(a) Write the electron configuration for the element titanium, Ti. How many valence electrons does this atom possess?
(b) Hafnium, Hf, is also found in group 4B. Write the electron configuration for Hf.
(c) Ti and Hf behave as though they possess the same number of valence electrons. Which of the subshells in the electron configuration of Hf behave as valence orbitals? Which behave as core orbitals?
Step 1 of 5) Boyle’s law occupies a special place in the history of science because Boyle was the first to carry out experiments in which one variable was systematically changed to determine the effect on another variable. The data from the experiments were then employed to establish an empirical relationship—a “law.” We apply Boyle’s law every time we breathe. The rib cage, which can expand and contract, and the diaphragm, a muscle beneath the lungs, govern the volume of the lungs. Inhalation occurs when the rib cage expands and the diaphragm moves downward. Both actions increase the volume of the lungs, thus decreasing the gas pressure inside the lungs. Atmospheric pressure then forces air into the lungs until the pressure in the lungs equals atmospheric pressure. Exhalation reverses the process—the rib cage contracts and the diaphragm moves up, decreasing the volume of the lungs. Air is forced out of the lungs by the resulting increase in pressure.