The molecule 2-butene, C4H8, can undergo a geometric change called cis-trans isomerization:
As discussed in the “Chemistry and Life” box on the chemistry of vision, such transformations can be induced by light and are the key to human vision. (a) What is the hybridization at the two central carbon atoms of 2-butene? (b) The isomerization occurs by rotation about the central C -- C bond. With reference to Figure 9.30, explain why the 𝜋 bond between the two central carbon atoms is destroyed halfway through the rotation from cis- to trans-2-butene. (c) Based on average bond enthalpies (Table 8.4), how much energy per molecule must be supplied to break the C -- C𝜋 bond? (d) What is the longest wavelength of light that will provide photons of sufficient energy to break the C -- C𝜋 bond and cause the isomerization? (e) Is the wavelength in your answer to part (d) in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum? Comment on the importance of this result for human vision.
September 6, 2016 AST 101 – Professor Freeman Lecture: The daily motion of the sky Textbook Pages: 31-32 Lecture Tutorial: 5-6 (Motion, Part II) Objectives o Consequences of Earth’s rotation Celestial-sphere and its consequences o Consequences of Earth’s revolution What about the Sun What causes the seasons What does the Sun do to the Earth Stars and their Visibility o Depending on where you are in the world, some stars are always visible, some stars are sometimes visible (meaning that they rise and set), and some stars are never visible o For an example: the Australian flag has the Southern Cross on it to symboli