Assuming the average speed of sound waves in water is 1,500 meters per second, determine the water depth if a signal sent out by an echo sounder on a research vessel requires 6 seconds to strike bottom and return to the recorder aboard the ship.
Chapter 1 Sociology: the scientific study of society and Believed the engine of human history is class conflict. human behavior. Sociological Perspective Class conflict: Marx’s term for the struggle between Understand human behavior by placing it within its capitalists and workers. Society made up of two broader social context. Stress the social contexts in classes: Bourgeoisie: the exploited class, own the means which people live. Examines how these contexts of production. influence people’s lives. How groups, especially society Proletariat: the exploited class, mass of workers, not influence people. Social Location: the group own the means of production. membership that people have because of their social Founder of conflict theory. EMile Durkheim (1858- location in history and society 1917) - wanted to show how social forces affect people’s Basic Sociology- Sociological research for the purpose behavior. Major professional goal was to get sociology of making discoveries about life in human groups, not recognized as a separate academic discipline. Social for making changes. Applied Sociology- The use of integration: the degree to which people are tied to their sociology to solve problems - from the micro level to the social groups. Patterns of behavior: recurring macro level. Public Sociology- Applying sociology for behaviors or events. Social Facts: a group’s patterns of the public good; especially the use of the sociological behavior. Max Weber (1864-1920) - disagreed with perspective to guide politicians and policy makers. Marx; the force in social change is religion. Self-denying Science: The application of systematic methods to obtain approach to life = Protestant Ethic. The desire to invest knowledge. The Natural Science the intellectual and capital in order to make more money=the spirit of academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, capitalism. Sociology should be Value Free. A and predict events in our natural environments. sociologist’s personal values or beliefs should not (Biology, chemistry…) The Social Science-to influence social research. Weber wanted Objectivity understand the social world objectively by means of value neutrality in research. Weber: Because values can controlled and repeated observations. (Politics, lead to unintended distortions in research, sociologists psychology…) The Goal of Sciences-To explain, why stress the need of replication. The repetition of a study something happens, To make generalizations, to go in order to test its findings W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) beyond the individual case that applies to a broader First African American earned a Doctorate at Harvard; situation, To predict What will happen in the future, in Later attended lectures by Max Weber light of current knowledge Origins of Sociology Studies on relations between African Americans and Sociology emerged about the middle of 1800s whites. Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) Sociologist, faculty Three events- 1. Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) - of Harvard University. Developed a general theory for agriculture gave way to factory production; people the study of society Action Theory Influenced a moved to cities in search of work.2. Political Revolution generation of sociologists However, his models of how - the American (1775-83) and French revolutions (1789- parts of society work together harmoniously did nothing 99) swept away the existing social orders. Tradition to stimulate social activism. Three Major Theories authority/monarchy replaced by democracy.3. Theory-A general statement about how some parts of the Imperialism - Europeans conquered so many colonies; world fit together and how they work an explanation of were exposed to radically different ways of life; began to how two or more facts are related to one another ask why cultures differ. Scientific Method: the use of Symbolic Interactionism Two major sociologists objective, systematic observations to test theories. First developed this theory: Club of Sociology Augusta Comte (1798-1857) George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) Charles Horton suggested applying the scientific method to the social Cooley (1864-1929) Mead: One of the founders of the world, a process known as Positivism: the application of theory; Taught at the Univ. of Chicago. Symbolic the scientific approach to the social world. Often Interactionism a perspective in which society is viewed credited as being the founder of sociology. Sociology as composed of symbols that people use to establish would discover social principles and apply them to meaning, develop their views of the world, and social reform. communicate with one another. Without symbols, our Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)- Sociologists should not social life would be no more sophisticated than that of guide social reform. It would interfere with a natural animals. process. Sometimes called the second founder of Symbolic interactionist analyze how social life depends sociology. Disagreed with Comte. Societies are evolving on the ways we define ourselves and others and examine from a lower (barbarian) to higher (civilized) forms. how people make sense out of life and their place in it Societies fittest members survive and create a more Structural Functionalism Rooted in the origins of advanced society while less capable die. “Survival of the sociology August Comte and Herbert Spencer viewed fittest”. His idea was called “Social Darwinism”. society as a kind of living organism, similar to an animal Karl Marx (1818-1883)- People should try to change body Email Durkheim also views society as being society. His proposal for change was radical: revolution. composed of many parts Robert K. Merton (1910- 2003), is a major proponent of Functionalism. Just as a Material and nonmaterial objects that define a people’s person or animal has organs that function together. If a way of life. TWO Kinds of culture: 1) Material Culture- society to function smoothly, its parts must work all the tangible products of society. 2) Nonmaterial together in harmony Structural Functionalism. Culture- all the intangible products of the society. A Functional Analysis: Society is viewed as composed of group’s way of thinking: its beliefs, values, and other various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, assumptions about the world… Cultural Shock: The contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as disorientation people experience when coming in contact functionalism and structural functionalism. with a different culture. NO longer depend on taken-for- STRUCTURE- Is an interlocking social organization. granted assumptions about life. The reason is that Consists of institutions, social classes, statuses, roles, internalize the elements of their own culture and know etc... FUNCTIONS Meeting People’s Needs the world by those standards. Cultural Relativism: not TYPES OF FUNCTIONS Manifest (Intended) Latent judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own (Unintended) Dysfunctions (Negative; Hurtful) Conflict way. Ethnocentrism: the use of one’s own culture as a Theory- a theoretical framework in which society is yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or viewed as composed of groups that are competing for societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of scarce resources... Karl Marx: founder of the key to their values, norms, and behaviors. An important human history is class conflict. In each society, some consequence of culture within us is ethnocentrism. small group controls the means of production and Practicing Cultural Relativism: look at how the elements exploits those who are not in control. Bourgeoisie- of a culture fit together, without judging those elements group of capitalists who own the means to produce as inferior or superior to our own way of life. The wealth. Proletariat- the mass of workers who are components of culture: Symbol- something to which exploited by the bourgeoisie. Applying Conflict Theory people attach meaning and then use to communicate Today. Conflict is likely to develop among people who with one another. Taken for granted, allows people to are in close relationships. Many sociologists expand make sense of their lives, it can blind people together or conflict theory beyond the relationship of capitalists and separate them. Gestures- the way in which people use workers. They examine how opposing interests run their bodies to communicate with one another. “Cultural through every layer of society. Small groups, specific”. Teaches certain meaning to body languages. organizations, communities, societies, etc. Language- A system of symbols that allows members of Primary focus is on the historical, contemporary, and society to communicate with one another. Allows global inequalities of men and women. How the “cultural transmission”= passing on of cultural over traditional dominance by men can be overcome to bring generations. Provides a present, past and future. Allows about equality for understanding. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis= Feminists do not only use conflict perspective. They language determines our consciousness and our tackle a variety of topics and use whatever theory perceptions of the life around us. Social Values- applies. Three Theories – Level of Analysis standards by which people define good and bad, Functionalists and conflict theorists focus on the beautiful and ugly. Social Norms- the rules and expected macro level. Large-scale patterns of society. Symbolic behaviors that develop out of a society’s value. Three Interactionist usually focus on the micro level. Social types of Norms: Mores- Norms that are strictly enforced interaction and what people do when they are in one because they are thought essential to core values or the another’s presence. Three Stages in Sociology We divide wellbeing of the group. (Stealing, raping, killings, sociology into three time periods: 1st phase (until 1920s) violating core values…) Folkway: norms that are not the primary purpose of sociological research was to strictly enforced. Of little moral significance. Turkey on improve society. 2 phase (1920s- World War II) Thanksgiving Day is Folkway. Taboos: a norms so rd concern switched to developing abstract knowledge.3 strong that it brings extreme sanctions, even revulsion, if phase (World War II-Current) Sociologists seek ways to violated. (Having sex with one’s parent sister or brother apply their research findings. The Future of Sociology is violation of taboos). Ex. A man walks in street Two major trends Directions: wearing nothing on his upper half of his body is a The focus in sociology is social research or social violation of taboos. Wearing nothing on his lower half is reform Globalization: The growing interconnections violation of Mores. Eating human flesh is violation of among nations due to the expansion of capitalism. taboos. Pluralistic society: made up of many different Globalization broadens our horizon, directing us to a groups. There will be differences in degrees of greater consideration of global issues. Need to identify acceptance and conformity with wider held nations. universal principles Subculture- the values and related behaviors of a group Chapter 2 Culture: The language, beliefs, values, norms, that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a behaviors, and even materials objects that characterize a world within a world. (Social clubs, bodybuilders etc...) group and are passes from one generalization to the next. Counterculture- a group whose values. Beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposite to moral component of our personality. It is the conscience. the broader culture. (KKK, skinhead group etc.). IDEAL It represents culture within us-the norms and values. It VS REAL CULTURE. Ideal Culture- a people’s ideal gives us sense of guilty when break social rules and values and norms; the goals held out for them. Real pride when we follow them. It is our social self. Ego-the Culture- the norms and values that people actually balancing force between the ID and the demands of follow; as opposed to ideal culture. Culture Diffusion- society that suppress it. Kohlberg and Morality- we go the spread of cultural traits from one group to another, includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits. through a sequence of stages as we develop morality Cultural Universals- a values, norms, or another cultural (amoral stage, pre-conventional stage, conventional stage, post-conventional stage). Socialization into trait that is found in every group. Cultural Leveling: the emotions- emotions aren’t just a result of biology, 6 process by which cultural become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture basic emotions, “feeling rules”, self and our emotions is being exported and diffused into other nations. mold our behavior. Agents of socialization=people who Cultural leg- William Ogburn developed the term influence our self-concept, attitudes, and behaviors. cultural leg, not all parts of a cultural change at the same Socialization and gender- different attitudes and pace, goes along with cultural change Values in US behaviors are expected, toys and colors are different for society. Technology- in its narrow sense, tools; its boys and girls, and media reinforces gender stereotypes. broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary Sex=biologically determined, male or female. to make and use those tools. New technology- the Gender=socially determined distribution of work, emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life. Sociobiology- a framework of income, position simply based on who are males or thought in which human behavior is considered to be the females. Agents of socialization=family, religion, results of natural selection and biological factors: a school, day care, peer groups, mass media, internet, etc. Resocialization=process of learning new norms, values fundamental cause if human behavior. and behaviors. The “looking-glass self”= our sense of Chapter 3 Is it nature Biology & genetics Some identical twin research. Is it Nurture Our social self is developed from interaction with others. The self is experience socially created. Total institution- a place in which Children raised in isolation, impact. Of industrialization people are cut off from the rest of society and controlled on people, Harlow’s animal research findings. Peer by officials who run the place (prison, military, mental group= people of the same age and sharing common institutions, etc.). Life course-the sequence of events interests. Ascribed Statuses= positions an individual experienced from birth to death (childhood, adolescence, either inherits at birth or services involuntarily in life young adulthood, the middle years, later middle years, Achieved statuses= positions that are earned or involve early older, & later older). some efforts in the individual parts. Studies of isolated Chapter 4 Macrosociology-broader feature of social and institutionalized children point out the important of structure (functionalist and conflict perspectives) intimate early social interaction in acquiring the basic Microsociology-face-to-face social interaction (symbolic “human” traits we take for granted. Charles Horton perspective)Sociological significance- guides our Cooley= we develop a self-concept when we interact behavior, behaviors and attitudes and vital to usSocial with others. “Looking glass self” = describes the process structure-framework that surrounds us, consisting of the by which we develop a sense of self (Charles Horton relationships of people and groups to one another, which Cooley coined the team), contains three elements. give direction to and set limits on behaviorSocial class- George Herbert Mead= we acquire a sense of self when consists of large numbers of people who have similar we learn to take the role of the other, said self has two amounts of income and education and who work at jobs different parts. Significant others= Mead’s term, that are roughly comparable in prestige.Status-position meaning people who have significant influence on you one occupies; status set-all the statuses or positions one such as parents, siblings, relatives, friends, colleagues, occupies; Ascribed statuses- inheriting at birth or etc. Role taking= three stages to develop: imitation, receiving involuntarily later in life; Achieved statuses- playing and team games. Piaget- the development of obtained at least in part through individual effort. Master reasoning skills (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete status (sex, race, disabled, ethnicity)-primary relative to operational, and formal operational) Development of and overshadow all other statuses. Status inconsistency-a personality =Id, Ego, Superego by Freud. Id-the inborn contradiction or mismatch between statuses. Roles drive for self-gratification such as cries of hunger or comprise the expectations, obligations, privileges, pain; basic demanding needs and pleasure seeking aspect behaviors attached to a social position. Groups consist of people who regularly interact with one another and, of our personality (food, safety, sex, etc.) Superego-the usually, share similar values, norms, and expectations. developed by Karl Marx to explain human history. Voluntary membership-social group one chooses to According to Emile Durkheim’s famous study, which of belong such as sports club, music band, etc. Involuntary the following groups is the most likely to have the memberships- social groups involved in an involuntary highest suicide rate Wealthy, unmarried Protestants. association with other membership but one has little Max Weber believed that _religion was the central force option to belong such as family, gender, ethnic groups, for social change. “People who share a culture and a etc. Social institutions (family, education, religion, the territory” is to define the following which concept law, politics, economics, science, medicine, the military, Society. “The application of the scientific approach to mass media) - are the organized ways that each society the social world” refers to which of the terminology develops to meet its basic needs of society. Functionalist below Positivism. W.E.B. DeBois is remembered for research on what subject The effect of social integration perspective- meet the basic needs of society in order to on suicide rates. Which of the following statements is survive. Conflict perspective- meet the need of elites. Mechanical solidarity-a shared consciousness that true based on the text All of the above is true. Which people experience as a result of performing the similar theoretical perspective would be most useful in analyzing a small group interaction, such as the social tasks. Organic solidarity-based on interdependence dynamics in a classroom Symbolic interactionism. brought about by the division of labor. Gemeinschaft- Which of the following does functionalism focus on based on traditional society in which life is intimate and Relationships among the parts of society people share a sense of togetherness. Gesellschaft- Quiz chapter 2 Jewelry, art and buildings are all characterized by modern industrialized society in which examples of: material culture. People in all societies life is impersonal, short-term relationships, self-interests, have fundamental orientations toward life that they take and impersonal association. Microsociological for granted; these essentially determine the type of perspective- dealing with social interaction and everyday people they are. Sociologists call these orientations: the life (touching, role conflict, stereotypes, and role strain). culture within us. The tendency to use our own group’s Stereotypes-simplified generalization about people or ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others things, often biased point of views about people or is called: ethnocentrism. When we practice __ we try to things. Assumptions about what people or things are like understand a culture on its own terms cultural relativism. (some may be self-fulfilling). Erving Goffman- A form of non-material culture, _ allow (s) one developed dramaturgy. Role strain-conflict one feels generation to pass significant experiences along to the within the same role. Role conflict-what is expected of next generation language. The Sapir-Wharf hypothesis is us is incompatible with what is expected of us in another based on the belief that: language is the basis of culture. role.Social construction of reality- symbolic _are ways that we can use our bodies to communicate interactionist stress how our ideas help determine our without words gestures. Two examples of _are incest reality. Social cohesion-the degree to which members of taboos and courtship customs nonmaterial culture. A society feel united by shared values and bonds. Social person who rapes or steals has violated a: more. Serving setting-place where action takes place. Manner-attitudes turkey for Thanksgiving dinner is an example of a: when playing roles folkway. An example of_is the custom of maintaining a Sign-vehicles-social settings, our appearance and nine-month school year in the U.S. even thought this manner, which are used to communicate information custom no longer matches the current technology about ourselves. Thomas Theorem-if people define cultural lag. What is a counter-culture A group, which situations real, they are real in their consequences. has values in opposition to the dominant culture. Which Harold Garfunkel- founder of the Ethnomethodology. of the following best describes cultural diffusion The Chapter 1 Quiz- The natural sciences include all of the spread of culture over a specific geographic area. following except: Anthropology. Sociologists look for Teaching your child that lying is wrong, then lying to patterns, recurring characteristics or events, in their data your boss is an example of: real culture. What is a to achieve the goal of: Generalization. By_1850_ Europe cultural universal A cultural trait that occurs in all was changing from agriculture to factory production. cultures. The turmoil caused by a shift from agriculture to factory Quiz 3 Harlow’s experiments on baby monkeys production was called: the industrial revolution. August concluded that: Intimate physical contact is necessary for Compte is often referred to as the founder of sociology. Karl Marx referred to the controlling class who own the normal development. Studies of isolated and institutional means to produce wealth, capital, land, factories, and children point out of the importance of __ in acquiring machines as the: Bourgeoisie. _Conflict Theory was the basic “human” traits we take for granted Intimate early social interaction. Charles Horton Cooley coined the term looking glass self to mean: When we look good power. Role conflict occurs when: a person cannot we feel good. George Herbert Mead used the term satisfy the expectations of two or more roles. _occurs significant other(s) to identify: individuals like parents when a student tries to excel in class but may be and siblings who influence our lives. The __ represents criticized for making others look bad Roll strain. culture within use, the norms and values we have internalized from our social groups Superego. The story about the case of Jack and Oskar implies that: Environment has more influence on individual’s characteristics. Researchers examining the effects of day care on children in the US have found that: the more hours children are in daycare, the weaker the bonds between mothers and children. With which of the following is Jean Piaget most associated Stages of cognitive development. The unintended consequences of our actions are called: latent function. Gender socialization apparently begins where The family. Which is not an example of a total institution A daycare center. A __ strips a person of his or her identity, often in a humiliating manner: Total Institution. The agent of socialization with the greatest lifelong impact is: Family. In Freud’s argument of personality development, three elements play important role. Determine which of the following statement is correct according to the next: The “superego” represents our culture drive. According to our chapter readings, our emotions seem to be influences more by our culture. Quiz 4 Symbolic interaction is a type of: microsociology. Which of the following is not an ascribed status Lawyer. A contradiction or mismatch between statuses is referred to as: status inconsistency. A status we assume voluntarily is called a(n): achieved status. People who become disabled often find that their disability becomes there: master status. The behaviors, obligations and privileges attached to a status are called: roles. The term which refers a type of society dominated by impersonal relationships is: Gesellschaft. After studying the use of personal space in several cultures Edward Hall concluded that the amount of space people prefer: varies from one culture to another. When economists compared physical attractiveness and earnings they found: “average-looking” and “good- looking” people are paid more than “plain” people. A __ consists of large numbers of people who have similar amount of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige Social class. A classic statement has become known as the Thomas theorem is: if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. To a sociologist the term “status” means: A person’s position in a society or social group. From the viewpoint of conflict theorists the purpose of social institutions is: to provide the ruling classes with a means of maintaining its position and