V Barnum effect the tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if it is stated in very general terms V Scienti c Method is a form of critical thinking based on careful measurements and controlled observation V Survey Method using questionnaires and surveys to poll large groups of people V Clinical Method studying psychological problems and therapies in clinical settings V Operational De nition de ning a scienti c concept by stating the speci c actions or procedures used to measured it V Positive psychology the study of human strengths virtues and effective functioning V Cultural relativity the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of culture in which it occurs V Single blind experiment an arrangement in which participants remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group V Double blind experiment an arrangement in which both participant and experimenters are unaware of whether the participants are in the experimental group or the control group including who might have been administered drug or a placebo V Naturalistic observation a research tool in which a subject is observed in its natural habitat without any manipulation by the observer V Anthropomorphic error occurs when researchers assign human like emotions and behavior to animals V Representative sample a small randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately re ects characteristics of the whole population V Biased sample a subpart of a larger population that does not accurately re ect characteristics of the whole population 5What is a correlational study and what are its limitations Correlational study a nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship between two or more events measures or variables 6 De ne positive correlation a negative correlation and zero correlation What are the highest negative and positive correlations possible Correlation the existence of a consistent systematic relationship between two events measures or variables Negative correlation a statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other 100 Positive correlation a statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increasing in the other 100 Zero correlation statistics did not express any relationship between the variables 7 Explain by example what is meant by the phrase quotcorrelation does not demonstrate causationquot Just because one thing appears to be directly related to another does not mean that a causeandeffect connection exists 8What is statistical signi cance Statistical signi cance experimental results that would rarely occur by chance alone 9 Suppose you wanted to determine if hunger affects memory Indicate the characteristics of the experimental group and the control group What is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable What is a possible extraneous variable in this study 10 What is the placebo effect Placebo effect an inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion Text Study Chapter 10 1 De ne motivation and describe the three categories of motives Motivation internal processes that initiate sustain direct and terminate activities Whiling to do something Biological are based on biological need that must be met for survival Stimulus express our need for stimulation and information Although they appear to be innate Learned based on learned needs drives and goals Are often social in nature Related to learned needs for power af liation approval status security and achievement 2 Describe the relationship between needs drives and incentives What is incentive value Need which is an internal de ciency causing a drive energized motivational state that at the same time activates a response designed to push us toward a goal Incentive value the value of a goal above and beyond its ability to ll a need 3 What is homeostasis and give an example to show you understand what a set pointis Homeostasis a steady state of body equilibrium Set point levels in which variables are stable Eg the proportion of body fat that tends to be maintained by changes in hunger and ea ng 4 Give four examples of activities or entities that show a circadian rhythm Circadian rhythm cyclical changes in body functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating 24hour day Body Temperature Blood pressure Amino acid levels 5 How long does it take for people to adjust to jet lag Which direction of travel east west north or south is associated with the greatest dif culty in adjusting to jet lag 2 weeks to resynchronize East takes much longer West adaptation is easier 6 What are the roles of exposure to light and melatonin in adjusting to jet lag and rotating work shifts A few intermittent 5minute periods of exposure to bright early in the morning are also helpful for resetting your circadian rhythm Bright light affects the timing of body rhythms by reducing the amount of melatonin produced by the pineal gland 7 Is the stomach essential for feelings of hunger What is satiety What is a taste aversion and bait shyness how do they develop Hunger is nothing more than contractions of an empty stomach However the stomach is not essential for feeling hunger The brain controls the hunger speci cally the hypothalamus is so important because regulates many motives 8 Describe the effect of the following in the regulation of food intake the hypothalamus neural messages from the stomach and liver neuropeptide Y NYP glucagonlike peptide GLPl and leptin Hypothalamus I regulates hunger Is a kind of master control center for emotion and many basic motives Neural messages the hypothalamus receives this messages from the stomach and liver that combined are the ones that determined hungen NYP if the neuropeptide is present in large amount an animal will eat intil it cannot hold another bite GLP1 is a chemical involved in causing eating to cease 9 Explain why college freshman typically gain weight the famous quotFrosh 15 during the rst 3 months of college Allcanyoueat halls in the dorms and nighttime snacking appear to be the culprits The presence of other can also affect on how much everyone else is eating and how important it is to impress them 10 Is it possible to change the fat set point Does the number of fat cells change when you diet What is diet induced obesity You cannot change your fat set point since the adult s fat cells remains unchanged throughout adult life Diets don t help they even raise the set point for fat resulting in diet induced obesity 11 12 13 14 What is body mass index BMI and how is it calculated BMI is a measure which tells you if your over weight or not take your height in inches abd multiply that number by itself Then divide the result into your weight in pounds Multiply the resulting by 703 to obtain your BMI In terms of rate of metabolism why do quotYoYo dietingquot lead to weight gain Frequent changes in weight can dramatically slow the body s metabolism rate This may raise the body s set point for fat and makes it harder to lose weight each time a person diets and easier to regain weight when your diet ends 15 What are the differences between anorexia and bulimia Anorexia activate selfstarvation or sustains loss of the appetite that has psychological origins Bulimia excessive eating usually followed by selfinduced vomiting or taking laxatives What are the techniques used in behavioral dieting 1 Get yourself commited to weight loss 2 Exercise 3 Learn your eating habits by observing yourself and keeping a diet diary 4 Learn to weaken your personal eating cues 5 Count calories but don t starve yourself 6 Develop techniques to control the act of eating 7 Avoid snacks 8 Chart your daily progress 9 Set a threshold for weight control What are the typical personality characteristics of people anorexia nervosa Suffer debilitating health problems Absences of menstrual periods lntense fear of becoming fat or gain weight Refusal to maintain body weight in the normal range Disturbance in one s body image or perceived weight 16 Give examples of communities that do NOT glorify thinness the way Western cultures do Asian American college students are only half as likely to diet as other college women are 17 What is the difference between extracellular thirst and intracellular thirst Which type requires salty water water with minerals rather than plain water to quench thirst Extracellular thirst cause by a reduction in the volume of uids found between body cells Water with minerals Intracellular thirst triggered when uids are drawn out of the cell due to an increase concentration of salt and minerals outside the cell Normal water 18 What are the roles of androgens and estrogen in the sex drives in men and women Estrogen any of a number of female sex hormones Androgen any of a number of male sex hormones speci cally testosterone 19 According to the YerkesDodson law what is the relationship between arousal and performance s performance always best when at moderate levels of arousal Give examples Most people perform better when their arousal level are moderate For example if you are feling lazy your arousal levels are low which means that your performance will suffer If you are in a state of anxiety your arousal levels will be high as a result your performance will also be affected No the ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task When a task is simple it is best for arousal levels to be high When task is more complex your best performance will occur at lower levels of arousal 20 Describe the opponent process theory and indicate how it accounts for sensationseeking behaviors such as skydiving 20 Opponent process theory states that strong emotions tend to be followed by an opposite emotional state also the strength of both emotional states changes over time When a sensationseeking is doing an extreme activity he will feel at rst terri ed but with repeated jumps the skydiver feels a thrill Emotional after effects get stronger with repetition Describe the four techniques that the text suggests for coping with test anxiety 21 Preparation hard work improving your studying skills is a good way to educe test anxiety Overpreprare for the exam Relaxation Rehearsal rehearse how will you cope with upsetting events Restructuring thoughts listening the upsetting thoughts you have during exams Then you can learn how to combat these worries with calming rational replies What is the difference between the need for achievement nAch and the need for power Are people whose main goal in life is making money happier than those who don t 22 Need for achievement the desire to excel or meet some internalized standards of excellence Need for power the desire to have social impact and control over others People whose main goal in life is to make lots of money tend to be poorly adjusted and happy Discuss high need achievers high nAch with respect to the following the characteristics of jobs that they had after nishing school risk taking the choice of goals that are quotlong shots or quotsure thingsquot 23 The high need achievers enjoy challenges and relish a chance to test their abilities that is why after nishing school the will be working as doctors lawyers taking high risking decisions and also long shots goals something that is not easy to get something that you will expend almost all your live to achieve it What are the most important ingredients for success the keys to success Talent is nurtured by dedication Parents support intensive practice 24 and expert coaching are common ingredients og high achievement Describe Maslow s hierarchy of human needs in terms of basic needs growth needs and metaneeds Are many people motivated by metaneeds compared to basic needs and growth needs 25 Basic needs are those that comprend esteem and selfesteem love and belonging safety and security and physiological needs These are the rst four levels in Maslow s hierarchy They are all motivated by a lack de ciency motives Growth needs the higherlevel needs associated with self actualization Positive life enhancing force for personal growth Metaneeds needs associated with impulses for selfactualization Maslow estimated that few people are motivated primarily by needs for selfactualization Most of us are more concerned with esteem love or security Because rewards in our society tend to encourage conformity uniformity and security in schools jobs and relationships What are the differences between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation Give examples Intrinsic motivation when we act without any obvious rewards We simply enjoy an activity or see it as an opportunity to explore learns etc Extrinsic motivation stems for external factors such as pay grades rewards obligations and approval I Example you cook because you enjoy doing it whereas other cook 26 only as an obligation What is the textbook s de nition of mood Mood a lowintensity longlasting emotional state 27 Describe the functions of the following the amygdala the autonomic nervous system the sympathetic nervous system the parasympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic rebound Amygdala specializes in produce fear potential punishment in the future Autonomic nervous system the system of nerves that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands These branches are 28 29 30 31 related to emotional responses such as crying sweating hear rate and other involuntary behavior ls automatic rather than voluntary Sympathetic nervous system activates the body for emergency acUon Parasympathetic nervous system reverses emotional arousal Calms and relaxes the body In addition to restoring the balance also helps build up and conserve body s energy Parasympathetic rebound excess activity in the parasympathetic system following a period of intense emotions De ne the following polygraph galvanic skin response contro queonns Polygraph a device for recording heart rate blood pressure respiration and galvanic skin response commonly called a quotlie detectorquot Galvanic skin response a change in the electrical resistance for inversely the conductance of the skin due to sweating Control questions Lie detectors do NOT detect ies What do they detect Should they be used as evidence in a murder trial What is the guilty knowledge test Lie detectors detect changes of heart rate respiration blood pressure and galvanic skin response No because they are not accurate Guilty knowledge test polygraph procedure involving testing people with knowledge only a guilty person could know Describe cultural differences in the source of positive emotions in the USA and Japan What is a Duchenne smile USA positive feeling such as pride happiness and superiority which emphasizes our role as individuals Japan positive emotions are linked with membership in groups Duchenne smile authentic smile signa genuine happiness and enjoyment Describe gender differences in emotion What is alexithymia and who is more likely to experience it Women more emotional Men more likely to have dif culty expressing their emotions More likely to express alexithymia Alexithymia a learned dif culty expressing emotions 31 What are the most general messages that are conveyed with body language What is the quotchameleon effect What is its relationship to being liked by another person 32 Relaxation expressed by casually positionating arm and legs leaning back spreading the arms and legs Tension Liking expressed by leaning toward a person or object Disliking Chameleon effect unconsciously imitating the postures mannerisms and facial expressions of others as we interact with them When someone copies your gestures and physical postures you are more inclined to like them Gives examples of illustrators and emblems Why are they important Illustrators gesture that people use to illustrate what they are saying Example talking with your hands Emblems gestures that have widely understood meanings within a particular culture Example thumbsup sign a head nod for yes and a head shake for no Those are important revealing when someone is lying 33 What is the facialfeedback hypothesis and what is its relevance to the way a person feels Facialfeedback hypothesis states that sensations from facial 34 expressions help de ne what emotion a person feels Posed expressions alter emotions and bodily activity Emotional experiences were in uenced by the facial expressions that people made Also expressions in uence emotions What are the four components of emotional intelligence Perceiving emotions recognize quickly what are they feeling Using emotions use their feeling to enhance thinking and decisionmaking Understanding emotions anger is a cue that something is wrong Managing emotions you know you can calm you and others down when are angry Text Study Questions Chapter 13 1 2 3 De ne behavioral risk factor and give ve examples Behavioral risk factor are actions that increase the chances of disease injury or early death Examples smoking overweight high levels of stress untreated high blood pressure abuse of alcohol What are the characteristics of the diseaseprone personality Diseaseprone personality a personality type associated with poor health marked by persistent negative emotions including anxiety depression and hostility What are the implications of the ndings regarding unhealthy health hacbitshdescribed in the Discovering Psychology Box Unhealthy birds of a eat er Emotional problems related to unhealthy habits are persistent if you are surrounded by people with the same problems as yours You are less likely to quit the habit if you spend much of your time with people that have the same problem De ne the following lifestyle diseases health psychology behavioral medicine psychoneuroimmunology approachavoidance con ict avoidanceavoidance con ict displaced aggression scapegoating learned helplessness mastery training the progressive relaxation technique and guided imagery Lifestyle diseases a disease related to healthdamaging personal habits Example strokes heart disease HIVAIDS and long cancer Health psychology study of the ways in which behavioral principals can be used to prevent illness and promote health Behavioral medicine the study of behavioral factors in medicine physical illness and medical treatment Psychoneuroimmunology study of the links among behavior stress disease and the immune system Approachavoidance con ict being attracted to and repelled by the same goal or activity Avoidanceavoidance con ict choosing between two negatives or undesirable alternatives dilemma unwanted pregnancy or abortion Displaced aggression redirecting aggression to a target other than the actual source of one s frustration Scapegoating blaming a person or a group of people for conditions not of their making Learned helplessness a learned inability to overcome obstacles or to avoid punishment learned passivity and inaction to aversive stimuli Mastery training reinforcement of responses that lead to a mastery of a threat or control over one s environment The progressive relaxation technique a method for producing deep relaxation of all part of the body Guided imagery intentional visualization of images are calming relaxing or bene cial in other ways 5 What are the three stages is the General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm your body mobilizes its resources to cope with added stress Resistance bodily adjustments to stress stabilize Psychosomatic disorders begin to appear Exhaustion body s resources are drained and stress hormones are depleted 6 De ne what a stressor is and discuss the roles of predictability and Pressure in stress Stressor is a condition or event that challenges or threatens a person Unpredictabiity39 adds to stress Pressure occurs when a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations We feel pressure when dead lines must be met Final exams 7 What is the role of appraisal in stress Your answer should include the term eustress and threat Eustress that is how some people are distressed by events that others view as a thrill or a challenge Our emotions are greatly affected by how we appraise situations There are two important steps in managing a threat Primary appraisal when you decide if a situation is relevant or irrelevant Am okay or I m in trouble Secondary appraisal when you assess your resources and choose a way to meet the threat or challenge What can I do about this situation 8 What is the difference between problemfocused coping and emotion focused coping Problemfocused coping is aimed at managing or correcting the distressing situation itself Examples making a plan of action or thinking about the next step Emotionfocused coping try to control our emotional reactions to the situation Example a distressed person may go for a walk listing music sink for help 9 De ne the following psychological defense mechanisms compensation denial fantasy identi cation intellectualization isolation projection rationalization reaction formation regression repression sublimation Psychological defense mechanisms is any mental process used to avoid deny or distort sources of threat or anxiety especially the one s related to selfimage Compensation compensatory reactions are defenses against feelings of inferiority Denial protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to accept it or believe it Fantasy ful lling unmet desires in imagined achievements or activities Identi cation taking on some of the characteristics of an admired person usually as a way of compensating for perceived personal weakness or faults lntellectualization separating emotions from a threatening or anxietyprovoking situation by talking or thinking about it in impersonal intellectual terms Isolation separating contradictory thoughts or feelings into quotlogic tightquot mental compartments so that they don t come into con ict Projection attributing one s own feelings shortcomings or unacceptable impulses to others Rationalization justifying your behavior by giving reasonable and rational but false reasons for it Reaction formation preventing dangerous impulses from being expressed in behavior by exaggerating opposite behavior Regressions retreating to an earlier level of development or to earlier less demanding habits or situations Repression unconsciously preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering awareness Sublimation working off unmet desires or unacceptable impulses in activities that are constructive 11 What are the roles of hope and learned helplessness in depression Hope is among the most important of all human values Having positive beliefs such as optimism hope and sense of meaning and control is closely related to overall wellbeing Learned helplessness is similar to depression both are marked by feelings of despondency powerlessness and hopelessness 12 What are the major reasons that college students become depressed ls depression in college students unusual 39 lt 13 Stress from college work and pressures to choose a career can leave students feeling that they are missing out on fun or that all their hard work is meaningless Isolation and loneliness are common when students leave their support groups behind Problems with studying and grades frequently triggers depression Depression cam be triggered by the breakup of an intimate relationship Students who nd difficult to live up their idealized images of themselves are especially prone to depression An added danger us that depressed students are more likely to abuse alcohol which is depressant What are the best ways for college students to cope with depression 39 J 14 Making a daily schedule Write down those feelings of worthlessness supported by negative thoughts after write a rational answer for each What is the SRRS and what is a LCU Social Readjustment Rating Scale SRRS a scale that rates the impact of various life events on the likelihood of illness Life Changing Units LCU numerical values assigned to each life 15 rel 39 16 event Give examples of hassles microstressors and indicate their ationship to health compared to the impact of major life events Hassles or microstressors minor but frequent stresses It appears that daily hassles are closely linked to immediate health and psychological wellbeing Maior life changes have more of a lhongIterm impact as well as exacerbating the effects of daily ass es What is a psychosomatic disorder Is this the same as hypochondnasE 39 J39 17 Psychosomatic disorder illnesses in which psychological factors contribute to bodily damage or to damaging changes in bodily funcUons Hypochondriasis is an illness where the person complains about illnesses that appear to be imaginary What is biofeedback and what types of health problems can be treated effectively with this technique Biofeedback information given to a person about his or her ongoing bodily activities aids voluntary regulation of bodily stages Migraine headaches involve excessive blood ow to the head this technique helps patients to reduce the frequency of their headaches Muscletension headaches chronic pain promises for lowering blood pressure and controlling heart rhythms 18 What are the major characteristics of the Type A and Type B personalities Which characteristic of the Type A Personality is the most lethal with respect to heart disease Type A a personality type with an elevated risk of heart disease characterized by time urgency anger and hostility Type B all personality types other than Type A a low cardiac risk personality 19 What are the major characteristics of the hardy personality Hardly personality a personality style associated with superior stress resistance Sense of personal commitment to one s self Control over their lives and work Tendency to see life as a series of challenges rather than a series of threats or problems 20 What is stress inoculation What are the roles of negative self statements and coping statements in stress inoculation Stress inoculation a procedure useful in helping patients control anxiety by substituting positive coping statements for statements that bring about anxiety Text Study Questions Chapter 3 1 De ne the following DNA deoxyribonucleic acid chromosome dominant and recessive genes maturation polygenic characteristics readiness sensitive periods temperament p 89 assimilation p101 accommodation p101 theory of mind p105 DNA a molecular structure that contains coded genetic information Chromosome threadlike colored bodies in the nucleus of each cell that are mad up of DNA Dominant genes a gene whose in uence will be expressed each time the gene is present Recessive genes a gene whose in uence will be expressed only when its is paired with a second recessive gene Maturation the physical growth and development of the body brain and nervous system Polygenic characteristics personal traits or physical properties that are in uenced by many genes working in combination Readiness a condition that exists when maturation has advanced enough to allow the rapid acquisition of a particular skill Sensitive periods during development a period of increased sensitivity to environmental in uences also a time during which certain events must take place for normal development to occur Temperament the physical core of personality including emotional and perceptual sensitivity energy levels typical mood and so forth Assimilation in Piaget s theory the modi cation of existing mental patterns to t new demands that is mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information or experiences Accommodation In Piaget s theory the modi cation of existing mental patterns to t the new demands that is mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information or experiences Theory of mind the understanding that people have mental states such as thoughts beliefs and intentions and that other people s mental states can be different from one s own What is fetal alcohol syndrome and what causes it Describe the effects of alcohol morphine heroin and tobacco on the unborn child Fetal alcohol syndrome the signs and symptoms are birth defects that result from a woman39s use of alcohol during her pregnancy Among their symptoms children with FAS may grow less quickly than other children have facial abnormalities and have problems with their central nervous systems including mental retardation If a mother is addict to any of those drugs her baby may be born with an addition Tobacco is also harmful smoking during pregnancy greatly reduces oxygen to the fetus Risk miscarrying or having premature underweight babies who are more likely to die soon after birth Use the example of Samantha given in the textbook p88 to clarify what the term reaction range means Reaction range the limits environment places on the effects of heredity Example Samantha was born with genes for a normal level of intelligence f Samantha grows in a deprived environment she might well end up with lower than average adult intelligence 4 Describe the experiments conducted by Harry Harlow p 94 on infant rhesus monkeys and indicate their signi cance with respect to emotional development Your answer should include the following terms surrogate mother contact comfort separation anxiety Harlow separated baby monkeys from their mothers at birth Replaced with surrogate mothers substitute some where made of cold wire other with soft terry cloth After a series of situations the monkeys preferred the cloth mother Suggesting that attachment begins with contact comfort a pleasant and reassuring feeling and animal infant get from touching or clinging to something soft and warm usually their mother Separation anxiety distress displayed by infants when they are separated from their parents or principal caregivers 5 Characterize the emotional bonds between mother and infant that are associated with the securely attached baby the insecureavoidant baby and the insecureambivalent baby Securely attached have a stable and positive emotional bond with their mothers Upset by her absence and seek to be near her when she returns lnsecureavoidant infants have an anxious emotional bond They turn away from their mothers when she returns Insecureambivalent attachment is also an anxious emotional bond In this case babies have mixed feelings they both seek to be near returning mother and angrily resist contact with her 6 What are the characteristics of the authoritarian parental style the overly permissive parental style and the authoritarian parental style Authoritarian parental style enforced rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority These children tend to be emotionally stiff withdrawn apprehensive and lacking in curiosity Overly permissive parental style parents give little guidance allow too much freedom or don t hold children accountable for their actions Producing dependent immature children who misbehave frequently Authoritative parental supply rm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection Balance their rights with the one s of the children The children of authoritative parents are competent selfcontrolled independent assertive and inquiring 7 Describe the parenting practices p97 98 of AfricanAmerican Hispanic AsianAmerican and ArabAmerican families AfricanAmerican emphasize loyalty and interdependence among family members security developing a positive identity and not giving up in the face of adversity Stress obedience and respect for elders Children discipline tends to be fairly strict seeing this necessary Selfreliance resourcefulness and an ability to take care of oneself in difficult situations Hispanic relative strict standards of discipline The centrality of the family with a corresponding stress on family values pride and loyalty Typically affectionate and indulgent toward younger children Older children are expected to learn social skills and to be calm obedient courteous and respectful Stress more cooperation more than competition AsianAmerican group orientated emphasize interdependence among individuals AsianAmerican children are often taught that their behavior can bring either pride or shame to the family Parents tend to act like teachers who encourage hard work moral behavior ad achievement First years parenting is permissive after the age of ve begin to expect respect obedience selfcontrol and discipline from their children ArabAmerican middle eastern cultures children are expected to be polite obedient discipline and conforming Punishment may consist of spankings teasing or shaming in front of others Father tend to be strong authority gures who demand obedience so that the family will not be shame by a child s behavior The pursuit of family honor encourages hard work thrift conservatism and educational achievement Using Piaget s theory of cognitive development characterize each of the following developmental stages sensorimotor stage preoperational stage concrete operations stage formal operation stage Sensorimotor 02 years stage of intellectual development during which sensory input an motor responses become coordinated Preoperational 27 years period of intellectual development during which children begin to use language and symbolically yet remain intuitive and egocentric in their thought They cannot transform images easily in their minds Their thinking is very concrete and intuitive Example If you show to a ve year children a short wide glass full of milk and a taller narrow glass full of milk she will most likely tell you that the taller glass contains more milk Concrete operations 711 years period of intellectual development during which children become able to use the concepts of time space volume and number but in ways that remain simpli ed and concrete rather than abstract Formal operation 11 years and Up period of intellectual development characterized by thinking that includes abstract theoretical and hypothetical What are the characteristics of the preconventional conventional and the postconventional levels of moral development 10 Preconventional moral thinking based on the consequences of one s choices or actions punishment reward or an exchange of favors Ex the man shouldn t steal the drug because he could get caught and sent to jail avoiding punishment Young children and delinquents Conventional reasoning is based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted authority rules and values Ex he shouldn t steal the drug because other will think he is a thief His wife wouldn t want to be safe by thievery avoiding disapproval Older children and adults Postconventional directed by selfchose ethical principles that tend to be general comprehensive or universal Ex he should steal the drug an then inform the authorities that he ahs done so He will have to face penalty but he will save a human life selfchosen ethical principles 20 of adult population Describe the characteristics of the following discipline techniques used by parents and indicate what their side effects are power assertion withdrawal of love and management techniques 11 Power assertion the use of physical punishment or coercion to enforce child discipline Withdrawal of love withholding affection to enforce child discipline Management techniques combining praise recognition approval rules and reasoning to enforce child discipline What is the difference between an quotlmessagequot from a quotYou messagequot lmessage a message that states the effect someone else s behavior has on you Youmessage threatening accusing bossing lecturing or criticizing another person Text Study Questions Chapter 8 1 What are the three basic units of thought Images a mental representation that has picturelike qualities an icon Concepts a generalized idea representing a category of related objects or events Language words or symbols and rules for combining them that are used for thinking and communication 2 What is synesthesia Give an example Synesthesia experiencing one sense in terms normally associated with another sense Example seeing colors when a sound is heard Pain is the color orange 3 De ne the following cognition kinesthetic imagery conjunctive concept disjunctive concept relational concept prototype denotative meaning connotative meaning phonemes functional xedness mechanical solution algorithm functional solution heuristic convergent thinking divergent thinking inductive thought deductive thought intuition base rate representative heuristic mental set Cognition the process of thinking or mentally processing information Kinesthetic imagery is the cognitive recreation of the feeling of movements hacia donde abres el agua caliente de la ducha Conjunctive concept a class of object that have two or more features in common Example a motorcycle must have two wheels and an engine and handlebars Disjunctive concept a concept de ned by the presence of at least one of several possible features Ex in baseball a strike is either a swing and a miss or a pitch over the plate or a foul ball Relational concept a concept de ned by the relationship between features of an object between an object and its surroundings Ex larger above north brother Prototype an ideal model used a prime example of a particular concept Denotative meaning the exact dictionary de nition of a world or concept its objective meaning Connotative meaning the subjective personal or emotional meaning of a word or concept Phonemes the basic speech sound of language Functional xedness a rigidity in problem solving caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects Mechanical solution a problem solution achieved by trial and error or by xed procedure based on learned rules Algorithm a learned set of rules that always leads to the correct solution of a problem Functional solution a detailed practical and workable solution Heuristic any strategy or technique that aids problem solving specially by limiting the number of possible solution to be tried Convergent thinking thinking directed toward discovery of a single established correct answer conventional thinking Divergent thinking thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives a major element in original or creative thought Inductive thought thinking in which a general rule or principle is gathered from a series of speci c examples for instance inferring the laws of gravity by observing many falling objects Deductive thought thought that applies a general set of rules to speci c situations for example using the laws of gravity to predict the behavior of a single falling object Intuition quick impulsive thought that doesn t make use of formal logic or clear reasoning Base rate the basic rate at which an event occurs over time the basic probability of an event Representative heuristic a tendency to select wrong answers because they seem to match preexisting mental categories Mental set a predisposition to perceive or respond in a particular way The Cape York aborigines in Australia only use absolute directional references like north and south How does this observation provide support for the linguistic relativey hypothesis Linguistic relatively hypothesis the words that we use not only re ect our thoughts but can shape them as well Summarize the language abilities of Kanzi the pygmy chimp Does he understand words Can he identify lexigrams Kanzi was taught to communicate by pushing buttons on a computer keyboard Each of the 250 buttons is marked with a lexigram geometric wordsymbol 6 Lexigrams known by Kanzi are quite abstracts Using them he can create primitive sentences several words long Understand 650 spoken sentences Is it true that people with mood disorders such as bipolar disorder are more creative than others Mentally ill people are generally not creative and vice versa But this is an exception when it comes to mood disorders Parents with mood swings as wells as their children scored higher in creativity 7 What are ve characteristics of creative people Are people with high IQs more creative than others 8 Although people with a high IQ can be quite creative there is a little of correlation between tests and IQ test scores Creative people usually have a greaterthanaverage range of knowledge and interest and they are more uent in combining ideas from various sources Also good at using mental images and metaphors in thinking Open to a wide variety of experiences They accept irrational thoughts and are uninhibited about their feelings and fantasies They tend to use broad categories to question assumptions to break mental sets and they nd order in chaos They also experience more unusual states of consciousness such as vivid dreams and mystical experiences Creative people enjoy symbolic thought ideas concepts and possibilities They tend to be interested in truth form and beauty rather than in fame or success Their creative work is an end in itself Creative people value their independence and prefer complexity However they are unconventional and nonconforming primarily in their work otherwise they don t have unusual outlandish or bizarre personalities What is quotthin slicingquot 10 Immediate intuitive reactions The rst impression we get of someone If you were operating a restaurant would it be better for you to offer a large or small number of choices on the menu Would be better to have small number of choices on the menu apparently businesses that increase the variety of their product offerings are not guaranteed increased sales
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