Write a mechanism for the formation of tert-butylbenzene from benzene andtert-butyl alcohol in the presence of phosphoric acid.
Chemistry 102 Ch. 16.1-2 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy Definitions & Vocabulary First Law of Thermodynamics- “The law of conservation of energy; energy cannot be created or destroyed” State Function- a function defined for a system that has multiple variables or quantities that lead the system to its new state. State Functions are path independent Ex: mass, pressure, density, energy, temperature, volume, enthalpy, entropy Spontaneous-a systems tendency to react without being acted on by an external influence Does not signify information about the speed of the reaction. It could be small or large. Ex: heat transfer from hot cup of coffee to hand when holding the cup Dissolution of soluble salt Expansion and diffusion of gas Phase changes Chemical reactions Entropy (S)- drives spontaneous processes, and is a measure of molecular randomness/disorder. Higher entropy is more likely then lower entropy Nonspontaneous Reaction- occurs when an outside influence reacts on the system. Ex: Turning on the stove to heat up a pot of coffee 2ndLaw of Thermodynamics- The entropy of the universe is always increasing. Equations ∆U=q+w ∆S=S final intial entropy change of the surrounding= quantity of heat (J)/temperature (K) Variables ∆H - Heat transferred w/ constant pressure Chapter Notes Dispersal of Energy: Entropy Order of properties in increasing order: S(s)