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Solved: Explain why or why not. Determine whether the

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780130606204 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli ISBN: 9780130606204 3

Solution for problem 1RE Chapter 1

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition

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Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780130606204 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition

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Problem 1RE

Explain why or why not. Determine whether the following statements are true and give an explanation or counter example. a. A function could have the property that ?f?(x ? ?) =? ?(? ? for all ? . b. cos (a? ? +? ?)= cos ?a? + cos ?b? for all? ? and ?b? in [0, 2?? . c. If ?f? is a linear function of the form ?f?(?x?) = ?mx? + ?b?,then ?f?(?u? + ?v?)= ?f?(?u?)+ ?f?(?v?)for all ?u and v? . d. The function f ? ?(? ? 1 ? ? ? has the property ?f(f(x)) = x e. The set {?x?: | ?x? + 3| > 4} can be drawn on the number line without lifting your pencil. f. logic (x? y?) = (logl0 ? ? (logl0 ?y?). g. sin?1 (sin ?(2??))= 0.

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Abnormal Psychology Chapter 11 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders and Addictive Disorders -Substance-related disorders - Use and abuse of psychoactive substances - Significant impairment - Costs - Polysubstance use - Impulse-control disorders - Inability to resist acting on drives or impulses Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders and Addictive Disorders - Levels of involvement - Substance use - Substance intoxication - Substance abuse - Substance dependence - Psychoactive substances alter mood, behavior, or both Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders and Addictive Disorders- Dependence and “addiction” -Tolerance - Withdrawal - “Drug seeking behaviors” Diagnostic Issues - The DSM-5 term substance-related disorders include 11 symptoms that range from relatively mild (e.g., substance use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations) to more severe (e.g., occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use) - Substance-related disorders and anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent Main Categories of Substances - Main categories - Depressants - Stimulants - Opiates - Hallucinogens - Other drugs of abuse - Inhalants - Anabolic steroids - Medications - Gambling disorder Abnormal Psychology Alcohol-Related Disorders - Clinical description - CNS depressant - Inhibitory centers - Global - Neurotransmitter systems - GABA - Glutamate - Serotonin Alcohol-Related Disorders Alcohol-Related Disorders - Effects of chronic alcohol use - Intoxication - Withdrawal - Delirium tremens - Dementia - Wernicke-Korsakoff disorder Alcohol-Related Disorders - Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) - Growth retardation - Cognitive deficits - Behavior problems - Facial abnormalities - Role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) - Statistics on Use and Abuse - Use - Most adults: light drinkers or abstainers - Current use = ~50% - Binge drinking = 22.6% - Dependence = 3 million - Males > Females Progression of Alcohol Related Disorders - Spontaneous remission - 20% - Jellinek’s four stage model - prealcoholic stage (drinking occasionally with few serious consequences) - prodromal stage (drinking heavily but with few outward signs of a problem) - crucial stage (loss of control, with occasional binges) - chronic stage (the primary daily activities involve getting and drinking alcohol)  Limited empirical support Progression of Alcohol Related Abnormal Psychology Disorders - Course of dependence = progressive - Course of abuse = variable Alcohol and Violence - Links with aggression - Overlap versus causality Multiple factors - Quantity - Timing - History of violence - Expectations - Consequences Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Related Disorders - Barbiturates - Benzodiazepines - Effects = similar to alcohol - GABA - Synergistic in combination Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Related Disorders Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Related Disorders - DSM criteria - Maladaptive behavior changes - Sexual - Aggressive - Variable moods - Impaired judgment - Impaired function - Physiological effects - Speech - Coordination - Gait Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Related Disorders - Statistics - 1% of people with substance problems - Female - Caucasian - Over the age of 35 Stimulant-Related Disorders - Nature of stimulants - Most widely consumed drug (U.S.) - Increase alertness and energy Abnormal Psychology - Examples: - Amphetamines - MDMA - Cocaine - Nicotine - Caffeine Stimulant-Related Disorders Amphetamine - Effects of amphetamines - “Up” - Elation - Vigor - Reduced fatigue - “Crash” - Extreme fatigue - Depression Amphetamine - DSM criteria - Behavioral symptoms - Changes in sociability - Interpersonal sensitivity - Anxiety, tension, anger - Stereotyped behaviors - Impaired judgment - Impaired function - Physiological symptoms Amphetamine - Designer drugs - MDMA (Ecstasy) - Effects similar to speed - Minimal “comedown” - Methamphetamine - Purified, crystallized form of speed - Longer half-life - Incredible potential for dependence Amphetamine - CNS effects of amphetamines - Significant agonist and reuptake blocking effects - Norepinephrine - Dopamine - Link with hallucinations and delusions Cocaine - Effects of cocaine - Blocks dopamine reuptake - Euphoria Abnormal Psychology - Feelings of power and confidence (short term) - Increased blood pressure/pulse - Insomnia - Decreases appetite - Paranoia Cocaine - Statistics - Worldwide, almost 5% of adults - ER admissions for cocaine - 23% Caucasian males - 29% African American males - 18% Caucasian females - 12% African American females - 17% also used crack cocaine Cocaine - Dependence - Highly addictive -Develops slowly - Tolerance - Atypical withdrawal - Cyclical pattern Tobacco-Related Disorders - Effects of nicotine - Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - Sensations of relaxation, wellness, pleasure - Highly addictive - Relapse rates = alcohol and heroin Tobacco-Related Disorders Tobacco-Related Disorders - “Dosing” - Maintain a steady level of nicotine in the bloodstream - Examples: - Before sleep - After waking Tobacco-Related Disorders - Psychological symptoms - Depressed mood - Irritability - Anxiety - Difficulty concentrating - Physiological symptoms - Restlessness - Increased appetite - Weight gain Abnormal Psychology Caffeine Use Disorders - Effects of caffeine - Used by over 90% of Americans - Tea, coffee, cola, and cocoa products - Blocks adenosine reuptake - Small doses - Elevate mood - Reduce fatigue - Regular use - Tolerance - Dependence Caffeine Use Disorders - Withdrawal symptoms - Psychological - Irritability - Unpleasant mood - Physiological - Drowsiness - Headaches Caffeine Use Disorders Opioids - Opioid-related disorders - Nature of opiates and opioids - Opiates - Opioids - Referred to as analgesics - Examples: heroin, opium, codeine, and morphine Opioids - Effects of opioids - Activate enkephalins, beta-endorphins, and dynorphins - Low doses - Euphoria - Drowsiness - Slow breathing - High doses = fatal Opioids - Withdrawal symptoms (6 to 12 hours) - Excessive yawning - Nausea and vomiting - Chills - Muscle aches - Diarrhea - Insomnia - High mortality rates Abnormal Psychology - Increased HIV risk Opioids Cannabis-Related Disorders - Marijuana - Most frequently used drug - Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) - Variable, individual reactions - Euphoria Mood swings - Paranoia - Hallucinations - Tolerance = questionable Withdrawal and dependence = uncommon -Cannabis-Related Disorders - 5-15% use in western countries - “K2” or “Spice” - Controversy surrounds the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes Cannabis-Related Disorders Hallucinogen-Related Disorders - Nature of hallucinogens - Alter sensory perception - Can produce delusions, paranoia, hallucinations - Examples: marijuana, psilocybin, LSD - Hallucinogens use disorder Hallucinogen-Related Disorders - LSD and other hallucinogens - LSD = most common hallucinogenic drug - Tolerance = rapid - Withdrawal symptoms = uncommon - Intoxication - Altered sensory perceptions - Depersonalization - Hallucinations - Mystical experiences - Many other plant hallucinogens Hallucinogen-Related Disorders - Occurring naturally in a variety of plants: - Psilocybin (found in certain species of mushrooms) - Lysergic acid amide (found in the seeds of the morning glory plant) - Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) (found in the bark of the Virola tree, which grows in South and Central America) - Mescaline (found in the peyote cactus plant) - Phencyclidine (or PCP) Abnormal Psychology Hallucinogen-Related Disorders Other Drugs of Abuse - Nature of inhalants - Found in volatile solvents - Breathed into the lungs directly - Rapid absorption - Examples: spray paint, hair spray, paint thinner, gasoline, nitrous oxide - Effects similar to alcohol intoxication - Produce tolerance and prolonged withdrawal symptoms - Several negative physiological effects Other Drugs of Abuse Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids -Nature of anabolic-androgenic steroids -Derived or synthesized from testosterone - Used medicinally or to increase body mass - No associated high - “Cycling” or “stacking” patterns of use - Long-term mood disturbances - Physical problems Designer Drugs - Dissociative anesthetics and designer drugs - “Club drugs” - Ecstasy, MDEA (“eve”), BDMPEA (“nexus”), ketamine (“special K”), Heightened sensory perception - Popular in nightclubs, raves, or large gatherings - All can produce tolerance and dependence - Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Causes of Substance-Related Disorders - Once thought to be moral weakness - Combination of factors - Biological - Psychological Biological Dimensions - Familial and genetic influences - Twin, family, and adoption studies - Use = environmental influences - Abuse and dependence = polygenetic vulnerability Neurobiological Influences - Pleasure or reward centers - Dopaminergic system - Midbrain - ventral tegmental area - Frontal cortex – nucleus accumbens - GABA - Inhibition yields more dopamine activation Abnormal Psychology - Rewards system - Serotonin and norepinephrine - P300 amplitude Neurobiological Influences Psychological Dimensions - Positive reinforcement - Repeated pairings with rewards - Negative reinforcement - Escape from unpleasantness - Self-medication - Tension reduction - Coping mechanism for negative affect Psychological Dimensions - Opponent-process theory - Increase in positive - Increase in negative - Remedy is to use more of same drug Cognitive Factors - Expectancy effects - Beliefs about drugs and effects - Cravings - Cues - Environmental triggers Social Dimensions - Exposure to drugs - Prerequisite for use - Media - Peers - Family - Monitoring - Peer groups - Societal views - Moral weakness - Disease model Cultural Dimensions - Contextual normative framework - Expectations about use in specific culture - Gene-environment interactions - Values of specific culture Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological - National Institute on Drug Abuse recommends 13 Principles of effective treatment for illicit drug abuse Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological Abnormal Psychology Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological - Agonist substitution - Safer drug - Similar chemical composition - Methadone and nicotine gum or patch - Antagonistic treatment - Block or counteract pleasurable effects - Naltrexone for opiate and alcohol Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological - Aversive treatment - Make use of drugs extremely unpleasant - Antabuse for alcoholism Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological - Medications - Cope with withdrawal symptoms - Efficacy - Limited when used alone - Better with psychosocial therapy - Other biological approaches - Clonidine - Benzodiazepines Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Biological Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial - Inpatient facilities - Expensive - Efficacy is equal to outpatient - Alcoholics anonymous (12 step) - Most popular - Social support - Limited research - Effective for highly motivated Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial - Controlled use - Controlled drinking - Moderation - Possible benefits - Limited research Abnormal Psychology Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial - Component treatment - Comprehensive - Individual and group therapy - Aversion therapy - Covert sensitization - Contingency management Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial - Community reinforcement - Involvement of collateral -Behavioral analysis -Antecedents and consequences - Social service assistance - New recreational activities Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial Relapse prevention - Learned aspects of dependence - Address distorted cognitions - Identify negative consequences - Increase motivation to change - Identify high risk situations - Reframe relapse - failure of coping skills, not person Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders Psychosocial - Prevention approaches - Education-based (DARE) - Limited efficacy - Comprehensive (skills training) - Promising preliminary results - Cultural change - Media Gambling Disorder - Pathological gambling - 1.9% of adult Americans - Biological influences - Poor impulse regulation - Dopamine - Serotonin - Treatment - Similar to substance dependence Gambling Disorder Impulse-Control Disorders Abnormal Psychology - DSM-5 - Intermittent explosive disorder - Kleptomania - Pyromania - Commonalities - Increased tension/anxiety before - Relief after - Social and occupational impairment Impulse-Control Disorders - Intermittent explosive disorder - Frequent aggressive outbursts - Injury and/or destruction of property - Biological - Serotonin, norepinephrine, testosterone - Psychosocial - Stress, disrupted family life, parenting CBT is most promising treatment Impulse-Control Disorders - Kleptomania - Failure to resist urge to steal unnecessary items - High comorbidities - Mood disorders - Substance abuse & dependence - Treatments - Behavioral interventions - Antidepressants Impulse-control Disorders - Pyromania - Irresistible urge to set fires - 3% of arsonists - Little etiological and treatment research - CBT Chapter 12 Personality Disorders An Overview Personality Disorders - Personality disorders - A persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress for the person affected and/or for others and may cause difficulties with work and relationships Abnormal Psychology An Overview Personality Disorders - High comorbidity - Poorer prognosis - Therapist reactions - Countertransference - 10 specific personality disorders - 3 clusters Categorical and Dimensional Models - Categorical vs. dimensional models - “Kind” vs. “Degree” - Dimensions instead of categories - By a dimensional model individuals would not only be given categorical diagnoses but also would be rated on a series of personality dimensions - “Emerging measures and models” Categorical and Dimensional Models - Five factor model of personality (“Big Five”) - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Emotional stability - Cross-cultural research establishes the universal nature of the five dimensions Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster A - Odd or eccentric - Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal - Cluster B - Dramatic, emotional, erratic - Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster C - Fearful or anxious - Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Clusters Statistics and Development - Prevalence = 6%, may be closer to 10% - Origins and course - Begin in childhood --Chronic course -Can remit but is replaced by other personality disorder -High comorbidity Abnormal Psychology Statistics and Development Gender Differences - Men diagnosed with a personality disorder tend to display traits characterized as more - Aggressive, structured, self-assertive and detached - Women tend to present with characteristics that are - More submissive, emotional and insecure Gender Differences - Clinician bias - Assessment bias - Criterion gender bias - Histrionic = extreme “stereotypical female” - No “macho” disorder - Ford and Widiger (1889) Comorbidity - Comorbidity - Personality disorders- 10% Personality Disorders Under Study - Categories of disorders - Sadistic - Passive aggressive Personality Disorders Under Study Personality Disorders Under Study -Cluster A: Paranoid Clinical description - Mistrust and suspicion - Pervasive - Unjustified - Few meaningful relationships - Volatile - Tense - Sensitive to criticism Cluster A: Paranoid - Causes - Possible relationship to schizophrenia - Possible role of early experience - Trauma - Learning - People are malevolent and deceptive - Cultural factors - Prisoners - refugees - people with hearing impairments - older adults Abnormal Psychology Cluster A: Paranoid - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on developing trust - Cognitive therapy - Assumptions - No empirically-supported treatments - Poor improvement rate Cluster A: Paranoid Cluster A: Schizoid - Clinical description - Appear to neither enjoy nor desire relationships - Loner --Limited range of emotions -Appear cold, detached -Appear unaffected by praise, criticism - Unable or unwilling to express emotion - No thought disorder Cluster A: Schizoid - Causes - Limited research - Precursor: childhood shyness - Possibly related to: - Abuse/neglect - Autism -Cluster A: Schizoid - Treatment Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on relationships - Social skills therapy - Empathy training - Role playing - Social network building - Empirically-supported treatments limited- Cluster A: Schizoid - Cluster A: Schizoid Cluster A: Schizotypal - Clinical description - Psychotic-like symptoms - Magical thinking - Ideas of reference - Illusions - Odd and/or unusual - Behavior Abnormal Psychology - Appearance - Socially isolated - Suspicious Cluster A: Schizotypal - Causes - Schizophrenia phenotype - Lack full biological or environmental contributions - Cognitive impairments - Left hemisphere - More generalized Cluster A: Schizotypal - Treatment - Treatment of comorbid depression 30 – 50% - Multidimensional approach - Social skill training - Antipsychotic medications - Community treatment Cluster A: Schizotypal Cluster B: Antisocial - Clinical description - Noncompliance with social norms - “Social Predators” - Violate rights of others - Irresponsible - Impulsive - Deceitful - Lack a conscience, empathy, and remorse Cluster B: Antisocial - Nature of psychopathy - Glibness/superficial charm - Grandiose sense of self-worth - Pathological lying - Conning/manipulative - Lack of remorse - Callous/lack of empathy Cluster B: Antisocial - DSM-5 - More trait based approach - Overlap with ASPD, criminality - Intelligence -Cluster B: Antisocial - Developmental considerations Early histories of behavioral problems - Conduct disorder - childhood-onset type Abnormal Psychology - adolescent-onset type - Families history of: - Inconsistent parental discipline - Variable support - Criminality - Violence Cluster B: Antisocial Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gene-environment interaction - Genetic predisposition - Environmental triggers - Arousal hypotheses - Underarousal - Fearlessness Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gray’s model of brain functioning - Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) - Low - Reward system High - Fight/flight system Causes of Antisocial Personality - Interactive, integrative model - Genetic vulnerability - Neurotransmitters - Environmental factors - Family stress and dysfunction - Reinforcement of antisocial behaviors - Alienation from good role models - Poor occupational/social function Antisocial Personality Disorder - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - High recidivism - Incarceration - Early intervention - Prevention - Parent training - Rewards for pro-social behaviors - Skills training - Improve social competence Cluster B: Borderline - Clinical description -1 – 2% of population - Patterns of instability - Intense moods Abnormal Psychology - Turbulent relationships - Impulsivity - Very poor self-image - Self-mutilation - Suicidal gestures Cluster B: Borderline Cluster B: Borderline - Comorbid disorders - Depression – 20% - Suicide – 6% - Bipolar – 40% - Substance abuse – 67% - Eating disorders - 25% of bulimics have BPD Cluster B: Borderline - Causes - Genetic/biological components - Serotonin - Limbic network - Cognitive biases - Early childhood experience - Neglect - Trauma - Abuse - An Integrative Model Cluster B: Borderline - Treatment - Highly likely to seek treatment - Antidepressant medications - Dialectical behavior therapy - Reduce “interfering” behaviors - Self-harm - Treatment - Quality of life - Outcomes Cluster B: Histrionic - Clinical description - Center of attention - Sexually provocative - Shallow shifting emotions - Physical appearance-focused - Impressionistic - Overly dramatic - Suggestible - Misinterprets relationships Abnormal Psychology Cluster B: Histrionic Cluster B: Histrionic - Causes - Little research - Links with antisocial personality - Sex-typed alternative expression Cluster B: Histrionic - Treatment - Problematic interpersonal relationships - Attention seeking - Long-term consequences of behavior - Little empirical support Cluster B: Narcissistic - Clinical description - Exaggerated and unreasonable sense of selfimportance - Grandiosity - Require attention - Lack sensitivity and compassion - Sensitive to criticism - Envious - Arrogant Cluster B: Narcissistic Cluster B: Narcissistic - Causes - Deficits in early childhood learning - Altruism - Empathy - Sociological view - Increased individual focus - “Me generation” Cluster B: Narcissistic - Treatment focuses on: - Grandiosity - Lack of empathy - Hypersensitivity to evaluation - Co-occurring depression - Little empirical support Cluster C: Avoidant - Clinical description - Extreme sensitivity to opinions - Avoid most relationships - Interpersonally anxious - Fearful of rejection Cluster C: Avoidant Cluster C: Avoidant -Causes - Schizophrenia-related disorders - Difficult temperament Abnormal Psychology - Early parental rejection - Interpersonal isolation and conflict Cluster C: Avoidant - Treatment - Similar to social phobia - Increase social skills - Therapeutic alliance - Moderate empirical support Cluster C: Dependent - Clinical description - Rely on others for major and minor decisions - Unreasonable fear of abandonment - Clingy - Submissive - Timid - Passive - Feelings of inadequacy - Sensitivity to criticism - High need for reassurance Cluster C: Dependent Cluster C: Dependent - Causes - Little research - Early experience - Death of a parent - Rejection by caregiver - Attachment - Genetic influences Cluster C: Dependent - Treatment - Limited empirical support - Caution: dependence on therapist - Gradual increases in: - Independence - Personal responsibility - Confidence Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Clinical description - Fixation on doing things the “right way” - Rigid - Perfectionistic - Orderly - Preoccupation with details - Poor interpersonal relationships - Obsessions and compulsions are rare Abnormal Psychology Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Causes - Limited research - Weak genetic contributions - Predisposed to favor structure Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Treatment - Similar to OCD - Address fears related to the need for orderliness - Limited efficacy data

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Textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications
Edition: 6
Author: Douglas C. Giancoli
ISBN: 9780130606204

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 1RE from chapter: 1 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 03/03/17, 03:53PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications, edition: 6. This full solution covers the following key subjects: cos, function, sin, logl, property. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 35 chapters, and 3914 solutions. The answer to “Explain why or why not. Determine whether the following statements are true and give an explanation or counter example. a. A function could have the property that ?f?(x ? ?) =? ?(? ? for all ? . b. cos (a? ? +? ?)= cos ?a? + cos ?b? for all? ? and ?b? in [0, 2?? . c. If ?f? is a linear function of the form ?f?(?x?) = ?mx? + ?b?,then ?f?(?u? + ?v?)= ?f?(?u?)+ ?f?(?v?)for all ?u and v? . d. The function f ? ?(? ? 1 ? ? ? has the property ?f(f(x)) = x e. The set {?x?: | ?x? + 3| > 4} can be drawn on the number line without lifting your pencil. f. logic (x? y?) = (logl0 ? ? (logl0 ?y?). g. sin?1 (sin ?(2??))= 0.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 135 words. Since the solution to 1RE from 1 chapter was answered, more than 466 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Physics: Principles with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780130606204.

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