For the following exercises, the spherical coordinates \((\rho, \theta, \varphi)\) of a point are given. Find the rectangular coordinates (x, y, z) of the point.

\(\left(12,-\frac{\pi}{4}, \frac{\pi}{4}\right)\)

Text Transcription:

(rho, theta, varphi)

(12, -pi/4, pi/4)

SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes Chapter42:TheImmuneSystem Lecturegiven3/1/16 • Canfightoffpathogenswithbarriers(skinandmucousmembranes),nonspecific internaldefenses(phagocytosis,naturalkillercells,inflammation),andspecific immuneresponse(cell-mediatedandhumoralimmunity). Innateimmunity–aseriesofdefensesthatactimmediatelyuponinfection • Invertebratesrelysolelyonthis,canconsistof o Exoskeleton o LowpH o Enzymes o Immunecellscapableofphagocytosis • Vertebrateshaveinnateandadaptiveimmunity o Skinandmucousmembranes o Interferons o Neutrophils–phagocyticcells o Naturalkillercells-attackcancercellsandvirus-infectedcells o Macrophages o (Mostofthesearemodifiedwhitebloodcells) o Complementsystem • Tissuedamagetriggerstheinflammatoryresponse,candisinfectinfectedtissues andlimitthespreadofinfection SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes • Canbelocalizedorwidespread;somebacteriamaymakeittothebloodstreamif notdisinfectedfully,causesbacterialinfection • Bacterialinfectionsbringaboutinflammatoryresponseleadingtosepticshock– highfever,lowbloodpressure Lecturegiven3/10/16 Lymphaticsystem–abranchingnetworkoflymphaticvessels,lymphnodes(filterout bacteria,butcanswellup),andcirculatinglymph(similartointerstitial