Chloroformates have the functional groupOR O Cl, in which R is often a tert-butylor benzyl group. A chloroformate is used in the following synthesis of the antibacterialdrug linezolid (Zyvox).
I. Chapter 11 Continued A. Concentration Units 1. Molarity (M) a. M = moles/liters b. [KCl] means molarity of a KCl solution 2. Molality (m) a. m = moles/kg of solvent b. mass-based and independent of temperature 3. Mass Fraction a. Mass fraction = mass of solute/total mass b. Mass percent = mass fraction * 100% 4. Mass Percent a. Mass percent is parts per hundred i. Ppm = part per million ii. Ppb = parts per billion iii. Ppt = parts per trillion b. 1 ppm of solute in water = 1 mg/1000g of solution i. Since 1 L of H2O has a mass of 1000 g: 1. 1 ppm = 1 mg/L 2. 1 ppb = 1 ug/L 3. 1 ppt = 1 ng/L 5. Problems: B. Colligative Properties 1. Dependent on number of solute “units” in solution 2. Particle type is unimportant a. Ex. Vapor pressure -> Solvent of vapor pressure is lowered by dissolved solvents C. Raolt’s Law 1. A nonvolatile solute in a volatile solvent obeys: a. Psolution = xsolvent * Psolvent b. Xsubi is mole fraction c. Lower purity solvent = lower vapor pressure 2. Problems: D. Van’t Hoff Factor 1. Ionic compounds break apart in water