Butadiene, C4H6, is a planar molecule that has the following carbon–carbon bond lengths:
(a) Predict the bond angles around each of the carbon atoms and sketch the molecule.
(b) Compare the bond lengths to the average bond lengths listed in Table 8.5. Can you explain any differences?
Countries of Europe o Germany 82 million people Initially was made up several tribes, royal families Unified late 1800s early 1900s Was divided after WWII West Germany = part of Europe, democratic East Germany = USSR, Communist Contains 16 states Highly urbanized 89% of the population A leader in Europe : manufactoring/economic stability Largest economy of Europe Has the Autobahn (interstate system) o France 64 million people Oldest state in europe Urban Paris 2.2 million people Contains the highest Mountain in Europe Mount Blanc Huge in agriculture (biggest producer in Europe) Cattle, grapes, cheese Known for Rich food Architecture Art o Great Britain UK 62.7 Million People Regions: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland Surrounded by water: North Sea, English Channel, and the Atlantic Ocean The US's strongest ally National Dish: Chicken Tikka Masala Prominent Religion Protestant o Ireland Highest growing economy in the EU Uses the Euro Gained independence form the UK in 1921 Conflict between the Catholics and Protestants Irish Republican Army (IRA) English and Gaelic are the national languages Strong Irish Influence in America New York Boston Chicago o Italy 60.5 million people Major states or regions Tuscany, Milan, Venice, Piedmont Rich urbanized North Poor rural South Sicily is very poor and underdeveloped Origin of La Cosa Nostra (Sicilian Mafia) Milan-Turin-Genoa Triangle Heavy manufacturing Milan is the largest city in Italy o "Rock" of Gibraltar 2.6 sq mile area (peninsula Iberian) South Spain Owned by Britain Surrendered by Spain in 1713 (via the War of the Spanish Succession) One of the most densely populated areas in the world 12,840 people per square mile Official language is English Important militarily and economically Access to the Mediterranean sea from the Atlantic Recent events in Ukraine o Major divisions after the Cold War o Country divided politically East = Pro Russia West = Pro Europe o Russia needs access to the ocean and resources Military and economic factor… o Babushkas of Chernobyl Self-settlers Wildlife Returning in force Invisible enemy Women who were children during Stalin's reign. Starvation Stalin burned down cities and towns along with all of the agriculture. Lived through WWII with the Nazi's. Concentration camps or forced labor. Relationships do not equal causation The world health organization says 4000 deaths while green peace says 10000 deaths. The women are out living the men because the men are drinking and smoking, across the world it is more accepted for a man to drink and smoke than it is for a woman. In that case you have higher numbers of men drinking and smoking and dying from that instead of the radiation poisoning. The town was built around Chernobyl. The people who were relocated seem to be dying sooner than the ones who came back. o Russia is the biggest country by land area. o You can see Alaska from Russia, only 4km between the two. o Physical Geography SW Russia desert Main area of settlement near Moscow Cannot connect to any waterways. Caspian sea o 4 regions Russian core Majority of the population Siberia Freezing Where people would be exiled Eastern Frontier Desert section Separation between Siberia and Frontier is climate and culture Far East Not many settlements Hard to navigate the land o Approximately 75% of Russia is Siberia has far as land area o A majority of the population lives in the Russian Core and the Eastern Frontier o Physical Russian Geography Russian Plain West of the Ural Mountains; Moscow (core of Russia) Ural Mountains (2000 miles long) Low relief mountain chain separating East/West Russia Western Siberia (constant elevation) Flat plains and forests Central Siberia Moderate mountains; very cold (Artic Circle) Eastern Highlands (Mostly the Yakutski Basin) One of the most remote places on earth o Climate SW desert Russian Core humid continental (northern Midwest into Canada) Majority is subarctic. (FREEZING) Tundra only has a few centimeters a year that is thawed for a limited amount of time. o Interesting facts about Russia Continentally has a huge impact on Russia's climate Similar to the upper Mid-west and Canada Economy is rising It depends heavily on oil Becoming increasingly more "modern" and "western" Red square A city square block where the government is housed Misconceptions Not called red square because it is called a communist country Not because the buildings are red It is because the language has evolved. Used to be the slums until the 1400s o The Soviet Union U.S.S.R. (CCCP) Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics Formed in 1917 after the Bolshevik Revolution Most citizens were very poor, unhapy with autocratic Tsar systerm Industrial revolution was occuring in Europe = caused A federation of power Split of power with no true ruler Russification: the idea of replacing ethnic Areas with Russians; ethnic groups moved east Command economy: a system where the government assigns sectors of production to particular areas with disregard to economic o Spread of the soviet influence After WWII, communism spread into Eastern Europe China and Korea 1950s Cuba in 1959 with Castro SE Asia in 1954 Africa in 1970s Created tensions with the US and Europe Cold War Agriculture cut off by Ukraine o Space Race 1957 Soviet Union 1958 US 1965 France 1970 Japan 1970 China 1971 UK 1979 ESA 1980 India o Post-Soviet Union The Russian federation Becoming more "European" culturally and politically Only 3 men have been president in the past 22 years Yeltsin Putin Medvedev Putin (again) TEST April 12th o Eastern Europe(Balkans & Ukraine, Rock of Gibraltar) o Sub-Sahara Africa o North Africa Map Quiz 6 o East Asia and Russia Monday 4/11 -Friday 4/15 Spread of Religion o Oldest Religion Hinduism o Abraham was born UR o Fastest spreading religion Islam o Islam is a religion, Muslim's follow Islam DDT in Africa: Malaria v. Health Risks o Ethical concern Protection of the diversity of wildlife v. Malaria victims dying in Africa o Tuberculosis is mainly in the North o Diarrheal diseases due to unclean water North Africa and the Middle East o Interesting facts The Middle East is known as the "crossroads of the world" because it lies in between Asia, Africa and Europe Hence the name "middle" The term "Arab" refers to an ethnic group not a religion Not all Arabs are Muslims This confusion also exists with Judaism NASWA an acronym for North Africa/South-West Asia Iran is the former Persian Empire Very large portion of the population is under 30 Educated Unemployed o Original Three Abrahamic Faith Judaism (First Abrahamic Religions) Christianity Islam Monotheistic The belief in one God o Populations Egypt= Nile River Turkey= black sea and mediterranean sea Iran= caspian sea and persian gulf North Africa = mediterranean sea Majority of populations live near water because of the dry climat o The Birthplace of Civilization Birthplace of man is Ethiopia Fertile Crescent = Mesopotamia = between two rivers Neolithic = 10,000 years ago humans began to domesticate plants and animals, learned to irrigate their fields and grow the population Birthplace of many foundational concepts: Maps 60 minutes per hour; 24 hours per day Trigonometry Early medicine Irrigation Written text The Egyptian Empire Highly advanced Second oldest language Hieroglyphics Writing paper, irrigation, domestication of wheat Sailing Architecture, masonry (pyramids) Polytheistic and belief of an afterlife Kings were called paharos Sun god Rah Oil in NASWA Saudi Arabia number 1 oil producers in the world and the US's biggest alli in the Middle East Began in Iran Majority of the oil was found after WW2 OPEC Orgainzation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Created to try to not have a monoply 8 NASWA countries Can cause high prices for those who don't have oil Results of OPEC Has totally transformed the Middle East since the 1960s Positives Urban transformation Infrastructure investments Industrialization Foreign investment and involvement Negatives Variable income Regional Disparities Migration from other realms NASAW Dynamic Fragmented Modernization Many issues in the Middle East and North America Wealth Disparities Most NASWA people are poor, not rich Typical Iranian makes $10,840 USD a year Qatar citizen makes $103,900 USD a year Religion differences internally (Shia v. Sunnis) and externally (Christianity/Judaism) Old autocratic government leaders and young populations = cultural issues Arab Spring (2010-Present) Started with a fruit vender. Couldn't sale his fruit so in protest he set himself on fire, dying a few weeks later Spread quickly through social media Two things in common Old rulers who have been there for a long time Young, well-educated, unemployed population Cultural Regions of the Middle East 30 Countries 6 regions Egypt and the Lower Nial = the heart The Maghred (Sahara) The Middle East Largely Islamic The Arabian Peninsula = Richest oil The Empire States = Iran and Turkey Turkestan Transition zone African TZ is the primary area where the Sunni and the Shia are having problems Egypt Suez Canal Get the oil out Saudi Arabia Desert Iran Iranian revolution in 1979