The following coupled reaction is the result of an exergonic reaction and an endergonic reaction:
(a) Write the exergonic portion of the reaction.
(b) Write the endergonic portion of the reaction.
Lecture 1 Human Computer Interaction COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – LECTURE 1 Consultation Office: Faculty Hall, Computer Science Department Email: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – LECTURE 1 2 Course Introduction Objective: In last few years there has been an increasing recognition of role played by the human-computer interaction in the success of a computer system; therefore a course included in a university’s curriculum can serve this purpose the best. This course provides an introduction to and overview of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) to give students an understanding of how the study of human-computer interaction affects the design of interactive systems and improves students awareness of the issues that determine the usability of an interactive computer system. Credit Hours: (3,0) HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – LECTURE 1 3 Goals Implication of human computer interaction understand human computer characteristics of HCI Introduce suitable usability engineering lifecycle models Designing user-interfaces through prototyping techniques Evaluate user-interfaces Books Course Book: “Human Computer Interaction” by - ALAN DIX JANET FINLAY 3 ed. available in soft form. Reference Books: “Interaction Design Beyond Human-Computer Interaction” by Preece, Jenny” “About Face3 The Essentials Of Interaction Design” by Alan Cooper “HCI beyond the GUI” by Philip Kortum HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – LECTURE 1 5 HCI – A Formal Definition “Human-Computer Interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them” -ACM/IEEE Role of Computers Computer invasion has started Traditional notion of computers becoming obsolete Computers are everywhere Computers will annoy, infuriate, and even kill HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – LECTURE71 Advantages of computers Help solving complex problems Increase efficiencies Make human lives easy and convenient Drawbacks of computer Unable to understand humans Infuriate them And even kill them Examples from Current Era Computer in Alarm Clock Computer in Camera Computer in Car Computer in Warship Computer in Airplane Computer in Airplane No indication of wrong fix selection Communication was precise and exacting while still being tragically wrong Not the pilots fault: ◦Computer told pilot he was tracking precisely to the location he had selected Computer Behavior They tell but do not inform. They may guide with precision but they do not guide where we want to go. So who is to be blamed HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION – LECTURE 2 13 Product Features Every digital device has more features than its manual counterpart Every feature has its cost BMW 7 Series with iDrive BMW 7 Series with iDrive Flaw: All Electronic Controls In one Knob (Feature Cost…) ◦ climate, entertainment, navigation, car information etc Takes 15 mins to change a Radio Channel Fundamental flaw: driver has to take his eyes off the road Result: Feature Shock Feature Shock Hi-tech companies add more feature to improve product ◦But Product becomes complex and complicated to use Bad process can’t improve product Solution Understand Nature of Computers and Humans Human and Computers are two different species Humans Complex Intelligent Animate Free will Range of emotions Make mistakes Computers Dumb Unintelligent Inanimate Only do what they are told to do Don’t make mistakes Human Computer Facts Software Quality Assurance of human computer interaction Acceptable levels of quality for software engineers are far lower than are those for traditional engineering disciplines Reality Check Is all computer-aided equipment inherently hard to use ◦No Computer-based products are NOT hard to use ◦It’s the wrong process ◦It’s the competency Reason Apartheid ◦Racial segregation; specifically : a policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa Software Apartheid ◦Institutionalizing obnoxious behavior and obscure interaction of software-based products by segregating SE and users HCI and Software Engineers Software engineers focus on internal workings of software In HCI we are concerned with external workings of software