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Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780134015187 | Authors: John McMurry, David Ballantine, Carl Hoeger, Virginia Peterson ISBN: 9780134015187 2044

Solution for problem 3.46 Chapter 3

Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition

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Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780134015187 | Authors: John McMurry, David Ballantine, Carl Hoeger, Virginia Peterson

Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry) | 8th Edition

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Problem 3.46

Write equations for loss or gain of electrons by atoms that result in formation of the following ions:

(a) \(\mathrm{Ca}^{2+}\)

(b) \(\mathrm{Au}^{+}\)

(c) \(\mathrm{F}^{-}\)

(d) \(\mathrm{Cr}^{3+}\)

Text Transcription:

Ca^2+

Au^+

F^-

Cr^3+

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

CHAPTER 1: CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS 1) Matter: Composed of atoms. 2) Scanning Tunneling Microscope: Uses an electron current from a tiny tunnel needle to probe the surface of a substance. 3) Configuration of Atoms: Manner in which atoms are organized helps determine properties of a substance. 4) Scientific Method: Process that lie at the center of scientific inquiry.  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment  Theory  Prediction  Experiment  Natural law 5) Nature of measurements: Consists of numbers and scale of units. Mass, Weight  English system: used in the united system.  Metric System: Si system. KEY TERMS  Certainty: Numbers that remain the same regardless of who takes the measurement.  Uncertainty: estimated digits of numbers.  Significant Figures: number in which the certain digits & uncertain digits are recorded. E.g. 10.65.  What is the difference between 25ml and 25.00ml The uncertainty between 25ml is 24ml and 26ml while the uncertainty between 25.00ml is 24.99ml and 25.01 ml.  Accuracy vs Precision: Agreement of a particular value with the true value vs Degree of agreement among several measurement of the same quantity. Closer value in measurement of same quantity.  Random Errors: Equal probability of being high or low.  Systematic Errors: 1-9 are significant figures 3456 has 4 significant figs.  Non-Zeros:  Leading Errors: Zeros that precede non zeros, do not count as significant figures. Example; 0.048 has 2 significant figures. 

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Chapter 3, Problem 3.46 is Solved
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Textbook: Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Mastering Chemistry)
Edition: 8
Author: John McMurry, David Ballantine, Carl Hoeger, Virginia Peterson
ISBN: 9780134015187

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