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The O—H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2O) are 0.96

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 97AE Chapter 9

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 97AE

Problem 97AE

The O—H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2O) are 0.96 Å, and the H—O—H angle is 104.5°. The dipole moment of the water molecule is 1.85 D. (a) In what directions do the bond dipoles of the O—H bonds point? In what direction does the dipole moment vector of the water molecule point? (b) Calculate the magnitude of the bond dipole of the O—H bonds. (Note: You will need to use vector addition to do this.), (c) Compare your answer from part (b) to the dipole moments of the hydrogen halides (Table). Is your answer in accord with the relative electronegativity of oxygen?

Table Bond Lengths, Electronegativity Differences, and Dipole Moments of the Hydrogen Halides

Compound

Bond Length (Å)

Electronegativity Difference

Dipole Moment (D)

HF

0.92

1.9

1.82

HCl

1.27

0.9

1.08

HBr

1.41

0.7

0.82

HI

1.61

0.4

0.44

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

The bigger Ka is, the stronger the acid is, and the less basic that its anion is. For all strong acids, the anion is neutral, but for weak acids, the anion is basic. Ex. Perchlorate and sulfate are neutral anions, but fluoride and cyanide are basic anions. If a salt contains a basic anion, the salt will form a basic solution when dissolved in water. Ex. Sodium acetate, potassium fluoride. Useful equations for pH problems: −¿ OH ¿ ¿ ¿ +¿ H ¿ ¿ ¿ pKa+pKb=14 Sample problem: You have a solution of 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M HF. Calculate the pH. The HCl will dissociate completely, so that the concentration of the free hydrogen ions will be equal to the HCl concentration. The HF does not dissociate completely. It dissociates according to the following equation: + - HF  H + F According to Le Chatelier’s Principle, addition of an ion to one side of the equation will push the reaction to the other side. The additional H caused by the dissociation of HCl will make HF even less likely to dissociate. Thus, the weak acid can be ignored in the calculation of the pH; only the concentration of the strong acid is needed. Take the negative logarithm of the concentration of the strong acid to find the pH. Acidic salts are the result of the neutralization of a strong acid and a weak base. Acidic salts can also result when the salt contains small, highly charged ions, like aluminum. The easier the free hydrogen atom is to remove, the stronger the acid. For a binary (two-atom) acid, strength increases down a column (HI is stronger than HBr which is stronger than HCl which is stronger than HF). The bigger atoms have more electron shells between themselves and the hydrogen proton; therefore, they do not attract it as strongly. For oxoacids (acids containing oxygen atoms), acid strength increases as the number of oxygen atoms involved increases. Acid strength also increases as the non-oxygen non-hydrogen atom increases in electronegativity. HClO is stronger than HBrO which is stronger than HIO. For polyprotic acids, acid strength decreases as the acid loses protons.

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 9, Problem 97AE is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Since the solution to 97AE from 9 chapter was answered, more than 423 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. This full solution covers the following key subjects: electronegativity, dipole, Bond, moment, molecule. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 97AE from chapter: 9 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. The answer to “The O—H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2O) are 0.96 Å, and the H—O—H angle is 104.5°. The dipole moment of the water molecule is 1.85 D. (a) In what directions do the bond dipoles of the O—H bonds point? In what direction does the dipole moment vector of the water molecule point? (b) Calculate the magnitude of the bond dipole of the O—H bonds. (Note: You will need to use vector addition to do this.), (c) Compare your answer from part (b) to the dipole moments of the hydrogen halides (Table). Is your answer in accord with the relative electronegativity of oxygen?Table Bond Lengths, Electronegativity Differences, and Dipole Moments of the Hydrogen HalidesCompoundBond Length (Å)Electronegativity DifferenceDipole Moment (D)HF0.921.91.82HCl1.270.91.08HBr1.410.70.82HI1.610.40.44” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 120 words. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724.

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The O—H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2O) are 0.96