A pressure-vessel head is fabricated by welding the circular plate to the end of the vessel as shown. If the vessel sustains an internal pressure of 450 kPa, determine the average shear stress in the weld and the state of stress in the wall oft he vessel.
3.Process Management A process can be thought of as a program in execution. A process will need certain resources—such as CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices —to accomplish its task. These resources are allocated to the process either when it is created or while it is executing. A process is the unit of work in most systems. Systems consist of a collection of processes: operating-system processes execute system code, and user processes execute user code. All these processes may execute concurrently. Although traditionally a process contained only a single thread of control as it ran, most modern operating systems now support processes that have multiple threads. The operating system is responsible for several important aspects of process and thread management: the creation and deletion of both user and system processes; the scheduling of processes; and the provision of mechanisms for synchronization, Communication and deadlock handling for processes . Early computers allowed only one program to be executed at a time. This program had complete control of the system and had access to all the system’s resources. In contrast, contemporary computer systems allow multiple programs to be loaded into memory and executed concurrently. This evolution required firmer control and more compartmentalization of the various programs; and these needs resulted in the notion of a process, which is a program in execution. A process is the uni