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Get Full Access to University Physics, Volume 3 - 17 Edition - Chapter 11 - Problem 67
Get Full Access to University Physics, Volume 3 - 17 Edition - Chapter 11 - Problem 67

× ISBN: 9781938168185 2032

## Solution for problem 67 Chapter 11

University Physics, Volume 3 | 17th Edition

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Problem 67

The Big Bang

(a) Calculate the approximate age of the universe from the average value of the Hubble constant, $$H_{0}=20 \mathrm{~km} / \mathrm{s} \cdot \text { Mly }$$. To do this, calculate the time it would take to travel 0.307 Mpc at a constant expansion rate of 20 km/s. (b) If somehow acceleration occurs, would the actual age of the universe be greater or less than that found here? Explain.

Text Transcription:

H_0=20 km/s times Mly

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Wednesday, February 3, y Lecture 3 Valence Shell Review ­ outermost shell = valence shell ­ 1st­ 2 electrons ­ 2nd­ 8 electrons ­ 3rd­ 8 electrons ­ An atom is most stable when its outer most shell is filled Ionic Bonds ­ Ex: NaCL • Bonds are weak • Na gives up an electron to Cl and now has 11 protons and 10 electrons ­ not electrically balanced anymore • Cl accepts an electron from Na and now has 17 protons and 18 electrons • Na has a full second shell and Cl has a full 3rd shell • NaCl falls apart in a solution because of the weak bond ­ Cations­ positive charge ­ Anions (electrolytes)­ negative charge 1 Wednesday, February 3, y Covalent Bonds ­ Ex: CH4 (Methane) • Strong bonds • Do not fall apart in a solution • The 4 hydrogens each give up 1 electron to form electron pairs with the carbons outer shell • Both carbon and hydrogen now have their outer shell filled • Certain atom types have a stronger attraction than others Electronegativity ­ O > N > C = H ­ The greater the electronegativity = the greater the amount of electrons Polar v. Non-polar ­ Polar • Covalent bonds that have electrons that are not shared equally • Molecules tend to be soluble in water • Hydrophilic ­ Non­polar (neutral) • Electron pairs are shared equally • Molecules are not soluble in water • Hydrophobic 2

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