Many biochemical reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. Do enzymes have an influence on the magnitude or sign of \(\Delta\)G? Why or why not?
1103 Exam I Study Guide: Our Interconnected world: Layers of the Earth and their properties o Core – inner most zone of the earth, composed largely of iron o Mantle – zone of earth’s interior between crust and core o Crust – outermost compositional zone of the earth, composed of low density silicate materials Plate tectonics – the theory that holds that the rigid lithosphere is broken up into a series of moveable plates (explanation for why our plates move and the fact that they do move) Types of plate boundaries o Divergent – boundary along which lithospheric plates are moving apart, seafloor ridges and continental rift zones o Convergent – boundary at which lithospheric plates are moving toward each other, subduction zone or continental collision zone o Transform – plates are sliding past each other Magnetic field and polar wandering o Polar-wander curve – a plot of apparent magnetic pole positions at various times in the past relative to a continent, assuming the continents position to have been fixed on the earth o Paleomagnetism – the “fossil magnetism” preserved in rocks formed in the past The interconnectedness of spheres o Asthenosphere – flowing layer of earth’s interior, lower mantle and the outer core and the multant/semi-multant parts o Lithosphere – rocks/plates, plate tectonic system, plates sliding and moving (P gives weathering and lithification, L gives digenesis) Continental crust (granite) Oceanic crust (basalt) o Pedosphere – surface/soil – very important to many of the other spheres, it’s the skin of the earth. This sphere is connected to every other sphere (center of connectedness) Soil consists of rock, decayed organic material, living organisms On slopes, the soil is very thing and at the bottom the soil is thick. Soil grows slow in dry areas, warm and wet makes soil well. Thin soil is usually young thick is usually old Water moving across it may compact it or lithify it, wind blows it around o Hydrosphere – water (P gives leaching, H gives chemical precipitation and erosion) Residence time – how long water will stay in a particular form – can be a couple of hours to a couple of weeks of months (Glaciers can go up to thousands of years) .3% of earths water is fresh o Cryosphere – the frozen world (glaciers, permafrost) 10% land area is covered by ice High latitude – low angle of sun rays(continental glaciers) High altitude – atmospheric cooling alpine/valley/mountain glaciers o Biosphere – life (P gives plant growth, B gives litter decay and bioturbation) All living creatures, plants, etc. – living on, above or below the earth Sustained by photosynthesis. Food energy – simple sugars, the basis that is our food chain Building blocks of life = protein, fat, carbs o Atmosphere – the air (P gives evapotranspiration and gas flux, A gives precipitation desiccation) Made of carbon dioxide, neon, helium, nitrous, oxide, methane, ozone, water vapor Layers of the atmosphere: Ecosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, ozone layer, troposphere Rocks and Minerals: Common Rock forming Minerals o Silicates and non-silicates Bowens reaction series o Tells what minerals cool at a certain temperature Modes of weathering Types of rocks o Igneous – easy to identify because it has different crystals Form from cooling o Sedimentary Form from lithification of sediments o Metamorphic – high pressure, high temperature Form from the deformation of pre-existing rocks due to heat and pressure What defines a mineral o Cleavage – flat shiny surface; cleavage forms from breakage o Luster – the way the rock shines back at you o Streak – the color of the powder of the mineral Earthquakes: Hazards o Ground Motion – shearing and rolling from love and Raleigh waves (causes building/freeway/tunnel collapse) o Liquefaction – shaking, water coming to the surface (loss of stability of buildings) o Aftershocks – common for a major tremor to be followed by numerous aftershocks usually of lower magnitude o Landslides o Tsunamis and flooding – not all earthquakes can cause a tsunami. You have to have a dip slip o Fire – broken pipelines, downed electrical lines, blocked routes, broken water line Fault types o Strike and dip Strike – Where is it going (north or south) Dip – direction and angle the fault is making under the ground o Strike – slip: movement is horizontal, with displacement parallel to the strike (Standing looking at the fault, the block across from the fault is the direction in which it is going o Dip-slip: draw a person, foot wall is where the feet are, hanging wall is where the head is (these are normal faults) o Reverse and thrust faults: opposite of normal faults; hanging wall moves up in a reverse – takes place usually in areas of compression Size and frequency considerations o The larger the earthquake is, the less likely it is to occur every year. Largely the size, lower the frequency o Richter Scales – measures the amount of ground shaking – describes the magnitude of an earthquake Magnitude – the amount of ground motion resulting from an earthquake o Mercalli Scale – describes the intensity of an earthquake Wave types o Body waves – seismic waves that pass through the earth’s interior, includes p waves and s waves o Surface waves – the seismic waves that travel along the earth’s surface o P-waves – compressional seismic body waves o S-waves – sheer seismic waves body waves; do not propagate through liquids Earthquake forecasting methods and limitations o Seismic gaps – areas in between epicenters that are “locked” by friction – potential epicenters of major earthquakes o Precursor phenomena – changes in morphology, resistivity, or seismic velocities within rocks prior to major event o Animal behavior o Releasing pressure by injecting fluids into locked fault zones o None of the precursor events are reliable Volcanoes: Type of volcanoes and volcanic eruption o Shield volcano – very large and low angled o Fissures – less viscous lava erupts and spreads out from large crack o Continental fissures – game changes in terms of global climate, they are producing so much lava and gas o Composite or Strato-volcanoes – Large, steep sided volcanoes from numerous eruptions or pyroclastics and lava flows o Cinder cones – small-volume, generally mafic volcanoes composed of pumice, not likely to reactivate o Domes – low volume blisters of low-viscosity, domes can mark the beginning or the end of an eruption o Hawaiian – fire fountain, but mostly just lava flows o Strombolian – little fizzers that spring out a mist of lava, higher gas content of Hawaiian but it’s still very mafic o Vulcanian – periodic explosive volcano, it will pop and then goes quiet (geyser of volcano world) – felsic o Pilinian – big, catastrophic eruptions (felsic) Mafic vs Felsic o Mafic – runny beautiful lava, low gas content, high temperature, low SiO2, usually produces lava flows o Felsic – big explosive eruptions, high SiO2, high viscosity, low temperature, high gas content, Products of volcanic eruptions o Ash, cinders, bombs (molten chunk that was erupted out of volcano and then dried while in the air o Lava AA lava – travels very slow Pahoehoe – satin silk sheet look, can travel really quickly Volcanic hazards Primary o Phreatic eruptions – explosions that occur when ground water or meteoric water is flashed to steam by magma in the subsurface – steam driven eruptions – there’s not an eruption, its just an explosion that remobilizes existing parts of the mountain o Lateral blast o Eruption cloud and ashfall – It’s like heavy snowfall but it doesn’t melt. Gets in clouds and can affect everything – makes ash clouds that can travel, turns day into night o Toxic gases – lake that had a lot of gases that accumulated under the lake, can rise and kill/contaminate o Pyroclastic flows – downward movement of ash, rocks, lava, gases that are just firing down the side of the mountain o Lava flows – generally slow moving but nearly impossible to stop o Lahars – volcano generated mudflow, flash floods of water, mud or ash, caused by volcano that has a glacier on the top that can quickly melt away o Debris avalanche – high volume volcanic landslide triggered by an earthquake, over-steepening, or heavy rainfall o Secondary (earthquakes, tsunami, temp change, starvation)-