Chocolate and happy babies A University of Helsinki (Finland) study wanted to determine if chocolate consumption during pregnancy had an effect on infant temperament at age 6 months. Researchers began by asking 305 healthy pregnant women to report their chocolate consumption. Six months after birth, the researchers asked mothers to rate their infants temperament, including smiling, laughter, and fear. The babies born to women who had been eating chocolate daily during pregnancy were found to be more active and positively reactivea measure that the investigators said encompasses traits like smiling and laughter.32 (a) Was this an observational study or an experiment? Justify your answer. (b) What are the explanatory and response variables? (c) Does this study show that eating chocolate regularly during pregnancy helps produce infants with good temperament? Explain.

Week 5 & 6: Probability 4 October 2016, 11 October 2016 Basic Statistics for Research Professor HK Dong Wendy Liu Probability – numerical measure of the likelihood an event will occur Lies between 0 and 1 Sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes is 1 Method 1: approximation Empirical frequency obtained by experimentation Method 2: actual calculation ...