The Propagation of Light

Calculate the index of refraction for a medium in which the speed of light is \(2.012 \times 10^{8} \mathrm{~m} / \mathrm{s}\), and identify the most likely substance based on Table 1.1 .

Text Transcription:

2.012 times 10^8 m/s

PHYSICS 1321 CHAPTER 12 –FLUID MECHANICS 1. Density (ρ) Very important property of material , fluid or solid. 2 or more objects can have same density despite having different masses and volume if they are made of the same material. Mass per unit volume 3 SI unit : kg/m ρ=m/V 2. Pressure in fluid (p) It is the force exerted per unit area. The force exerted is perpendicular to any surface. Scalar Quantity SI unit : 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 p=(dF)/(dA) 3. Pressure at depth in a fluid Pressure at depth is greater than pressure p whic0 is at surface p=p +0ρgh --------- (1) In a column, the pressure at the top of each liquid column is p . At 0he bottom , the pressure is p. The difference in p and p is ρ0h. 4. Pascal’s Law Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted to every potion of the fluid undiminished and equally. p=(F )1(A )1= (F )2(A )2 5. Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure Total pressure is p atm . The excess pressure above atmospheric pressure is called gauge pressure . If the pressure applied is less than atmospheric , the gauge pressure is negative. 6. Archimedes’ Principle When a body is submerged in water , it weighs less as compared to when in air.