a. Given the Ka values, estimate the pKa value of each of the following acids without using a calculator (that is, is it between 3 and 4, between 9 and 10,and so on?):1. nitrous acid (HNO2), Ka = 4.0 * 10-4 3. bicarbonate (HCO3-), Ka = 6.3 * 10-11 5. formic acid (HCOOH), Ka = 2.0 * 10-42. nitric acid (HNO3), Ka = 22 4. hydrogen cyanide (HCN), Ka = 7.9 * 10-10 6. phosphoric acid (H3PO4), Ka = 2.1b. Determine the exact pKa values, using a calculator.c. Which is the strongest acid?
CHEM 1112 Dr. Martín Zysmilich Class Notes for February 10-12 Exam 1 on February 9 Relationship between ΔG and ΔG° (February 11) ΔG° is a comparison to the reaction at standard state (1 atm, 1 molar concentration) o Ex. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO 2g) + 2H 2 (g) 1 atm 1 atm 1 atm 1 atm ← these quantities are not realistic and are relatively useless for determining spontaneity ΔG can be used for any conditions; the sign of ΔG (not ΔG°) determines spontaneity ΔG = ΔG° + RTlnQ o Q is the reaction quotient as a ratio of concentrationsC(Q ) or partial pressurPs (Q ) For the reaction aA + bB → cC + dD   =   *Q only applies for gas phases (cannot be used for condensed phases) p o If Q = 1, then lnQ = 0 and ΔG = ΔG° Difference conditions change the sign of ΔG and change spontaneity, forcing a reaction to go in one way or the other; ΔG° is just a reference state Chemical Equilibrium N2O 4g) ↔