Internal standard. A solution was prepared by mixing 10.00 mL of unknown (X) with 5.00 mL of standard (S) containing 8.24 g S/mL and diluting the mixture to 50.0 mL. The measured signal quotient was (signal due to X/signal due to S) 1.690/1.000. (a) In a separate experiment, in which the concentrations of X and S were equal, the quotient was (signal due to X/signal due to S) 0.930/1.000. What is the concentration of X in the unknown? (b) Answer the same question if, in a separate experiment in which the concentration of X was 3.42 times the concentration of S, the quotient was (signal due to X/signal due to S) 0.930/1.000.
Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making • Representativeness Bias • The degree to which a single event is similar to its parent population • Anchoring Bias • Using early, first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgments • Confirmation Bias • Selecting and using only the facts that support our decision • Availability Bias • Emphasizing information that is most readily at hand • Recent and Vivid information • Randomness Error - Creating meaning out of random events – superstitions • Winner’s Curse - Highest bidder pays too much due to value overestimation • Likelihood increases with the number of people in auction • Escalation of Commitment - Incr