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The molecule 2-butene, C4H8, can undergo a geometric

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 112IE Chapter 9

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 112IE

The molecule 2-butene, C4H8, can undergo a geometric change called cis-trans isomerization:

As discussed in the “Chemistry and Life” box on the chemistry of vision, such transformations can be induced by light and are the key to human vision. (a) What is the hybridization at the two central carbon atoms of 2-butene? (b) The isomerization occurs by rotation about the central C—C bond. With reference to Figure explain why the p bond between the two central carbon atoms is destroyed halfway through the rotation from cis- to trans-2-butene.

Figure Rotation about the carbon–carbon double bond in ethylene breaks the π bond.

(c) Based on average bond enthalpies (Table), how much energy per molecule must be supplied to break the C—C p bond?

Table Average Bond Enthalpies(kJ/mol)

Single Bonds

C—H

413

N—H

391

463

O—H

F—F

155

C—C

348

N—N

163

O—O

146

 

 

C—N

293

N—O

201

O—F

190

Cl—F

253

C—O

358

N—F

272

O—Cl

203

Cl—Cl

242

C—F

485

N—Cl

200

O—l

234

 

 

C—Cl

328

N—Br

243

 

 

Br—F

237

C—Br

276

 

 

S—H

339

Br—Cl

218

C—l

240

H—H

436

S—F

327

Br—Br

193

C—S

259

H—F

567

S—Cl

253

 

 

 

 

H—Cl

431

S—Br

218

I—Cl

208

Si—H

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September 6, 2016 AST 101 – Professor Freeman Lecture: The daily motion of the sky Textbook Pages: 31-32 Lecture Tutorial: 5-6 (Motion, Part II)  Objectives o Consequences of Earth’s rotation  Celestial-sphere and its consequences o Consequences of Earth’s revolution  What about the Sun  What causes the seasons...

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Chapter 9, Problem 112IE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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