Use average bond enthalpies (Table 8.4) to estimate ΔH for the atomization of benzene, C6H6:
C6H6(g) → 6C(g) + 6H(g)
Compare the value to that obtained by using data given in Appendix C and Hess’s law. To what do you attribute the large discrepancy in the two values?
March 2125, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan THE COLD WAR This was a 45yearlong struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies. It ultimately results in the major arsenals of weapons (including nuclear weapons). It sees much of the world drawn into alliance systems. The U.S. and Russia sought out new relations and allies all over the world. It became Capitalism versus Communism. The origins of the Cold War are in the last months of WWII: o Yalta – Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin (Big Three) met here to discuss how they were going to wrap up WWII; the Soviets went into this meeting with the “upper hand” because they were very close to meeting their military goals (Soviets would come from the East and close in on the Germans as the Americans and British came in from the West [converge on Germany in Berlin]); at this meeting Stalin had already met his military objective, but the U.S. and Britain had not even crossed the Rhine River yet (they had a set back at the Battle of the Bugle); at this meeting they decided how to set up/run Europe after Hitler was taken out; Stalin wanted a buffer between Germany and Russia, he wanted something “ProSoviet;” this is the bone of contention that starts the Cold War (free elections does not mean “ProSoviet” and Stalin wasn’t okay with that); another decree was that Russia could take reparations from the Germans for the war o Fall of Berlin – war comes to an end in April/May of 1945 when the allies pressed in and ended the Third Reich o Issue of Free Elections – the war is still going on in the Pacific at this time; this issue is what leads to the Cold War (Harry Truman is the new President of the U.S. and he hammers the idea of free elections in Europe) Potsdam – they met here again in July of 1945 o Containment – Truman argues that he is going to “get tough” with the Soviets and he states that his objective is to stop the spread of Communism o Truman Doctrine – (1947) first applied to the countries of Greece and Turkey; Truman says he is going to hold the Communists back by preventing them by giving foreign aid; Truman said he would help European countries recover to avoid the spread of Communism o Marshall Plan – Secretary of State (General George Marshall) announced this famous plan, which was one of the most important things to happen during the Cold War; it said that the U.S. would give about 13 billion (130 billion today) dollars to 16 nations in Europe to help them rebuild after March 2125, 2016 WWII; it was successful, but Truman wanted more support from his own people Iron Curtain Speech – Truman brought Churchill over to speak to the Americans who adored him; he said an Iron Curtain had fallen between Eastern and Western European countries; it was a very effective speech, he was able to inspire both the British and the Americans o NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization; military alliance between western democracies and the U.S. Cold War conflicts – it was mostly a war of words, but there were times when it heated up o Berlin Airlift – the division of Berlin became highly problematic; the West didn’t suffer as much as the East; the currency reforms of the Western zones worked; there was a huge problem with refugees because people were leaving East Berlin to move to the West; they decided to eventually seal off Berlin to avoid this movement; West Berlin became a peephole and an escape; they shut off roads and railways into both East and West Berlin; Britain and the United States organized the Berlin Airlift, and for about 10 and a half months they flew in supplies from the outside world; this became a showdown between the Soviets and the Western allies; Berlin is a super hot spot; the Western allies “won” and saved Berlin and the Soviets were forced to move out (this was never an actual “war,” there was no military conflict in this instance) o Korean War – this incident was an actual “war;” the Northern zone was Soviet occupation with a Communist government and the Southern zone was U.S. occupation with an antiCommunist government (the split was at the 38 parallel line); in 1958 North Korea invaded South Korea in hopes of uniting all of Korea; Truman appealed to the United Nations and gained support and troops to fight North Korea and force them out of South Korea (stop the spread of Communism); MacArthur led the effort against North Korea; they were able to push the Soviets out of South Korea and th even push past the 38 parallel line; MacArthur pushed towards the Yalu River (divided China and North Korea); he and Truman got in an argument because Truman wanted to keep the war in Korea and didn’t want to expand this war into China because it would become a much larger issue than it needed to be (MacArthur was fired); the war becomes a th sort of stalemate with much of the conflict around the 38 parallel McCarthyism – was referring to the junior Senator (Joseph McCarthy); he played on the idea of Soviet subversion; there were Communist spies; the U.S. had March 2125, 2016 created the atomic bomb at Los Alamos, Mexico; we used the atomic bomb in 1945, and from 19451949 the U.S. was the only nation with an atomic bomb, this gave the Americans the advantage; but in 1949 the Soviets developed an atomic bomb; so people felt secrets were passed to the Soviets; there was a growing sense of paranoia; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested and executed for believing to be spies for the Soviets o McCarthy had a speech that he was to deliver to a woman’s club – he said he had a list of 205 names of known Communist subversives in the State Department; this explodes, there was no list and it was a lie, but it is what set off McCarthyism; Congress set up committees to investigate; it was a domestic byproduct of the Cold War There were changing attitudes during the 1950s – there is a little bit of relaxation between the U.S. and Russia: o Russia – there were things that would help Russia to be a little less aggressive European recovery – Marshall Plan money helped a lot, but the governments really helped get Europe back on its feet, this recovery made the Eastern Bloc not look so good, this made a fortress against the spread of Communism U.S. was willing to fight in Korea – this showed Russia that the Americans were willing to fight and forced them to back off a bit Food Shortages – there is still a lack of food in Russia, this makes Communism look bad Hold over satellites weaken – there is a lacking control over Eastern satellites China went its own course, split in Communism o United States – there were things that helped the U.S. relax a little bit as well Eisenhower elected – said Truman wasn’t aggressive enough toward Communism Hungary – revolted in 1956 (Soviet Satellite), the Hungarians rose up and tried to overthrow the Soviet oppression, this is what the U.S. had been waiting for (Communism to start rotting from within) North Vietnam went Communist Russia now had an atomic bomb as well – this sort of made both sides back off in hopes of avoiding an atomic war o Peaceful Coexistence – the realization that the U.S. is better off just leaving things the way they are and not try and destroy the planet March 2125, 2016 Berlin Wall – (1961) Berlin is divided into East and West zones still, by this time about 3.5 million people have left East Germany (this makes Communism look really bad), Communism was also losing a lot of talent (skilled workers), this was hurting the economy, so in August of 1961 they throw up a wall that became a symbol of the Cold War, it prevented movement between East and West Berlin Cuban Missile Crisis – (October 1962), in 1959 Castro came to power in Cuba as a result of a revolution, he had been struggling to overthrow Batista; the country he had power over was very poor and he wanted to carry out a Communist revolution to eliminate poverty; he looks for closer ties between Cuba and the Soviet Union; this made the U.S. nervous because Cuba is only 90 miles from the States; no one wanted to see Communism in the Western Hemisphere; John Kennedy decided he wanted to do something about this; they decided to invade Cuba and try and take over through the Bay of Pigs (Eisenhower hatched this plan and Kennedy carried it out) but it doesn’t work; Castro received much aid from Khrushchev and the Soviets; the Americans learned that the Soviets were settle up missile sites in Cuba; so Kennedy sent the U.S. Navy over to try and blockade Cuba and send back Russian ships trying to set up nuclear sites; eventually Khrushchev decided to pull the nuclear sites back; so the Americans pulled their missiles out of Turkey; this is the closest it came to a nuclear confrontation Space Race – in 1957 the U.S. learned that the Russians had sent the first satellite into space (Sputnik); the U.S. was alarmed that the Russians were the first into space; after there was an announcement in D.C. that the education in the U.S. was subpar compared to Russia; Sputnik was a wake up call for Americans: o There were major reforms (National Defense Education Act) to poor money into American education, there were curricular changes (instead of just learning arithmetic and algebra they began to teach physics, biology, etc.); there was sort of a boomerang effect o NASA – created shortly after to get Americans into space; the 7 Mercury Astronauts became the new American heroes; from 1958 to 1962 the U.S. went from being beat into space to orbiting the Earth INDIAN NATIONALISM India was regarded as the jewel and crown of the British Empire. There were both positive and negative outcomes from the British presence and takeover in India. For example, India is still very poor and there is much poverty. Economically, India was set back by the cheap British goods. India supported Britain during WWI (they served in the military or became part of a crucial work force). India also supplied the British with money during WWI. After the World Wars nations like India sought decolonization – they wanted independence. March 2125, 2016 Following WWI, India suffered famine and a flu epidemic (it killed millions of people). o British Policies – the British did things that helped the decolonization movement Chelmsford Reforms – these reforms gave over certain roles to Indians (they used to have low level jobs, but now they could hold offices), the police remained strictly in British hands though and the British still held the most important political roles Rowlatt Act – clamped down on freedom of the press, Preventive Detention: put someone in jail before they commit the crime, this was considered very authoritarian Amristar Massacre – (1919) there was a nonviolent political demonstration, Indians came out to protest things like the Rowlatt Act, and General Dyer went in to break it up, he told his soldiers to fire on the crowd, 400 were killed and many were injured, this was outrageous to the Indians and made them want independence even more (Dyer also received the highest award: knighthood), this ultimately became a nationalist movement for the Indians o Gandhi – he was British educated, he is exposed to western/political values, his family was Hindu (his mother had a huge influence on him), his first job as an attorney was in South Africa, he represented Indians and he was up close the social and economic problems in Africa, he became an activist in South Africa, he worked to help his own people, he becomes the leader of the nationalist movements in India NonViolent Resistance – Gandhi’s idea to lead nationalist movement, he said violence was not the way to go, they had to take the “moral high ground,” he thought you could accomplish much more without violence, he emphasized “getting right” spiritually, he promoted noncooperation, he told the Indians to quit cooperating with the British rule By 1920 Gandhi is the obviously leader of the movement, but in 1922 violence broke out among his followers (he was disgusted so he withdrew from public law), he began spinning his own cloth (which was against British law), he eventually comes back though by 1930 March to the Sea – (1930) the British had a monopoly on the sale of salt, so you had to buy salt from the government, you couldn’t make your own salt, so as an act of noncooperation Gandhi leads a huge crowd of people to the sea to make their own salt to defy March 2125, 2016 the British, it got a lot of global attention, it was more symbolic than anything o New changes in India – Gandhi was sort of the leader, but there was also the Indian National Congress (created in 1885): it was designed to modernize India initially and it was also to try and achieve a degree of selfrule, it became very important Nehru – became the face of Indian nationalism after Gandhi, graduated as an attorney from Cambridge, he wasn’t as spiritual as Gandhi, he is a realist, politically he becomes sort of a socialist, he is all about technology and modernizing India, he leads the Indian National Congress (Gandhi works with him and the Congress) o India is primarily Hindu, but there is a small sect of Muslims. Muhammad Ali Jinnah – led the Muslim League and held a part of the Indian National Congress, the Muslims were afraid of Gandhi because of how spiritual he is, they are worried that if they get rid of the British Gandhi will set up a Hindu state and the Muslims will be treated badly, so this became a three way struggle (British vs. Muslims vs. Hindus [Gandhi]) In 1945, after WWII, Britain agreed to transition out of India and give them independence. This became official in 1947. India would be given to the Hindus, but part of India was given to the Muslims (this became modernday Pakistan). This became a blood bath. There was huge dislocation, people moved out of India into Pakistan. The first Prime Minister of India was Nehru. Gandhi was assassinated. Nehru was Prime Minister until he died in 1962. During his rule he accepts a lot of foreign aid from the Soviet Union, he also worked to modernize Indian technology. Then Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) came to power and ruled until 1984 when she was assassinated (she was much more democratic). Her son then took over and he embarked on a more Capitalist approach to the economy. India is one of the largest democracies today. There is still tension between India and Pakistan. Both nations have nuclear weapons.