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Gas Characteristics; Pressure (Sections)(a) A liquid and a

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 14E Chapter 10

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 14E

Problem 14E

Gas Characteristics; Pressure (Sections)

(a) A liquid and a gas are moved to larger containers. How does their behavior differ once they are in the larger containers? Explain the difference in molecular terms. (b) Although liquid water and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4(l), do not mix, their vapors form a homogeneous mixture. Explain. (c) Gas densities are generally reported in grams per liter, whereas liquid densities are reported in grams per milliliter. Explain the molecular basis for this difference.

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Journalism Exam 3 Study Guide Journalists Panel  Julie Chang - Austin American Statesman  food desert story in Dallas (no fresh food from grocery store) as intern  Alexa Garcia-Ditta – Texas Observer  reckoning with Rosie 38 yrs ago woman died of illegal abortion because of restriction by law; Alexa focuses on abortion access in the state  Katie Friel – Tribeza Magazine Tribeza architectural mag and fashion and social hour all editorial decisions by her  Dylan Baddour – Texas Chronicle Texas Chronicle on webdesk and worked at Statesman; story on news guy in TX going to join ISIS and writes about everything now but did that FBI terrorist story  Dabble in everything, everywhere  Explore other peoples lives and learn their stories  Take Tracy’s advice and run with it  Journalism school is our runway, start running now to take off quicker  Gain experience in newsroom  profited better than furthering education  Not all online publications (exclusively)  Stories = food deserts and reproductive health care in TX  They talked about womens health and investigative stuff NOT UT football  They write online and write in print  They said read the news, find something specific and specialize it in writing, never stop growing as a writer Mightiersthan the Sword Chapter 3 – Women’s Rights  1 historic meeting July 1848 Seneca Falls; paraphrased Declaration of Independence  Most serious impediments to womens rights was news media; 4 estate = body peopled by and committed to serving men  Media worked to limit womens role in society  Womens rights leaders create new publishing network  suffrage press; men dictatorship so pervasive  They were not denied they were ignored  Ladies Magazine in 1792 = first American publication aimed toward women  Women made 1 dramatic assault on men’s political and economic stranglehold th on American society  4 estate responded by replacing paternalism with unrestrained hostility  Seneca Falls meeting at home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton  NY Herald called it “Womens Wrong Convention”  Stanton and Susan B. Anthony found The Revolution newspaper – securing suffrage = first step  1919  American journalism treats Womens Rights Movement as major social and political revolution  Liberty is also a birthright for women  1st historic meeting in Seneca Falls (right to vote etc)  Fourth Estate = men = they respond hostile to movement: o Women couldn’t act autonomously so they had to marry o Abandoning responsibilities at home o “Sin against God”  E. Stanton was leader of movement  Limited role of women promulgated through editorial content  After the 14th amendment they intensified for their enfranchisement  “All publicity is good publicity”  Stanton and Anthony found “The Revolution” o Suffrage was the first step*  Most significant impact of the suffrage press was the movement because it was far reaching  Emphasis on efficiency and productivity were key to Progressive Movement  Carrie C. Catt: o “Winning plan” o Led to Senate’s ratification of 19th amendment  The news publications showed abusing power  1960s movement o Personal growth o Intellectual freedom o Financial security o Equality in education, career and politics  Women were at first scared and confused about the movement’s message o Chauvinism and sexual content propelled it  The major concern: how to put women in touch to amplify opinions, concerns and theories so they can draw on one another’s strategies and resources  “Women’s Liberation” was a hit o Led to “VWLM”  Potential sympathizer  Made contacts  Unlike blacks, women grew up believing press was objective (wrong)  Journalist glanced at surface and thought actions silly of the movement; EX: Miss America o The movement wanted coverage but didn’t trust male reporters  Miss America Contest established a new policy for two reasons: o Compel for more women reporters o Get better coverage  Led to male exclusion^  Martha Leslie Allen’s 8 characteristics of women’s communication networks: o Women speak for themselves, not reporting for others o Preference for collective structure, not hierarchical o Sharing approach, not competitive o Analysis of mass media’s role o Nonattack approach, not name-calling or discrimination o Emphasis on an “open forum” o Provision of information not reported in the mass media o An activist orientation  EX: “Obb” or Off our Backs  Most women activist were well-educated and in the middle class  Everyone shared a desire for a change  “Ms. Magazine” o Popular at first but failed o Sought to republish magazine with new angle aimed for all women  Reasons why no one funded the republish: o Magazines failed everywhere, why invest in this o Bad investments compared to apartment buildings, computer hardware, ETC o More interested in holding 51% of the stock instead of a few shares o Going back to the Women’s movement was crazy o There wasn’t enough nationwide support, only a few thousand readers  “Ms.” o Funded by a Katherine Graham o Support from a publisher Clay Felker  Demanded a preview issue first  Very successful Professor Gina Chen – Women in News Space  Social construct: reality is created in a way where we know whats normal; we know how to act because society tells us; something that is normal in society and implemented by the media  Media constructs reality and gender  Gender construction  boys blue and girls pink  Major themes: 1. Traditional media ALWAYS focused less on issues valued by women 2. Men usually define what “general audience wants” 3. When women do get covered it falls into 2 main areas: - Symbolic annihilation: ignored by media so cease to exist - Stereotypes  Symbolic annihilation: either/does - Unimportant issue - Doesn’t cover issue at all - Renders the issue/people are invisible  Stereotyping: covers issue but trivializes it  Mary Katherine Goddard: - Publisher - Allowed to run newspaper until it became successful then her brother took over - Was the first to print the Declaration of Independence - Was the first American Female Postmistress  Anne Royal: - Early investigative journalist - 1829 convicted of being “public scold” - Wrote travel books - Published papers in DC  Women not seen as demographic block worthy of attracting  Ida Wells-Barnett: - Early female African American journalist - Wrote for black newspapers - Exposed lynchings of blacks  Ida Tarbell  wrote expose of standard oil  Jorita Idar  criticized President Wilson in her dad’s newspaper and had standoff with TX Rangers  Nellie Bly: - Investigative journalist - “Stunt reporter” movement - Story on immigration – but her editor said it wasn’t a story for a girl - Pretend to be mentally ill and investigate insane asylum  Ladies Magazine  1792, first magazine to target women (run by a man tho) First Wave Women’s Movement  1848 “Declaration of Sentiments” men and women must be equal  Convention in Seneca Falls, NY  Main objectives: right to vote, not property of hubby, challenged sex-segregated spheres  Activist women: Elizabeth Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B Anthony, Amelia Bloomer  Womens movement was criticized and trivialized by news  Activist women seen as causing the nation’s “political and social fabric” to crumble  Suffragists newspapers - Women started own because unhappy with mainstream press coverage - “Slightly eccentric” th - Right to vote 1920 19 amendment 1930s and WWII  Great Depression – womens rights takes back seat  WWII women enter work force  1943: women make up 50% of staffs at newspapers but worked in womens departments (less pay than men) and some war correspondents faced antagonism  Womens pages in news and womens magazines grow in numbers  Societal shifts: - War ends – women forced to leave work force - Convenience products expand (cooking and cleaning) - Commercialism booms - Economy improves - “Housewives” is born - The pill is invented - Women disenfranchised with domestic sphere Second Wave Women’s Movement  White middle class women  Betty Friedan: author of Feminine Mystique launched womens rights movement, argued media says women as sex symbols  Women buy so that’s their only value as consumers  Womens rights movement was ignored by media  No bras were ever publicly burned in womens movement  news only reported it as metaphor  Womens Liberation Movement 1966  Women and men treated differently in journalism  Women not allowed to cover hard news – if they did they had to fight for it  Until 1964 gender discrimination was legal  Women of color had no access to journalism jobs  1968 sit-in at Ladies Home Journal  Alternative press develops  1970 Essence Magazine starts targeting black women  Gloria Steinem  Miss Magazine 1970  1970s and 80s major newspapers cover feminist issues – abortion, child care  Womens pages = lifestyle section Women Challenge Status Quo  46 female Newsweek employees sued the magazine in 1970 – news hens for equal rights  1983 settlement ended the 10 year fight  Washington Post in 1974 sex discrimination complaint by women  NY Times in 1978 – case brought up by 90 women employees; 40 girl vs. 385 guy reporters  Women with comparable education and experience paid less for same work  1972 National Organization for Women filed license denial for 3 reasons - Not presenting womens issues - No news about women issues - Low employment  Problems are worse at smaller stations  Turning Point  1978 women outnumber men in journalism schools  Today men still outnumber women in top journalism jobs  Bulgaria = only country where women in charge of journalism because its not a high valued job Journalism Detectives – Rolling Stone Gets It Wrong  Erderly wrote false account “Rape on Campus” at UVA of a gang rape at a frat house because of failure of reporting, editing, editorial supervision, and fact checking  Shock to journalisms credibility  Problem = methodology  Most essential realities = careful editing, obsessive fact checking and vigilance against blind spots  Columbia School of J was right to commission the article by Rolling Stone  Rolling Stone failed because the reporter relied too heavily on 1 source and editors didn’t properly verify the facts  Main issue was not the intent but translating journalistic instinct into practice  There was already a record of cases mishandling campus assault  The Department of Education was “leaning” on colleges to fix campus assault  Importance beyond timeliness- links to Emmett Till: o Both offer critical question of social justice o Role in reporting unreported issue o Raise questions of visibility  Ethics: branch of philosophy telling the difference between right and wrong  Journalism ethics: using the right techniques to apply accuracy and fairness  Basic reporting question: did everyone with a stake in the story have a voice  Jensen says journalism should: o Offer independent source of information o Context and facts o Expose citizens with the widest range of opinions possible  Origins of Rolling Stone story: o Who: reporters and editors o What: sexual assault on campus o When: 2014 o Where: University of Virginia o Why: to make visible  Interviewed “Jackie” 8 times  Washington Post questions details  RS retracts story  Steve Coll, Shelia Coronel, Derek Kravitz CJR report findings:  Erdely was an experienced journalist  Verification: too dependent on single source  Dilemma: how to independently verify story without losing “Jackie’s” cooperation  Jackie gave 3 friend names without a last name – failed to follow up Editors  Not paying attention  Bad fact checking  Bad communication  No collective sense of story Was the source at fault  No, but should not have fixed story to fit the story Skeptical way of knowing  Independent  Complete  Assess  Assess  Evidence  Need for News Possible consequences  Damage survivors credibility and reputation  Deter other sources  Damage reputation- UVA admin, Phi Kappa Psi  Deter future reporting on an important issue 3 things to taught via Rolling Stones:  No pseudonyms  Checking derogatory information  Don’t confront subject with details CJR conclusions on sexual assault cases:  Balancing sensitivity  Corroborating accounts Alex Gibney: Journalism in Film  Journalistic question brings visibility to issue  “Steve Jobs” he asks a question that he pursues thru hard work and multiple interviews  Steve Jobs story came to him – was offered  By starting with questions gives some sense of focus  Contradictions with not only Steve Jobs himself but his company too – life of Steve Jobs and our use of his products  Embrace contradictions  Cant be objective, can be fair  Comfort the afflicted and afflict the comforted  Process of discovery, sitting thru work, shoe-leather work  FOIA the actual videotape of Steve Jobs – Peter Elkine  All about shoe-leather  is this info interesting Then sift out and cut  If you have no idea in mind the search becomes too vast  Have an outline but allow self to diverge from it  Issue of access  how can you make documentary without approval of subject (FALSE) embrace absence  “Starting with a question gives you focus”  Documentaries include: scientology, Enron, Eric Kissinger  “Controversy draws an audience” Movie- Steve Jobs  Main question: why were people so obsessed about his death  Good point: talked about his relationship to the monk and stuff Kris Wilson: Environmental Journalism  Kris Wilson climate change  scientists generally agree climate change is real  Greenhouse gas levels hit new milestone because 400 ppm, 43% invisible threat  Problem with journalists covering science = few are trained and want to report certainty when science isn’t certain (true)  Climate fluctuates “naturally” o (External forcings - tilt, revolution) o Distinguish between signal vs. noise  Climatic optimum is shower and rare  More greenhouse gases than ever  Washington Post: o Greenhouse gas now exceeds 400 ppm o 43% higher than preindustrial levels o “Invisible threat but a real one” o Often rebuttal against the U.S. economy  Science of climate change o Has warmed +1.3 F in last 100 years o Most of the warming is “very likely” due to human activity o 97-98% agree with this assessment o Unprecedented rate change; additional 3-9 degree change in 21st century o Only uncertainty is timing and magnitude o By far the warmest year to date  Ideology trumps meteorology o 6% have science background as reporter weathercasters o Their ideology trumps actual meteorology  Wilson conducted a study in which it concluded that scientists generally agree that climate change is real  Greenhouse gas levels hit new milestone because it exceeds 400 ppm, 43% higher than preindustrial levels, an “invisible threat but a real one” Dahlby Tips for Reporting the World  Good reporting = good detective work  Make what is unseen/unheard available to audience  Hold abusers of power accountable  Inform public about diverse and interesting world  More about a long distance beat is likely to be unfamiliar – traveling has risks and rewards  Challenge in digital age is the ability to skim the surface but also take deep dives; downside of digital media is to see something digitally and think we understand when we don’t  Learning news trade organically: - Develop natural curiosity - Discipline curiosity thru technique - Develop context – become a student of your beat and your story - The more you learn organically the better  Use method and technique to discipline curiosity  “Fingertips” or saturation reporting – feel for story (1 thing learned for Tracy) do more than just report the story  Bill Minutalgio – immerse self in story; absorb the trait its eternal  Need to battle stereotypes of “mysterious east”  Luck break – Tracy found mentor in bar and learned how to cast a net, sew pants  Greatest lesson: seeing people as human beings  Image vs. reality  perceptual juijitsu  Power of images to distort the picture  Important reporting lesson = need to road-test perceptions (Ralph Waldo Emmerson)  “You don’’t wake up being a good storyteller…” - Bill M.  Need to battle stereotypes of the east o Thought:  Third-rate economy  Spoke fluently  Wanted to be American  Tomosuke was Dalhby’s friend  Graham: “fireman, florists, and free speech”  “The preamble of thought, the transition” - Emerson  Lore Ha’s story: o Pulitzer o Tied lives of American consumers to problem of Chinese workers o Looked at Chinese factories and medical journals  “It was so important she had to change her life to tell it”  Halberstam: o “Best and the brightest” o Gives “Writers camp new meaning” o Developed ideas o Curious  The basics: o Apply your tradecraft: how to report, think, produce o Look at each story you produce about a place as a sentence in a longer message 1. When in doubt, go look for the pig 2. Look for “internal logic” in people and things 3. Learn to be patient  The pay off: experiences you can’t download  New tools, old sensibilities  K & R: “If we always arrive where we began, we will not have traveled at all”  “Traveler there is no path. The path is made by walking.” - Antonio Machado Blur Chapter 8  Loretta Tofani  Washington Post; Pullitzer Prize for gang rapes in MD; imported Chinese furniture and appalled by conditions in Chinese factories “American Imports. Chinese Deaths”  David Halberstam  “Best and Brightest”  Tips for observing the world: - Follow curiosity but make sure to bring info to light - Learn your beat and absorb it - Apply tradecraft – how to report, think, produce - Each story is a sentence in longer message  When in doubt go look for a pig  Look for internal logic in people and things  Learn to be patient  Payoff = experiences you cant download  Blur Test s: - Are we really trying to expand our knowledge - Are we willing to accept facts that don’t reinforce our preconceptions - Do we gravitate mainly to assertions that fit our sense of morality - Do we look to the news as evidence of how things are – or for proof of how we wish them to be - Are we keeping an open mind  Kovach and Rosensteil – “if we always arrive exactly where we began we will not have traveled at all  Going is the best form of knowing RB Brenner: Future of Journalism  Virtual reality – computer generated environment that tricks users into thinking they are somewhere they are not  Stitching together pictures and videos to create interactive environment – 3D put pictures over each other  Goal is to do journalism that is experienced by lots of people – mass media  Nonny de la Pena – virtual reality; put you on scene in middle of story  Put in middle of something you see on news – duality of presence  Core value of virtual reality = presence and empathy  Oculus rift vs HTC  Washington Post and UT VR project  UT 3D – 1 college 3D program st  TACC – 1 super computers in country at Texas; 8 gopros  We need a constant reminder of whats real and not 1 Amendment – freedom of religion, speech, assembly, press, petition Journalism of Verification – accuracy and context Skeptical Way of Knowing: 1. Identifying the content – recognize what you’re looking at 2. Identifying whether news account is complete 3. Assess sources 4. Evaluating news involves assessing evidence  inference = forming hypothesis, evidence = proving the inference is true 5. News models tend to use/interact with evidence 6. Exploring whether we got what we need from news

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Chapter 10, Problem 14E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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Gas Characteristics; Pressure (Sections)(a) A liquid and a