From their Lewis structures, determine the number of σ and π bonds in each of the following molecules or ions: (a) CO2;, (b) cyanogen, (CN)2;, (c) formaldehyde, H2CO;, (d) formic acid, HCOOH, which has one H and two O atoms attached to C.
Chapter 12 Need to Know 1. Erikson’s Identity vs. Identity Confusion: - Also known as Identity vs role confusion - So as to become a unique adult with a coherent sense of self and a valued role in society - Based in part on Erikson’s life experience - Identity forms as young people resolve three main issues: the choice of an occupation, the adoption of values to live by, and the development of a satisfying sexual identity. - IDENTITY- coherent conception of self - Adolescents who resolve the identity crisis satisfactorily, according to Erikson, develop the virtue of fidelity. - FIDELITY- sustained loyalty, faith, or a sense of belonging to a loved one, friends, or companions. - Fidelity can also mean identification with a set of values, an ideology, a religion, a political movement, or an ethnic group. - Role confusion is the prime danger of this stage. - A failure to form a coherent sense of identity can greatly delay reaching physiological adulthood. - Some degree of confusion is normal. 2. Marcia and Identity Status: - Identity Achievement – (crisis leading to commitment) When someone resolves their identity crisis. During this period, they devote much thought and some emotional struggle to major issues in their lives. They make choices and express strong commitments to them. People in this category are more mature and socially competent than people in the other three. - Foreclosure – (commitment without crisis) When someone makes commitments, not as a result of exploring possible choices, but by accepting someone else’s plans for their life. They do not consider whether they believe in their commitments and uncritically accepts others’ opinions. People in this category usually have close family ties, are obedient, and tend to follow a powerful leader, like their mother. - Moratorium – (crisis with no commitment yet) When someone is actively grappling with their identity and trying to decide for themselves who they want to be and the path that they want their lives to take. They are usually lively, talkative, self-confident, and scrupulous but also anxious and fearful. They are close to their mothers but resists her authority. - Identity Diffusion – (no commitment, no crisis) When someone has not seriously considered options and has avoided commitments. They are unsure of themselves and tend to be uncooperative. Their parents do not discuss their future with them and they say it’s up to him/her. People in this category tend to be unhappy and lonely. 3. Identity Development of African-American Adolescents: - Group esteem rose during early and middle adolescence, for whom it was lower to begin with. - GROUP ESTEEM- feeling good about one’s ethnicity. - Exploration increased only in middle adolescence, perhaps reflecting the transition to more ethnically diverse high schools. - All three groups (achieved, moratorium, and foreclosed) reported more positive regard for being African American than the 6% of adolescents who were diffused. 4. Models That Analyze Racial/Ethnic Identity: - One model focuses on three aspects of racial/ethnic identity: connectedness to one’s own racial/ethnic group, awareness of racism, and embedded achievement, the belief that academic achievement is a part of group identity. - Four Stages of Ethnic Identity: diffuse, foreclosed, moratorium, achieved. - For many young people in minority groups, race or ethnicity is central to identity formation. - CULTURAL SOCIALIZATION – practices that teach children about their racial or ethnic heritage, promote cultural customs and traditions, and foster racial/ethnic and cultural pride. 5. Sexual Orientation and Identity: - It is in adolescence that a person’s sexual orientation generally becomes more clear - SEXUAL ORIENTATION – whether a person is heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual. - HETEROSEXUAL – attracted to persons of the opposite sex - HOMOSEXUAL – attracted to persons of the same sex - BISEXUAL – attracted to persons of both sexes. - Focus of consistent sexual, romantic, and affectionate interest - Isolated experiences do not determine orientation - Orientation is partly genetic or moderately heritable due to the: size of the hypothalamus, pheromone studies, gender-atypical behavior in childhood, and differences in sexual arousal. - Gay, lesbian, or bisexual adolescents often feel isolated in a hostile environment. - Sexual identity becomes more complex and follows a less- defined timetable. 6. Early Sexual Activity: - 42.5% of never-married 15-19 year olds have had sex and 77% of young people in the United States have had sex by age 20. - The average girl has her first sexual intercourse at 17 - The average boy has his first sexual intercourse at 16 - Approximately ¼ of boys and girls report having had intercourse by age 15. - African Americans and Latinos tend to begin sexual activity earlier than white youth. - In 2011, 44% of boys and 51% of girls reported being sexually active in 12 grade. - Factors associated with early sex: early puberty, poverty, poor school performance, history of sexual abuse, neglect, cultural or family patterns, perception of peer norms. - Young people often feel under pressure to engage in sexual activities. - Just over half of teenage boys and girls reported having given or received oral sex, more than had had vaginal intercourse. 7. Sexual Behavior and STIs: - The average age for teens to have their first intercourse is 17 years old for females and 16 years old for males. - The two major concerns of intercourse are STIs and not wanting to get a girl pregnant. - Most at risk of getting an STI are young people who start sexual activity early, have multiple partners, do not use contraceptives, and have inadequate information. - The use of contraceptives among teenagers has increased since the 1990s. - Teenagers that are in their first relationship usually: delay intercourse, discuss contraception before having sex, use more than one method of contraception, and are more likely to consistently use contraception. - The best safeguard is condoms because they prevent against STIs and pregnancy - SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIs) – diseases spread by sexual contact. - An estimated 19 million new STIs are diagnosed each year and 65 million Americans have an incurable STI. - About 1 in 4 new cases in the United States occurs among 14-19 year olds. - They are prevalent in teens due to: early sexual activity, failure to use condoms or use them correctly, and tendency for girls to have older partners. - Most prevalent STIs: HPV (genital warts), Trichomoniasis, Genital herpes simplex, and chlamydia and gonorrhea (both curable). - Of 4.1 million new infections, about half are in young people 15-24 years old. - In the United States, 1 in 4 people living with HIV were infected in their teenage years - Early detection of HIV is very important - HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) – causes AIDS and is transmitted through bodily fluids, usually by sharing intravenous drug needles or by sexual contact with an infected partner. 8. Teenage Pregnancy: - More than 7 in 10 adolescent girls in the United States have been pregnant at least once before age 20 - More than half of pregnant teenagers in the United States have their babies. - Some traits of teen mothers: sexually inexperienced, grew up without a father, likely as children to have been abused and/or exposed to parental divorce, likely exposed to substance abuse, likely exposed to family member with mental illness or criminal behavior. - Teen mothers are at risk for: dropping out of school, financial hardship, additional pregnancies - Teen fathers usually have: limited financial resources, poor academic performance, and high dropout rates. - Outcomes of teenage pregnancy: impoverished and poorly educated, inadequate nutrition, babies may be premature or have other birth complications, greater risk for health and academic problems, abuse and neglect, and developmental disabilities. - Programs that focus on teen outreach have had some success in preventing pregnancy. - More than 90% of pregnant teenagers describe their pregnancies as unintended and 50% of teen pregnancies occur within 6 months of sexual initiation. - U.S. rate for teen pregnancy is many times higher than other industrialized countries. 9. Friendships: - ADOLESCENT REBELLION – involving emotional turmoil, conflict within the family, alienation from adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values. - The amount of time U.S. adolescents spend with their families declines dramatically during the teenage years. - More time is spent alone and with the opposite sex. - Weekend partying is common for older teens - African American teens spend more time with family than white teens - U.S. teens have a great deal of discretionary time - They spend a growing proportion of down time engaged in consuming various forms of media, including watching television, listening to music, surfing the web, playing video games, and watching movies. 10. Adolescents and Parents: - Relationships with parents during adolescence are grounded largely in the emotional closeness developed in childhood. - Most adolescents report good relations with their parents - Tensions can lead to family conflict and parenting styles can influence its shape and outcome. - INDIVIDUATION – adolescent’s struggle for autonomy and personal identity - Most arguments are over day-to-day matters: chores, schoolwork, dress, money, curfew, and dating/friends. - Authoritative parenting continues to foster healthy psychosocial development. - Overly strict, authoritarian parenting may lead to rejection and rebellion. - PSYCHOLOGICAL AUTONOMY – the right to their own thoughts and feelings 11. Adolescents and Peers: - Groups of friends serve several purposes: help establish teen identity, reinforce alliances, and make it easier to make friendships within the same group - CLIQUE – a structured group of friends - These become more common in adolescence. - Adolescent friendships are more important than in any other life period - They are more reciprocal and stable than in childhood - Adolescents choose friends similar in: gender, race/ethnicity, academic attitude, and risky or problem behavior. - In childhood, most peer interactions are dyadic (one-to- one), though larger groupings begin to form in middle childhood. - The “crowd” does not normally exist before adolescence and is based not on personal interactions but on reputation, image, or identity. - The influence of peers normally peaks at age 12 or 13 and declines during middle and late adolescence. - Risk-taking is higher in the company of peers than when alone. - Adolescent romantic relationships contribute to development of intimacy and identity and affect the quality of relationship with parents and peers - Dating violence can be physical, emotional, and sexual 12. Youth Violence and Juvenile Offenders: - Antisocial behavior tends to run in families. - Analyses of many studies have concluded that genes influence 40-50% of the variation in antisocial behavior within a population and 60-65% of the variation in aggressive anti-sociality. - How parents influence becoming a delinquent: authoritative parenting may protect against delinquency, shaping of prosocial or antisocial behavior, and economic circumstances. - Peers influence delinquency when they are similar in achievement and social tendencies. - The community influences delinquency through collective efficacy. - COLLECTIVE EFFICACY – a neighborhood-level influence involving the willingness of individuals in a neighborhood to work together to achieve a common goal, intervene if a problem is apparent, and help each other out in times of need. - The vast majority of young people who engage in juvenile delinquency do not become adult criminals. - Delinquency usually peaks at age 15 and then declines as most adolescents and their families come to terms with young people’s need to assert independence. - Preventing Delinquency: offer family assistance and support, help with interactions between home and school, create supportive parent networks, offer follow-up services and after-school activities, prevent gang recruitment, and offer adult-guided support groups.