Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation (Section)
The molar mass of a volatile substance was determined by the Dumas-bulb method described in Exercise 10.53. The unknown vapor had a mass of 0.846 g; the volume of the bulb was 354 cm3, pressure 752 torr, and temperature 100 °C. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown vapor.
Tuesday, April 5, 2016 Chapter 12 Leadership and Follower-ship 80%-85% are followers 15%-20% are leaders - Leadership - process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment • formal leadership - ofﬁcially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position • informal leadership - unofﬁcial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization - Management and Leadership • management - planning and budgeting - organizing and stafﬁng - controlling and problem solving • leadership - setting a direction for the organization - aligning people with that direction - motivating people - Early Trait Theories • distinguished leaders by - physical attraction - personality characteristics - abilities (speech ﬂuency, social skills, insight) 1 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Behavioral Theorists - learning what behavior is strengthened or weakened by applying consequences or rewards • Lewin On Leadership - autocratic style - the leader uses strong, directive actions to control the rules, regulations, activities, and relationships in the work environment - democratic style - the leader uses interaction and collaboration with followers to direct the work and work environment - Laissez-Faire style - the leader has a hands-off approach Ohio State Studies • - Initiating Structure - leader behavior aimed at deﬁning and organizing work relationships and roles; establishing clear patterns of organization, communication and ways of getting things done - Consideration - leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relationships, as well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit • Michigan Studies - Production-Oriented Leader • focus - getting things done • uses direct, close supervision • many written an unwritten rules - Employee-Oriented Leader • focus - relationships • less direct, close supervision • fewer written or unwritten rules • displays concern for people and their needs - Leadership Grid - an approach to understanding a leader’s or manager’s concern for results (production) and concern for people 2 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 Figure 12.1: The Leadership Grid - Organization Man (5,5) - a middle-of-the-road leader 3 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Authority Compliance Manager (9,1) - a leader who emphasizes efﬁcient production - Country Club Manager (1,0) - a leader who has great concern for people and little concern for production, attempts to avoid conﬂict, and seeks to be well liked 4 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Team Manager (9,9) - a leader who builds a highly productive team of committed people - Impoverished Manager (1,1) - a leader who exerts just enough effort to get by (1,1) should be on the bottom left of grid - Paternalistic “father knows best” Manager (9+9) - a leader who promises reward and threatens punishment 5 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” Manager (Opp) - a leader whose style aims to maximize self-beneﬁt - Fiedler’s Contingency Theory - ﬁt between leader’s need structure and favorableness of leader’s situation determine the team’s effectiveness • least preferred coworker (LPC) - single person leader has least preferred to work with - high LPC - leaders who describe LPC in positive terms - low LPC - leaders who describe LPC in negative terms - Situation Favorableness • task structure - number of rules, regulations, and procedures one likes to have in order to get the work done position power - legitimate authority given by organization that person belong to • - being able to grant rewards or punishments • leader-member relations - how leader interacts with coworkers and subordinates 6 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Path-Goal Theory of Leadership • a - Vroom-Yetten-Jago Normative Decision Model • decide - can make the decision on their own without the opinion of anyone else • consult individually - person goes around and tells each person the situation and asks for their input • consult group - discuss the issue as a whole and asks for the groups input • facilitate - calls group together as a group consult, but the leader also puts in their input and the group makes a decision together • delegate - has the group discuss it alone without the leader and they make a decision together manager should use the decision method most appropriate for a given situation 7 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - The Situational Leadership Model - Leader-Member Exchange • leaders form two groups of followers - in-groups (inner circle) • members similar to leader • given greater responsibilities, rewards, attention • within leader’s inner circle of communication • high job satisfaction and organizational commitment, low turnover • stress from added responsibilities - out-Groups (outer circle) • managed by formal rules and policies 8 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 • given less attention; fewer rewards • outside the leader’s communication circle • more likely to retaliate against the organization • stress from being left out of the communication network - Inspirational Leadership Theories • transformational leadership - inspire and excite followers to high level of performance • charismatic leadership - use the force of personal abilities and talents to have profound effects on followers • authentic leadership - have a conscious and well-developed sense of values and act in ways that are consistent to their value system - Emotional Intelligence - ability to recognize and manage your own emotions and the emotions of others Figure 12.6: Five Types of Followers - Alienated • they’re passive in their behavior, they don’t have enough guts to stand up or challenge the panel that is speaking to the group • they do have their own opinions and ideas - Sheep • group of people who ﬂock together that do not think independently or critically - Effective Follower • the group companies would like to see more of • they contribute to the company, work harder and smarter for the company, and are willing to contribute ideas to the company - Yes People • people that are active in the company and are considered hard workers • committed to the company but are willing to be followers, and do not think for themselves 9 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Survivors • a person that somehow always chooses the best solution when faced with a crisis or challenge int the workplace • can recognize problems that are coming in the future much faster than the average person • make low risk decisions when recognizing the problem that’s coming • “better safe than sorry” 10