Assume that two liquids are separated by a semipermeable membrane, with pure solvent on the right side and a solution of a solute on the left side. Make a drawing that shows the situation after equilibrium is reached.
Mid Term Social Psychology Study Guide Availability Heuristic o Judgements of likelihood of event occurring are based on how easily you can think of examples of it. The easier we can think of something happening, the more we believe it will happen. Most of the time it serves us well. Representative Heuristic o Judging whether something belongs to a category based on how well it represents a typical member. o It this thing or the person typical of putting someone into a category. Related to stereotypes. Anchoring Heuristic o When making a number judgement, we over rely on the first number that comes to mind. Priming o When recently used material influences how we respond to new information. Say ten 10 times. o What are aluminum cans made out of Illusory Correlations o Over estimating the link between 2 things happening together, when there isn’t a link. “I always get in the slow lines.” Why do we perceive illusory correlations o Relying on small samples o Availability heuristic Confirmation Bias o Tendency to look for, notice, and interpret information that confirms our expectations. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy o When your expectations lead you to behave in ways that cause the expectations to come true. Overcoming these biases o Be aware of our biases o seek evidence that goes against our preconceptions Similarity Heuristic o Appearance equals reality. voodoo dolls American flag Fudge that looks like shit Shooting a picture of a loved one Contagion Heuristic o When two objects touch some property or essence, an invisible abstract property, passes from one object to another, contaminating it. Physical contact is critical. The amount of contact is irrelevant. And once in contact, always in contact. Cockroach in the mashed potatoes Substitution Principle o If a suitable answer to a question isn’t found quickly, we give an answer to a related question - one that’s easier to answer. Affect Heuristic o Using feelings to determine your beliefs. Belief In A Just World o Victim blaming helps maintain belief in a just world “they must have deserved it; bad things can’t possibly happen to good people.” Hazing: we justify our suffering; “I did this really horrible thing for a really good reason” Attributions o The causal explanations people give for their own and others behaviors and for events in general. Self-Serving Bias o Making internal attributions for success and external attributions for failures. Psychological Immune System o Our ability to handle distress and negative events. Our coping process. Affective Forecasting o Predicting our emotions. The process of predicting how future events will influence emotional wellbeing. Impact bias o We overestimate the emotional impact events will have on us. Why the impact bias matters o Big decisions are often based on how we think we will feel. o Understanding this bias can lead to more accurate predictions and better decisions. What’s the purpose of the impact bias o Forces us to take things seriously. Sometimes more seriously than they actually are. Can be beneficial. Focalism o We focus on the predicted event to the exclusion of others. Immune neglect o The tendency to overlook the important value of coping processes ( our psychological immune system), leading people to overestimate the intensity and duration of distress, experienced in response to negative events. This bias disrupts affective forecasting, which leads people to make faulty decisions. Two Sides Of Anger o Describe an incident in which you angered someone else, (you as the instigator) and describe an incident in which someone angered you, (you were the victim). Different perspectives o Seeing behavior as reasonable vs incomprehensible. Was there really a good reason for the instigator to act that way o Isolated incident vs multiple offenses. Victim sees a longer time lapse of these issues. The problems linger. Instigator doesn’t see long term events leading up to their instigation (closed event) o Initially restraining your anger can confuse the other person when it’s expressed later. Angry episodes can come from buildup of repressed anger. Let the person know if there’s a pattern you don’t like so they are not surprised when you eventually lose your temper. o The question we should ask ourselves when people are mad at what we have done, is are we talking about just this or patterns from my past also. Is this an isolated incident or something I have repeatedly done Hot – Cold Empathy Gap o Underestimating the influence of “hot” emotional states. We’re not good at empathizing with the other side when we are in that emotional opposite state; hard to bridge the gap o Difficulty emphasizing with others’ hot states. E.g., pain; bereavement Doctor who doesn’t understand extremity of pain and doesn’t prescribe very strong pain pills Boss who doesn’t fully understand hot emotional state of sudden loss of loved one o Perceptions when hungry / thirsty Not good at understanding how our future selves can handle and deal Going shopping when hungry. o Voluntary manslaughter vs. murder. Murder cold and calculated; clear state of mind Voluntary Manslaughter hot anger; lesser charge How would you feel Empathy provoking questions from the professionals o Men predicting how sexually aggressive they’d be More aggressive when aroused. Adaption o With major setbacks or injuries, the emotional after effects may linger a year or more. Yet within a matter of weeks, ones current mood may return back to our set point. We adapt to events quicker then we think and return to our set point. Set point o Our range that we stay in Partially determined by our genes and personality. Major challenges to happiness o Lack of freedom o mental illness o chronic pain Dissonance o When our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors feel inconsistent. Cognitive Dissonance o Were motivated to maintain consistency between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Taking office supplies attitudes about schools smoking Reducing the dissonance o change behaviors o change attitude / beliefs o add constant thoughts o trivialize the behavior Fear Appeals o Advertisements use fear in one of two different ways. o Targeting a particular demographic and telling them they are at risk. o By arousing fear – the general intention is to cause fear in anyone who sees it. o Low threat ads frying pan and eggs is your brain on drugs Low threat means low fear. o High Threat Ad High threat, leads to fear, leads to defensiveness, directly affecting our psychological immune system. Our natural reaction to fear is to reject it. So an ad maker needs to capture people’s attention with fear / threat and then provide a solution for how to get rid of the fear. Transportation o Changing attitudes by telling stories to get people to change their attitudes to be consistent with the story. (The little engine that could. You identify with the character and realize what they went through. o Some people have transported more than others. (Some are easier persuaded than others.) o But if you can target a more specific audience and identify within them, then its more affective. o Fictional stories can be just as persuasive as real stories. Transportation in advertising o Advertisers try to transport customers. Lifestyle Ads o Suggesting that a product will make your life like the people’s in the ad. It is selling a lifestyle and the ad may have nothing to do with the product. Schemas o Knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept, its attributes, and its relationships to other concepts. Schemas make the complex world much easier to understand. They help organize information by connecting beliefs that are related to each other. Scripts o Knowledge structures that contain information about how people (or other objects) behave under varying circumstances. In a sense, scripts are schemas about certain kinds of events. Scripts include many types of information such as motives, intentions, goals, situations that enable (or inhibit) certain behaviors, and the causal sequence of events, as well as the specific behaviors themselves. Scripts and Schemas o People learn schemas and scripts that influence how they perceive, interpret, judge, and respond to events in their lives. These various knowledge structures develop over time, beginning in early childhood. False consensus effect o The tendency to overestimate the number of other people who share one’s opinions, attitudes, values, and beliefs Maybe because of availability heuristic: when asked to predict what other people are like, people use the information that is most readily available. False uniqueness effect o The tendency to underestimate the number of other people who share one’s most prized characteristics and abilities Ex. Religious people believe that other people are more likely to believe in paranormal phenomena but are less likely to hold religious beliefs than they are False consensus and uniqueness effect o It appears that people overestimate consensus when it comes to their undesirable characteristics (false consensus) but underestimate consensus when it comes to their desirable characteristics (false uniqueness.) o All distortions are in the direction most helpful for self-esteem Theory perseverance (same as belief perseverance) o Proposes that once the mind draws a conclusion; it tends to stick with that conclusion unless there is overwhelming evidence to change it Counterfactual thinking (upward vs. downward counterfactuals) o Counterfactual means “contrary to the facts” o Imagining alternatives to past or present events or circumstances o Upward counterfactuals involve imagining alternatives that are better than actuality o Downward counterfactuals involve imagining alternatives that are worse than actuality Actor/observer bias (fundamental attribution error) o The tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make internal attributions o People have a bias to attribute another person’s behavior to internal or dispositional causes (e.g. personality traits, attitudes) to a much greater extent than they should. People fail to take full notice and consideration of the external factors (e.g., the situation, constraints of the social environment) that are operating on the person. Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias) o The tendency for observers to attribute other people’s behavior to internal or dispositional causes and to downplay situational causes Risk-as-feelings hypothesis o The idea that people rely on emotional processes to evaluate risk, with the result that their judgments may be biased by emotional factors o People react to risky situations based on how severe the worst outcome is and how likely it is to occur. They do this at a gut level. Beliefs vs. attitudes o Beliefs are pieces of information (facts or opinions) about something o Attitudes are global evaluations toward some object or issue (e.g., you like or dislike something, you are in favor of or opposed to some position). o If you think a certain person is president or that it is cloudy outside, that is a belief. o Whether you like this person as president, or the clouds, is your attitude. o Logically, attitudes are for choosing, whereas beliefs are for explaining. Post-decision dissonance o Cognitive dissonance experienced after making a difficult choice, typically reduced by increasing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and creasing the attractiveness of rejected alternatives. o Every decision involves tradeoffs, but people like to reduce their dissonance by justifying their choices. Mere exposure effects o The tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly Classical and operant conditioning o Classical conditioning is a type of learning n which, through repeated pairings, a neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response (Ivan Pavlov). Meat powder (unconditioned stimulus) makes the dog’s mouth water (unconditioned response). The first time a researcher rings a bell (neutral stimulus) the dog’s mouth does not water. However, if the researcher rings the bell every time the dog gets meat powder, the dog begins to expect that every time it hears the bell it will be fed, and the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus. Eventually, the sound of the bell alone will make the dog’s mouth water (conditioned response), even with no food around. o Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which people are more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished (Thorndike and Skinner). Downward comparison o The act of comparing oneself to people who are worse off. o Cognitive coping based on the belief that whatever happened could have been worse, so at least the person was somewhat lucky