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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780134874371 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780134874371 2047

Solution for problem 70 Chapter 19

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 5th Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780134874371 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 5th Edition

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Problem 70

Consider the evaporation of methanol at \(25.0^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\) :

\(\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}(l) \longrightarrow \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}(g)\)

a. Find \(\Delta G_{\mathrm{r}}^{\circ}\) at \(25.0^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\).

b. Find \(\Delta G_{\mathrm{r}}\) at \(25.0^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\) under the following nonstandard conditions:

i. \(P_{\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}}=150.0 \mathrm{mmHg}\)

ii. \(P_{\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}}=100.0 \mathrm{mmHg}\)

iii. \(P_{\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}}=10.0 \mathrm{mmHg}\)

c. Explain why methanol spontaneously evaporates in open air at \(25.0^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\).

Text Transcription:

25^circ C

CH_3OH(l) longrightarrow CH_3OH( g)

Delta G_r^circ

P_CH3OH = 150.0 mmHg

P_CH3OH = 100.0 mmHg

P_CH3OH = 10.0 mmHg

Step-by-Step Solution:
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All matter is made up of small indivisible particles called atoms: Electrolysis: application of an electric current to induce chemical changes in a system. Electrodes: electrical conductors that make contact between a system and an external electric circuit. Cathode: where electrons enter the system. Anode: where electrons leave the system. Gas discharge tubes: passage of an electric current through gases in a glass tube. Cathode rays: rays emitted from the cathode. Cathode ray tubes. Made by J.J Thomson  e/m = 1.76 x 10^8 C/g Coulomb: basic unit of an electric charge.  Fundamental electron charge: e = 1.602 x 10^­19 C  Therefore, using electron charge to mass ration, you can find the mass of an electron. Plum pudding model: negatively charged electrons embedded in a sphere of uniform positive charge. Greater stability could be achieved if electrons were arranged in rings inside the sphere of a positive charge. Radioactivity: spontaneous charge in the composition or properties of the nucleus of atom. Nuclear radiation: matter/energy that is emitted by radioactive atoms. Alpha radiation: nuclear radiation that consists of particles of matter called alpha particles. Alpha particles: emitted from nuclei of some radioactive atoms. Consists of two protons and two neurons, = +2 charge. Electromagnetic energy/radiation: energy that travels through space by means of oscillating electric and magnetic field. Commonly called light, even when no visible. Wavelength: distance between peaks. Frequency: number of peaks of the wave that pass a given po

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Chapter 19, Problem 70 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 5
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780134874371

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