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What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the following subshells? (a) 3p, (b) 5d, (c) 2s, (d) 4f.

Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780134414232 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780134414232 1274

Solution for problem 6.71 Chapter 6

Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780134414232 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 14th Edition

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Problem 6.71 What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the following subshells? (a) 3p, (b) 5d, (c) 2s, (d) 4f.
Step-by-Step Solution:

Step 1 of 5) What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the following subshells A second type of exception occurs when there are fewer than eight valence electrons around an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion. This situation is also relatively rare (with the exception of hydrogen and helium as we have already discussed), and is most often encountered in compounds of boron and beryllium. As an example, let’s consider boron trifluoride, BF3. If we follow the first steps of our procedure for drawing Lewis structures, we obtain the structure which has only six electrons around the boron atom. The formal charge is zero on both B and F, and we could complete the octet around boron by forming a double bond (recall that if there are not enough electrons to give the central atom an octet, a multiple bond may be the answer). In doing so, we see that there are three equivalent resonance structures (the formal charges are shown in red): Each of these structures forces a fluorine atom to share additional electrons with the boron atom, which is inconsistent with the high electronegativity of fluorine. In fact, the formal charges tell us that this is an unfavorable situation. In each structure, the F atom involved in the B“F double bond has a formal charge of +1, while the less electronegative B atom has a formal charge of -1. Thus, the resonance structures containing a B“F double bond are less important than the one in which there are fewer than an octet of valence electrons around boron:

Step 2 of 2

Chapter 6, Problem 6.71 is Solved
Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 14
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780134414232

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What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the following subshells? (a) 3p, (b) 5d, (c) 2s, (d) 4f.