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Get Full Access to Atkins' Physical Chemistry - 11 Edition - Chapter 12c - Problem P12c.11
Get Full Access to Atkins' Physical Chemistry - 11 Edition - Chapter 12c - Problem P12c.11

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ISBN: 9780198769866 2042

## Solution for problem P12C.11 Chapter 12C

Atkins' Physical Chemistry | 11th Edition

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Problem P12C.11

The z-component of the magnetic field at a distance R from a magnetic moment parallel to the z-axis is given by eqn 12B.17a. In a solid, a proton at a distance R from another can experience such a field and the measurement of the splitting it causes in the spectrum can be used to calculate R. In gypsum, for instance, the splitting in the $$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$$ resonance can be interpreted in terms of a magnetic field of 0.715 mT generated by one proton and experienced by the other. What is the separation of the hydrogen nuclei in the $$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$$ molecule?

Text Transcription:

H_2 O

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Chemistry Week 7 part two Dipole­ Dipole: ­ Permanent dipoles= polar molecule ­ Attraction between polar molecules with partial positive and negatives ­ Weaker than ion­ ion interaction ­ Only effective over short distances Hydrogen Bonding ­ Not actually a bond, but very strong dipole­ dipole interaction ­ Hydrogen bonding IS dipole­ dipole interaction ­ Occurs in polar molecule with a polarized H, F, N, or O ­ Hydrogen must be attached to fluorine, nitrogen, or oxygen ­ Weaker than ion­ ion interaction but four to five times stronger than dipole­ dipole ­ Influences largely melting and boiling point ­ Things that can hydrogen bond are typically liquids at room temperature ­ Example: Water hydrogen bonds (H2O), and NH3 London Dispersion Forces: ­ Attraction due to constant motion of electrons ­ Causes temporary charge on one side of atom/ molecule ­ Exists in ALL molecules ­ Also called: • Induced dipole induced dipole • Dipole induced • Van der Waals ­ Important only over short distances (vary as 1/d^7) ­ Present in ALL types of molecules ­ Only intermolecular force in nonpolar symmetric molecules ­ London forces are usually stronger in atoms that are larger and have more electrons ­ Electron cloud becomes distorted by neighboring charge or dipole ­ Induced dipole is not permanent ­ Can occur when two nonpolar molecules

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