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Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition | ISBN: 9780198769866 | Authors: Atkins, Peter; De Paula, Julio; Keeler, James ISBN: 9780198769866 2042

Solution for problem E11C.2(b) Chapter 11C

Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition

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Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition | ISBN: 9780198769866 | Authors: Atkins, Peter; De Paula, Julio; Keeler, James

Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition

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Problem E11C.2(b)

Calculate the percentage difference in the fundamental vibrational wavenumbers of \({ }^{23} \mathrm{Na}^{35} \mathrm{Cl}\) and \({ }^{23} \mathrm{Na}^{37} \mathrm{Cl}\) on the assumption that their force constants are the same.

Text Transcription:

^23Na^35Cl

^23Na^37Cl

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Reference Electrode ­ There is no way to measure reduction potential of an isolated half reaction ­ Only the difference is potential between 2 half cells can be added ­ In order to assign E nought red to half reactions, reference electrode chosen, where the cell potential = 0.0 V Standard H Electrode 2H++2e­­>H2 EH+=0.0 V ­reversible ­not at equilibrium ­can be oxidation or reduction Example 5: Galvanic Cell Zn/Zn2+ Zn­>Zn2++2e­ anode 2H++2e­_>H2 cathoden+2H+­>Zn2++H2 Ecell= Er­Eo or Ecell= Ec­Ea 0.76=0V­EZn2+=­0.76 EZn2+ Ered ­table 20.1 in the book -oxidized+e→ reduced ­ions elements or compounds ­Top to bottom down E nought red ­low value Ered<0, easily oxidized ­Value Ered=less likely to undergo reduction ­Sign Ered attached to H+/H2 ­E red>0, easily reduced to undergo reduction ­F­+E2­>2F­ E=2.87 (most easily reduced) ­Li++e­­>Li Erednought= ­3.05, reverse reaction will occur Using E cell to Calculate E red ­galvanic cell 2Ag++Cu­>2Ag+2Cu2+ Ecell=0.46 V ­cu 0.34 V Ag+ reduction ­Ecell= EAg+­ECu 0.46 V=EAg+­(0.34) =EAg+=0.80V Fixed Spontaneity ­ 2 half reactions ­ Ecell >0 delta G<0 reaction is spontaneous ­ More + reduction occurs as written (reduction ­ Less + Enought red forced to go in reverse oxidation ­ E cell 1st ­ Half reaction more + goes up reduction, other half decreases oxidation ­ Left + half reaction, right ­half reaction Example 6: Cr+Au­>Au3++Cr3+ 1.5+0.74=2.24 V Cr3++3e

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Chapter 11C, Problem E11C.2(b) is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Atkins' Physical Chemistry
Edition: 11
Author: Atkins, Peter; De Paula, Julio; Keeler, James
ISBN: 9780198769866

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