The rigid beam is supported at its ends by two A-36 steel tie rods. If the allowable stress for the steel is uauaw= 16.2 ksi, the load w=3 kip/ft,andx=4 ft, determine the smallest diameter of each rod so that the beam remains in the horizontal position when it is loaded.
CHAPTER 6 Excavation, Grading, and compacted Fill 1. When we remove soil or rock, we make a cut or excavation 2. When we add soil or rock, we create a fill embankment 3. Virtually highways require earthwork to create smooth grades an alignments to provide proper surface drainage. 4. EARTHWORK is important especially in hilly areas. 6.1 Earthwork construction: 1. The fundamental objective of earthwork construction is to change the ground Surface from initial configuration to final configuration 2. These changes are necessary to maintain proper surface drainage 3. Earthwork must not create slope stability problems in hilly and mountainous areas In 1960: building codes began to include stricter requirements for fills, and required builders to hire geotechnical engineers. What are the requirements for compacted fills They must have sufficient shear strength to support their weight and external loads, lack of strength leads to landslides, bearing capacity failures and rutting of pavements. The fills must be stiff to avoid excessive settlement since soft fills damage the building. Fills must satisfy the above requirements even when they become wet. They must have a low hydraulic conductivity to restrict the flow of water. It is desirable to have fills made of soils that are not frost- susceptible. 6.2 Construction Methods and Equipment: Historic Methods: 1. Builders have been making cuts and fills for thousand ye