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?Indicate the type of solid (molecular, metallic, ionic, or covalent-network) for each compound: (a) \(\mathrm{CaSO}_{4}\), (b) Pd

Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780134414232 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780134414232 1274

Solution for problem 12.15 Chapter 12

Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780134414232 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition

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Problem 12.15

Indicate the type of solid (molecular, metallic, ionic, or covalent-network) for each compound:

(a) \(\mathrm{CaSO}_{4}\),

(b) Pd

(c) \(\mathrm{Ta}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{5}\) (melting point, \(1872^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\)),

(d) caffeine \(\left(\mathrm{C}_{8} \mathrm{H}_{10} \mathrm{~N}_{4} \mathrm{O}_{2}\right)\),

(e) toluene \(\left(\mathrm{C}_{7} \mathrm{H}_{8}\right)\),

(f) \(\mathrm{P}_{4}\).

Text Transcription:

CaSO_4

Ta_2O_5

1872^{\circ} C

(C_8H_10N_4O_2)

(C_7H_8)

P_4

Step-by-Step Solution:

Step 1 of 5) The rate at which a reaction approaches equilibrium is an important practical consideration. As an example, let’s again consider the synthesis of ammonia from N2 and H2. In designing his process, Haber had to deal with a rapid decrease in the equilibrium constant with increasing temperature, as you can see from Table 15.2. At temperatures sufficiently high to give a satisfactory reaction rate, the amount of ammonia formed was too small. The solution to this dilemma was to develop a catalyst that would produce a reasonably rapid approach to equilibrium at a sufficiently low temperature, so that the equilibrium constant remained reasonably large. The development of a suitable catalyst thus became the focus of Haber’s research efforts. After trying different substances to see which would be most effective, Carl Bosch settled on iron mixed with metal oxides, and variants of this catalyst formulation are still used today. (Section 15.2, “The Haber Process”) These catalysts make it possible to obtain a reasonably rapid approach to equilibrium at around 400 to 500 °C and 200 to 600 atm.

Step 2 of 2

Chapter 12, Problem 12.15 is Solved
Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 14
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780134414232

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?Indicate the type of solid (molecular, metallic, ionic, or covalent-network) for each compound: (a) \(\mathrm{CaSO}_{4}\), (b) Pd